BASICS OF UREA TECHNOLOGY

Information about BASICS OF UREA TECHNOLOGY

Published on August 6, 2014

Author: prembaboo90

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: BASICS OF UREA TECHNOLOGY PRESENTED BY PREM BABOO SR. MANAGER(PROD) “HISTORY DEVELOPMENT OF UREA TECHNOLOGY”: “ HISTORY DEVELOPMENT OF UREA TECHNOLOGY” UREA was first synthesized in 1828 from ammonium cynate by WHOLER HCNO +NH 3 = NH4CNO (AMMONIUM CYNATE) (CYNIC ACID) NH4CNO = NH 2 CONH 2 (urea) In 1870 BASSAROW produced urea by dehydration of ammonium carbamate which is the basis of present commercially process. There was no break through in urea production commercially till 1920. The 1 st commercially production of urea was in 1922 by DU PONT from nitro lime at plant in Canada. CaCN 2 +3H 2 O = NH 2 CONH 2 + Ca(OH) 2 (Calcium Cyanamid) UREA The process route which is adopted by the present day plants, was achieved by I.G.FARBEN in 1922 at plant in Germany. CO 2 +2NH 3 = NH 4 COONH 2 = NH 2 CONH 2 +H 2 O (AMM.CARBAMATE) UREA The early urea plant were based on “once through” process. In 1935 DU PONT built a plant at Belle West Virginia Imperial Chemical Industries U.S.A. In 1939 MITSUI CHEMICALS JAPAN began production of urea. In 1950 World urea production was less than 1 Lakh Tones/annum In 1960 World urea production was less than 5 lakh Tones/annum. PowerPoint Presentation: MAJOR PROCESS FOR UREA USED IN SIXTIES PowerPoint Presentation: DEVELOPMENT SINCE SIXTIES SNAMPROGETTI 1963 STAMICARBON 1947 TEC-MTC(JAPAN) 1948 MONTEDISON 1930 WORLD 1 ST STARTED BY STRIPPING NH 3 Process ONCE THROUGH ONCE THROUGH ONCE THROUGH MONTECATANI 1990 - INTRODUCTION OF - BI-METALIC STRIPPER - PRE-CONCENTRATER - HEAT RECYCLE HIGH EFFICIENCY TRAYS DESIGN IN REACTOR CENTRIFUGAL NH 3 PUMP 2004 INTRODUCTION OF Zr ZIRCONIUM STRIPPER 5000 TPD plant at OMAN PARTIAL&TOTAL RECYCLE 1964 CO 2 STRIPPING PROCESS 1991 POOL CONDENSER CO 2 STRIPPING (PLANT-AT CHITTAGONG,BANGLA DESH) 1992 POOL REACTOR 2002 4500TPD plant 1950 TOATSU PARTIAL RECYCLE 1958 TOYO-KOATSU TOTAL RECYCLE , 1966 ( MTC ) 1969 (TOTAL RECYCLE “C” IMPROVED PROCESS 1980 (Total Recycle D) 1983 (CO 2 Stripping Process) TEC-MTC-ACES 1958 TOTAL RECYCLE 1968 MONTEDISON LATEST TOTAL RECYCLE 1981 “IDR”(ISOBARIC DOUBLE RECYCLE) CO 2 &NH 3 BOTH) VERTICAL CONDENSER 1996, ACES-21 (PLANT AT INDONESIA) DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL AND STRIPPING PROCESS: DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL AND STRIPPING PROCESS DEFINATION - ”The process based on the 1 st principal of decrease in pressure and increase in temperature” and than have a series of decomposition stage where the Reactor discharge is treated in successively at lower pressure. PRESSURE OF REACTOR- More than 200 ata UTI----210 Ata MTC---250 Ata CPI----380-400 Ata MONTEDISON---210 Ata CONVERSION- CONVERSION HIGH WATER CARRYOVER i.e. Recycling Water carryover high about 10%,because high differential pressure. ENERGY- High energy due to high pressure and water recycling. FUTURE- Due to high energy and high cost of liner, no future. “ To reduce the partial pressure of product by swamping the system by one of the reactant which reduce the partial pressure of other reactant considerable without changing the total pressure either CO 2 or NH 3 or both can be used as a stripping agent.” Below than 200 Ata STAMICARBON-------------140 Ata ACES----------------------------175 Ata SNAMPROGETTI-------------158Ata ACES-21-------------------------155 Ata IDR--------------------------------180Ata CONVERSION COMPARATIVELY LOW Water carryover low about 3-4% because stripping at same pressure of Reactor. Low energy due to low pressure and less recycling of water. Future bright due to introduction of submergible carbamate condenser/pool condenser, reactor LOW ENERGY,LOW COST,FUTURE BRIGHT. CONVENTIONAL STRIPPING PowerPoint Presentation: PROCESS PRINCIPLES Urea is formed according to the following reactions- 2NH 3 +CO 2 = NH 2 COONH 4 +37.64KCAL/MOLE---------------(1) (AMM.CARBAMATE) NH 2 COONH 4 = NH 2 CONH 2 + H 2 O -6.32 KCAL/MOLE-------(2) UREA Reaction No.1-given above is exothermic in nature and 37.64 K.Cal of heat is produced in the formation of Amm.Carbamate. Reaction No.2 –is endothermic and 6.32 K Cal. is consumed in the dehydration of Ammonium Carbamate. If Ammonia is to be supplied in liquid and water that is formed in the reaction is to be separated by evaporation the net heat evolved will be 11.4 K.Cal/mole, Therefore. It can be said that the urea process is heat generating process. But in actual practices, the conversion being restricted by equilibrium conditions and cost optimization, it requires high level energy in the form of steam and electric power and low level heat to be removed by cooling water, air etc.Both reactions are reversible and depend upon Temperature, Pressure and residence time in the Reactor. FORMATION OF AMMONIUM CARBAMATE.- This exothermic reaction is slow at ambient conditions but almost instantaneous at 100 Kg/Cm 2 and 150 0 C.At a pressure, the rate of reaction increase with temp,reaches a max.and then rapidly decreases to zero value at a temperature. Corresponding to dissociation pressure equalizing the working pressure. The dissociation pressure of carbamate increases rapidly with temperature. It is 100 Kg/Cm 2 at 200 0 C.The dissociations pressure is considerable increased when an excess of CO 2 is used This dissociation pressure is much less when an excess ammonia is used (higher than dissociation pressure). The reaction of carbamate formation is exothermic. This heat must be removed in order to avoid the increase of temperature beyond a particular limit where dissociation pressure become equal to that of the working pressure. PowerPoint Presentation: DEHYDRATION OF CARBAMATE TO UREA This is an equilibrium reaction and proceeds only in liquid or solid phase. From the various experiments performed, it has been shown that the conversion rate increases with temperature at fixed Ammonia to Carbon dioxide ratio. At a fixed temperature, the conversion increase with increase in Ammonia to Carbon dioxide ratio. Water is one of the product of reaction during transformation of Ammonia carbamate to urea. The presence of water has a depressing effect on the conversion, Any water addition with feed material reduces the conversion. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 N/C RATIO 40 50 60 70 80 90 CONVERSION PowerPoint Presentation: COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS CONSTITUENTS The equilibrium percentage conversion increases with increased temperature in the presence of excess Ammonia but decreased with increased water content of reaction mixture. As the reaction take place in the liquid phase, the pressure required will depend upon the composition of the reaction mixture and the temperature which has a significant effect on the rate of reaction of carbamate to urea. At increasing temperature, reaction rate increases and residence time to approach equilibrium decreases. 45 50 55 60 65 70 conversion . 2 .4 .6 .8 1.0 1.2 H/C Ratio N/C=4 N/C=3.5 N/C=3.0 170 180 190 200 TEMP. 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 CONVERSION % H/C=0.3 H/C=0.5 H/C=0.7 Effect of H/C ratio on CO 2 conversion CO2 conversion at Temp. 190 0 C 0 C PowerPoint Presentation: FACTORS FOR OPTIMISING THE ENERGY CONSUMPTION In Urea Plant energy is consumed in the compression of feed to the reactor ,in the decomposition section and concentration sections while this evolved in synthesis section. It is important to achieve a high overall CO 2 conversion per pass in the reactor as this will mean smaller amount of unconverted carbamate in the reactor effluent requiring smaller amount of energy for decomposition and recycling it back to the reactor. The conversion increases with increase of pressure,temperature,NH 3 /CO 2 mole ratio and residence time but decreases with increase of H 2 O/CO 2 MOLE RATIO. Higher pressure will require more energy for compression of feeds. 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.5 5.0 N/C RATIO 100 120 140 160 180 200 PRESSURE IN ATA H/C=0.5 H/C-0.75 H/C=1.0 H/C=1.5 CARBAMATE SOLUTION V.P VS N/C,H/C MOLAR RATIO AT TEMP-160 0 C PowerPoint Presentation: NH 3 /CO 2 MOLAR RATIO PRESSURE VS TEMPERATURE (BOTTOM) 170 172 174 176 178 180 152 150 156 158 154 160 PRESS. TEMP. 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.6 3.7 3.8 4.0 3.9 3.0 3.4 3.3 3.1 3.2 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.1 3.9 3.8 3.5 3.2 3.8 3.7 3.2 3.6 3.1 3.3 3.9 3.3 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.5 3.4 3.2 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.7 3.3 3.5 3.5 3.5 AT CONSTANT C/H RATIO CONV. VARIES 58 TO 68% Kg/cm 2 0 C Conversion Conversion conversion conversion conversion conversion PBABOO PowerPoint Presentation: MOLAR RATIO AT THE TIME OF EMPTY REACTOR FEED IN 155 160 165 170 175 180 155 160 166 173 183 191 30 min 60 min 90 min 120 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 Pressure (in ata) Bottom Temp. Top Temp. Time (in min) CO 2 :NH 3 , RATIO 1:2 Execs NH 3 feed curve 1:5 1:4 1:3 1:2 PV-7A OPENED PV-7A/B OPENED 1:4 1:3 1:2 1:3 1:2 IDEAL FEED IN CURVE REACTOR OVERFLOW 0.0 MIN K.W. FEED IN THROUGH HV-1 10 MIN CO 2 FEED IN NH 3 FEED IN 1.28 0 C 0 C min NO. OF TRAYS 10 P BABOO PowerPoint Presentation: MOLAR RATIO AT THE TIME OF EMPTY REACTOR FEED IN 153 157 161 165 170 174 155 160 166 173 183 191 30 min 60 min 90 min 120 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 Pressure (in ata) Bottom Temp. Top Temp. Time (in min) CO 2 :NH 3 , RATIO 1:2 Execs NH 3 feed curve 1:5 1:4 1:3 1:2 PV-7A OPENED PV-7A/B OPENED 1:4 1:3 1:2 1:3 1:2 IDEAL FEED IN CURVE REACTOR OVERFLOW 0.0 MIN K.W. FEED IN THROUGH HV-1 10 MIN CO 2 FEED IN NH 3 FEED IN 1.28 0 C 0 C min NO. OF TRAYS 15 P BABOO STAMICARBON PROCESS: STAMICARBON PROCESS stripper Urea Tank 1 ST Vacuum 2 nd Vacuum TEMP—170 0 C PRESSURE CONTROLLER CARBAMATE SEPARATER CARBAMATE CONDENSER TO P.T . LET DN VALVE FLASH TANK STEAM STEAM COND. COND. AIR CO2 FROM W.W BFW STEAM NH3 Pr-140 Kg/Cm 2 P.BABOO UREA SOLN PUMP UREA MELT PUMP REACTOR SCRUBER CONDENSER LP DECOMPOSER C.W. C.W. TO W.W.SECTION CPI ALLIED PROCESS: CPI ALLIED PROCESS VACUUM CONCENTRATOR AMMONIA RECEIVER CO 2 TO P.T . NH 3 PRIMARY DECOMPOSER DECOMPOSER PRIMARY ABSORBER PREM BABOO N/C RATIO 1:4.5 REACTOR LINER –Zr Pressure 380 Kg/Cm 2 Temp-220 0 C Once through Process Plant-coromandal Sec. Absorber Urea Melt Pump MEA COOLER REACTOR AMM.CONDENSER CO 2 BLOWER c.w. CONV. 85-90% PowerPoint Presentation: MITSUI TOATSU TOTAL RECYCLE “C” IMPROVED PROCESS CO 2 NH 3 RECYCLE CARBAMATE REACTOR P-245 Kg/Cm 2 T-200 O C LINER TI L/D VALVE P-17 KG/CM 2 T-160 0 C STEAM COND HPD AMMONIA PREHEATER c.w. H.P.DECOMPOSER L.P.DECOMPOSER L.S. COND. VACUUM CRYSTALLIZER UPPER PART LOWER PART TO RECOVERY SYSTEM P-3.0 Kg/Cm 2 T-140 0 C L.P.ABSORBER CENTRIFUGE DRYER TO P.T HOT AIR M.L.T. SLURRY PUMP MOTHER LIQUIR PUMP SLURRY RECYCLE FOR HEAT RECOVERY AMMONIA RECEIVER CARB.BOOSTER PUMP HAC P.BABOO steam PowerPoint Presentation: UTI PROCESS( ISOTHERMAL REACTOR) HP CARBAMATE RECYCLE PUMP UREA SOLUTION 86-88% TO FINAL CONC. CO 2 NH 3 RECYCLE CARBAMATE 1 ST DECOMPOSER 2 ND DECOMPOSER 3 RD DECOMPOSER UREA CONCENTRATOR TO VACUUM CONDENSER 1 ST SEPARATOR 2 ND SEPERATOR LIQUID DISTRIBUTOR PREM BABOO P-210 ATA T-195 0 C P-21 ATA P-6 ATA CONV.-75% PowerPoint Presentation: UTI CROSSED FLOW PRILLING TOWER AIR PRILLS PT TOP PART PT LOWER PART DUST FREE AIR DISTRIBUTERS DISTRIBUTERS FAN PRESSURIZED CHAMBER PRILLING TOWER BOTTOM DUST RECOVERY SYSTEM FOR FURTHER RECOVERY COND. WATER UREA MELT AIR FAN AIR PRODUCT Spray nozzles PBABOO PowerPoint Presentation: IMPROVED PRILLING DEVICE BY NEW VIBRATING ROTATING BUCKET To improve prills quality Stamicrbon introduced spinning with vibrating new prilling bucket in December 2004 .It is suitable for natural as well as induced and forced prilling Tower The lack of fines and dust reduce the risk of scaling in the down stream BFC (in case of CFD type prilling tower),so long cooling water temperature can be selected resulting in smaller size BFC. Following advantages of vibrating prilling bucket . Almost calibrated prills less emission . No fines, no dust . No over size or clusters . Even prills distribution . Self cleaning >> long run Better product cooling by 10-15 0 C due to uniform distribution of prills in the entire prilling tower cross section and because of non formation of clusters & over size prills are cooled more effectively. SPINNING &VBRATING PRILLING BUCKET TO BAGGING AIR PowerPoint Presentation: MONTEDISON IDR PROCESS CO2 NH3 PREM BABOO CARBAMATE CONDENSER LPS COND REACTOR NH 3 STRIPPER CO 2 STRIPPER MPD LPD 1 ST VACUUM CONC 2 ND VACUUM CONC INERT WASHING COLUMN DISTILLATION COLUMN CARBAMATE SEPARATOR CONDENSER TO P.T. 99.8% UREA P-180 ATA T-190 0 C N/C-4 CONV-72% H/C-0.4 195 0 C 175 0 C 20 ATA 6 ATA L/D VALVE RECOVERY COND 210 0 C 190 0 C PowerPoint Presentation: UREA 2000 PLUS SYNTHESIS WITH POOL CONDENSER STRIPPER TO RECIRCULATION CO2 NH 3 LP STEAM BFW RECYCLE INERTS RECYCLE CARBAMATE UREA REACTOR PRESSURE-140 ATA TEMP--------170 0 C 316L C.W . EJECTOR POOL CONDENSER POOL CONDENSER—The pool condenser is a horizontal Reactor vessel with a submerged U tube bundle LINING – 316L urea grade, All internals, tube sheet are 2-RE-69(25,22,2) The tubes are welded to the tube sheet by internal bore welding PREM BABOO RECYCLE STEAM DRUM 25% UREA, 60% CONVERSION 95% CONVERSION BFW PUMP PowerPoint Presentation: 60% 95% CONVERSION TIME UREA REACTOR POOL COND. CARB. RECYCLE COND INERTS CARBAMATE P-140 K T-170 0 C LS BFW CIR.PUMP NH 3 . STEAM COND CO 2 . HORIZONTAL CONDENSER REACTOR Is a gas agitated vessel “The pool Reactor acts as a bank of CSTR rather than as a single CSTR “. “The pool Reactor behaves more or less like a plug flow.” “The baffles in the Reactor positively prevent back mixing ;so affording the highest approach to equilibrium.” BFW PREM BABOO To Recirculation GAS DIVIDER UREA 2000 PLUS SYNTHESIS WITH POOL REACTOR PowerPoint Presentation: CO2 STRIPPING UREA SYNTHESIS CONCEPT WITH POOL CONDENSER FOR CAPACITIES UP TO 4500 MTD Low pressure recirculation NH 3 CO 2 To condensation MPCC POOL CONDENSER. REACTOR HP SCRUBBER 70% 30% STRIPPER HP CARB. PUMP UT LS C 96% UREA MELT FOR GRANULATION Adiabatic Stripper Evaporator For 3500 MTD BFW LPS S C CW. CW. CW. CW. MP SCRUBBR TO MP SECTION TO B/D MPD c 12 bar LS Reflux Recovered Ammonia 20 bar recirculation section is added for cap.increased 3500 to 4500 TPD PBABOO PowerPoint Presentation: “SNAMPROGETTI PROCESS HIGHLIGHTS” To mark the development of the technology just a few milestones are indicated , very significative and very robust. 1966-Snamprogetti builds its first 70 MTPD urea plant in Gela Italy 1971-Snamprogetti builds the first industrial urea plant at Nera Montoro,Terni Italy.300 MTPD 1982-Snamprogetti completes the World’s largest worldwide single stream urea plant project of its time at Baruch,India 1800MTPD 1983-Snamprogetti completes its time urea granulation project at pont Lisas. Trinidad/Tobago 810X2 MTPD 1990- In 1990 more than 20 urea plants were built in China alone. 2001-Snamprogetti completes World’s largest single urea project in BAHIA BLANCA ARGENTINA 3250 MTPD. 2002-Snamprogetti achieves the remarkable figure of 100 plants based on its proprietary technology. Introduction of total Zirconium stripper in 2004. The development of further “Jumbo” plant design (up to 5000TPD single train urea synthesis) the largest root ammonia urea plant under implementation with an overall capacity of 5000 TPD of urea for OMAN INDIAN FERTILIZERS CO-OMIFCO,OMAN More steam production in the carbamate condenser by installing the carbamate preheater . Less steam consumption in the vacuum concentrator by installing the vacuum preconcentrator PowerPoint Presentation: SNAMPROGETTI PROCESS HV 132 A/B NH 3 Amm.Receiver REACTOR CO 2 STEAM EJ-1 C-1 E-9A/B HV-1 HV-6 MV-8 MV-9 P-5 A/B LV-106 TO C-1 C.W. C-3/E-11 FROM P-15A/B C.W. TO E-7 L.S. TV 132 TV-133 MV-6 MV-7 COND L.S. COND V-3 PRILLING TOWER C.W. LV 166 LV-168 C-2 E-20 A/B C.W. P-18 P-16 A/B WASTE WATER BUFFER TANK V-6 PV 170 L.S V-7 V-9 P-21 A/B EJ-3 EJ-5 P-1 A/B EJ-2 L.S. EJ-4 VENT C.W. V-5 NE W-V-4 OLD V-4 FROM BAGGING DE– SOL N. UREA PRODUCT TO BAGGING P-19C P-19A/B DISSOLVING TO E-14 P-9A/B TO 11-FV-168 21-FV-169 P-15A/B V-8 P-14 R-2 E-19A/B E-18 PREM BABOO ET-1 ET-2 ET-3 ET-3 E-8 P-3A/B TO-ME-15 FROM E-21 FROM 21 STREAM C-4/E-12 C.W. E-5 ME-10 FV-165 E-41 E-42 P-33A/B S-20 S -21 TO BIOHYDROLIZER AT ETP P-33C P-23A/B FROM PLANT COMP & PUMP DISC OIL SLOP OIL TANK UREA FLOOR WASHING FROM UREA-2 P-18DISCHARGE TO C.W. TO ETP TO DMP TO NH 3 STRIPPING Tower FV 163 FROM P-9 EJ-6 FROM P-1 PLUNGER CD TO DMP C.W. TV07 E-30 P-2 LV 138 FV-131 PV-133 ME-7 MV-3 E-3 ME-3 P-7A/B C-5 E-14 E-15 E-44 E-43 E-45 LV-131 R-1 55 38 51 45 H.S. FV-168/169 L.S. FROM E-4 E-1 LV02 LV101 E-7 PV108 MV2 E-2 FROM P-3 CW FROM P5 &7 CW HV-2 MV-1 MS HV-3 LS TO-V-9 TO-V-9 TO-V-9 TO-V-10 TO-V-10 FROM-P-3 V-1 P-8 TK-1 K-1 TO ME-2/B/D PV-7A/B AIR AIR UREA DUST 50 mg/Nm3 P-5 173 190 15 No. TRAYS AIR FROM K-3 207 0 C 191 0 C Modified polymer Flushing line HV-161 A T HV 161B FROM AMMONIA PLANT 112 0 C 156 0 C 138 0 C 120 0 C 138 0 C 132 0 C PowerPoint Presentation: NANGAL UREA PLANT(AFTER REVAMPING) NH 3 CO 2 BFW L.S. C.W . L.S. MS 20 Ata LS COND LS COND TO VACUUM SECTION UREA SOLUTION PUMP NEW REACTOR OLD REACTOR 3 RD CARBAMATE COND 2 ND CARBAMATE CONDENSER 1 ST CARB CONDENSER 1 ST DECOMPOSER 2 ND DECOMP 3 RD DECOMP . CARB.CONDENSER (NEW ) MIXER P-210 Kg/Cm 2 T-190 0 C 9 No. CASALE HIGH EFFICIENCY TRAYS 14 No. CASALE HET P-210K T-195 0 C P-70 K T-150 0 C P-12 K P-2 K VAPOUR VAPOUR VAPOUR TOTAL CONDENSER TO INERT WASHING UNIT FROM WW SECTION MP CARB PUMP DIL.CARB.SOLN.PUMP HP CARB.PUMP COND 75%UREA SOLN. NEW PT HIGHT-104.7 MTR. FF.HIGHT-84 M. DIA-22 MTR. ENERGY REDUCED- 10.26X10 6 TO 9.8X10 6 KCAL/T UREA PREM BABOO BFW cond PowerPoint Presentation: “CASALE GROUP FOR UREA” Operating from Switzerland since 1920s,the casale group was a pioneer in ammonia synthesis, but subsequently branched out into methanol, urea and now related technology such as hydrogen and DME. HIGH EFFICIENCY REACTOR TRAYS :- These from the basis of Casale’s urea revamp technologies, with the trays alone, together with a hydrogen peroxide passivation system, capacity increases of the order of 15-20%and in some cases as much as 30% can be achieved. VAPOUR RECYCLE SYSTEM :- The vapour recycle system, in conjunction with the high efficiency trays can give large capacity increases in the synthesis section, of the order of 50%, in any conventional stripping plant. HIGH EFFICIENCY COMBINED PROCESS :- The high efficiency combined process is the counterpart for total recycle plants, and is also based around the high efficiency trays.Again debottlenecking capacity increases of 50% or more are possible. FULL CONDENSER AND SPLIT FLOW LOOP CONCEPTS :- These are modifications loop in CO 2 stripping plants and again can gain large capacity increases in the synthesis section. HIGH EFFICIENCY HYDROLISER AND UREA RECOVERY SYSTEM :- The can reduce emissions from the urea plant. CASALE CHEMICALS ;- As well as technology for producing hydrogen by water electrolysis,Casale Chemicals also offer a range of technologies for production of chemicals downstream from a methanol plant, including formaldehyde,dimethyl ether (DME)and now, methanol to olefins(MTO), The latter uses a Casale-developed zeolite catalyst which has been proven in pilot plant installations. As ingle step DME process is also under development. PowerPoint Presentation: NEW REACTOR TRAY DESIGN The Principle of high efficiency trays:- Mass transfer factor Contact pattern of phase Fluid dynamics factors Interfacial surface area Geometry of reactor vessel Chemical kinetics factors Temperature & pressure The new generation trays (high efficiency trays) already launched in urea plant claim to be more efficient w.r.t.conversion,energy saving. Snamprogetti plants like GNFC,Nagarjuna,Indogulf Fertilizers and NFL NANGAL Vijaipur have installed high efficiency casale trays in urea reactors.14 numbers high efficiency casale trays are installed in place of old conventional sieve tray about 3% conversion rise and saving of M.S. 100 Kg/MT of urea. The high efficiency casale trays are different from bottom to top of the reactor. The number of holes in bottom trays are more compared to top trays. PowerPoint Presentation: CASALE HIGH EFFICIENCY REACTOR TRAYS LIQUID FLOW REACTOR PowerPoint Presentation: NFL VIJAIPUR,PT AIR FLOW AIR VELOCITY AND DUST EMISSION OUTLET TEMP-62 0 C PRILLS TEMP. 62 0 C Urea production-2596 Tones i.e,108 T/Hr (1)Enthalpy of urea solution--------108x10 3 x0.321x132.6=4.5869x10 6 K.Cal (2) Heat of Crystallization -------- 108x10 3 x58.4=6.307x10 6 K.Cal ENTHALPY = 4.5969X10 6 +6.307X10 6 K.Cal HU = 10.9039X10 6 K.Cal ENTHALPY OF HUMID AIR = (0.24+.46H) Ma, H=Humidity of air,70-75% H Ha =( 0.24+.46x.035)M =0.2561 Ma Ambient Temperature = 40 0 C and PT outlet Temperature=62 0 C Ha = 0.2561(62-40) Ma = 5.634 Ma -------------Eqn No. (1) Enthalpy of Urea Prod = 108x10 3 x62x0.321 where 62 is prills temp. = 2.1494x10 6 K.Cal UREA NET ENTHALPY,HU= 10.9039X10 6 -2.149X10 6 (i.e., heat transfer to air ) = 8.7549x10 6 K.Cal Eqn No. (2) Equalize eqn.(1) &(2) we get 5.634 Ma = 8.7549x10 6 Quantity of air ,Ma = 8.7549x10 6 /5.634 = 1.5539x10 6 Kg air OR =1.5539x10 6 /29 = 53584 Kg mole air OR in NM 3 =53584x22.4 = 1200295 NM 3 /Hr ~ 12 Lakh NM3/Hr OR = 1200285/108 = 11114 NM 3 /T of urea VELOCITY OF AIR, LOUVERS AREA = 315 M 3 . Hence VELOCITY =1200285/315 = 1.0058 m/sec DUST EMISSION 50 mg/Nm 3 AIR AIR TEMP. 40 0 C PBABOO Air Velocity depends upon louvers condition PowerPoint Presentation: HEAT OF WETTING:- When a solid surface brought with a liquid in which it is insoluble, The liquid will spread in a thin film over the surface of solid, provide the solid is wettable by liquid. This implies that the surface tension of the liquid relative to air is less than the adhesion tension between the liquid and solid. The liquid film may be highly compressed as a result of attractive force or chemical binding may be occur. The formation of such film of liquids is accompanied by an evolution of heat. Heat of complete wetting of urea with water = -(3.0 to 4.0) K.Cal. HUMID HEAT CAPACITY OF AIR:- In dealing with humid air it is convenient to use 1 Kg or 1 Kg mole of dry air as the basis of calculation , regardless of the humidity of air . In problem dealing with heating or cooling of air where no change in moisture content takes place, the total change in enthalpy is equal to “Sum of the change in the sensible enthalpy of dry air and the change in sensible enthalpy of water vapour.” at low temperature range -1 0 C to 82 0 C the mean heat capacity of air = 0.240 K.Cal/Kg and that of water vapour is = 0.466 K.Cal /Kg HUMID HEAT “S” = 0.24+.46H WHERE H =Kg water vapour/ Kg dry air PowerPoint Presentation: DEVELOPMENT HISTORY OF TEC UREA PROCESS Toyo Engineering corporation (TEC), one of the major urea technology Licensor, established in the late 1970’s a urea granulation process based on a Spout Bed type urea granulator, over the years TEC expanded its own technical range to provide a variety of urea fertilizers products and also improved its process. The latest improved ACES-21 technology offers low investment cost as it reduces number of equipments in urea synthesis loop with the urea reactor installed on the ground with CO 2 stripping process. Further, reduction in energy consumption has been achieved through optimization of operating conditions at lower operation pressure than the earlier processes. The Spout Fluid Bed urea granulated process offers specific features such as high energy efficiency, high product quality and low urea dust emissions. TOTAL RECYCLE “B” TOTAL RECYCLE “C” TOTAL RECYCLE “C-1” TOTAL RECYCLE “D ” ACES IMPROVED ACES (ACES-21) SPOUT BED GRANULATION SPOUT-FLUID BED GRANULATION 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 100-500 TPD 200-1130 TPD 180-1800 TPD 180-1750 TPD 180-1750 TPD 1750-3460 TPD 100-470 TPD 750-2000 TPD PowerPoint Presentation: THE IMPROVED ACES (ACES-21) PROCESS In CO2 stripping technology, the reactor, the largest and the heaviest vessel in urea in urea plant , is normally installed at 20-22 meter level so as to feed urea synthesis solution to the stripper by gravity. If the reactor is installed on the ground level, civil and erection cost can be greatly reduced . TEC and PT pupak Sriwidjaja (PUSARI,Indonesia) have jointly improved the existing ACES process aiming at installing the reactor on the ground level, maintaining advantages of ACES process concepts based on proven CO 2 stripping technology. The two stage synthesis concept of combination of VERTICAL SUBMERGED CARBAMATE CONDENSER (VSCC) and the reactor is employed to enable the reactor to be installed on the ground level and to simplify the synthesis loop. The forced circulation of the synthesis loop driven by HP Carbamate ejector also makes the CSCC be installed on fairly low elevation. DESCRIPTION OF ACES (ACES-21) SYNTHESIS SECTION Figure shows the improved ACES (ACES-21) process synthesis section consisting of a reactor , a stripper and a carbamate condenser. An HP Carbamate ejector provides the driving force for circulation in the synthesis loop instead of gravity for the original ACES. Liquid ammonia is fed into the reactor via the HP ejector. Most of the CO 2 with small amount of passivation air is fed to the stripper as a stripping medium and a raw material for urea synthesis and the rest is fed to the reactor . The REACTOR is operated at---- N/C RATIO 3.7 PRESSURE 155 Kg/cm 2 TEMPERATUR 182 O C CONVERSION 63% and the VSCC is operated at------ N/C RATIO 3.0 PRESSURE 155Kg/cm 2 ,TEMP-180 0 C PowerPoint Presentation: Carbamate solution from the carbamate condenser is also fed to the reactor after being pumped by the HP ejector that is motivated by high pressure liquid ammonia. Urea synthesis solution leaving the reactor is fed to the stripper where unconverted carbamate is thermally decomposed and excess ammonia and CO 2 are efficiently separated by CO 2 stripping. Stripped urea solution is sent to MP decomposition stage to be purified further. the stripped off gas from the stripper is fed to the VSCC.Ammonia and CO2 gas condenses to form ammonium carbamate and subsequently urea is formed by dehydration of the carbamate in the shell side. Reaction heat of carbamate formation is recovered to generate 5 Kg/cm 2 steam is tube side . VERTICAL SUBMERGED CARBAMATE CONDENSER (VSCC) The vertical carbamate condenser (VSCC) function to:- Condense NH 3 & CO 2 gas from the stripper to form Ammonium Carbamate in the shell side. Synthesize urea by dehydration of Ammonium Carbamate formation by generating 5 Kg.cm2 steam in the boiler tube. ADVANTAGES OF THE VSCC High gas velocity,apprpriate gas hold up and sufficient liquid depth in the bubble column promote mass and heat transfer, resulting in 30% reduction of heat transfer area from original ACES Carbamate Condenser. The appropriate number of baffle plate distribute gas bubbles in the column effectively without pressure loss. A vertical design invertible requires smaller plot area. PowerPoint Presentation: CONVERSION RESIDENCE TIME CONDENSER (VSCC) REACTOR CONVERSION VS. RESIDENCE TIME IN CONDENSER & REACTOR % PLANT CAPACITY 3500 TPD 20 30 40 50 60 70 PowerPoint Presentation: THE SYNTHESIS SECTION OF TEC,ACES PROCESS NH 3 CO 2 . REACTOR P-175 K T-190 O C CONV-68% TO MP DECOMOSER LP STEAM BFW TO MP DECOMPOSER FROM MP ABSORBER SCRUBER CARBAMATE CONDENSER NO.1 CARBAMATE CONENSER NO.2 STRIPPER M.S. COND. PREM BABOO PowerPoint Presentation: ACES-21 CO 2 . NH 3 . CARBAMATE CONDENSER (SUBMERGED TYPE) REACTOR STRIPPER STEAM COND. BFW LPS INERTS TO ABSORPTION FROM ABSORPTION To Decomposition Section PREM BABOO BAFFLES SUBMERCED CARB. CONDENSER HIGH GAS VELOCITY APPROPRIATE GAS HOLD UP AND SUFFI CIENT LIQUID DEPTH IN BUBBLE COLUMN TO PROMOTE MASS & HEAT TRNASFER P-1 5 5 ATA T-1 8 3 0 C EJECTOR Conv-63% N/C=3.7 (CARB. SOLN.) PowerPoint Presentation: VSCC ACES-21 PowerPoint Presentation: PACKED BED CARBAMATE SOLN IN CONDENSATION & REACTION PART UREA SYNTHESIS SOLN OUT LIQUID FEED IN BAFFLE PLATE Down pipe from condensation part To condensation & reaction part Down pipe for reaction product GAS FLOW GAS OUT STEAM+BFW OUT BFW “VSCC” PBABOO COMPARISION OF ACES-21 AND POOL REACTOR 2000PLUS: COMPARISION OF ACES-21 AND POOL REACTOR 2000 PLUS ACES-21 Jointly with the Indonesia companyCarbamate condenser vertical , PT (PUPAK) Sriwidiaja(PUSARI) ADVANTAGES:- High gas velocity, appropriate gas hold up and sufficient liquid depth in the bubble column to promote mass and heat transfer An appropriate number of baffle plates distributes gas bubbles in column effectively and without pressure low. A vertical design requires only small area. PRESSURE:-155 Ata POOL REACTOR 2000 PLUS Carbamate condenser is horizontal Jointly with DSM Malamine. The horizontal condenser –reactor is a gas agitated vessel. The pool reactor acts as a bank of CSTR rather than a single CSTR. The pool reactor behaves more or less like a plug flow. The baffles in a reactor positively prevent back mixing, so affording the highest approach to equilibrium, requires large area. PRESSURE:-140 Ata PowerPoint Presentation: “DEVELOPMENT OF ACES-21 AND REVAMPING OF OLD PLANTS.” The ACES-21 technology can be used in revamping in conventional solution recycle plant to boost efficiency.e.g. TEC total recycle “C” improved(MTC) plant can be revamped to 150% of original name plate capacity with a 40% saving energy. This is achieved by simply adding a condenser, stripper and ejector to the synthesis section and utilizing the full volume of the existing reactor installed at ground level no additional equipment is required for purification , recovery and the NH 3 and Carbamate feed solution. 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 N/C RATIO 50 60 70 EQUILIBRIUM CONVERSION 100 120 140 160 180 200 EQUILIBRIUM PRESSURE 135 0 C&H/C=0.6 OPERATING PRESSURE REACTOR N/C COND N/C EQUILIBRIUM CONV. EXCESS PR. OPTIMIZED N/C RATIO 80 40 EQUILIBRIUM PRESS. PowerPoint Presentation: CO 2 STRIPPING UREA SYNTHESIS WITH CASALE’S NEW FULL “ HPCC&SPLIT FLOW” CO 2 REACTOR HP SCRUBBER LP STEAM BFW NEW FULL “HPCC” & SPLIT FLOW NH 3 STRIPPER TO LP SECTION CASALE’S HET EJECTOR Thermo siphon Recirculation 50-60% UREA Very little inerts PBABOO CO2 STRIPPER UREA SYNTHESIS WITH CASAL’S FULL HPCC&SPLIT FLOW: CO 2 STRIPPER UREA SYNTHESIS WITH CASAL’S FULL HPCC&SPLIT FLOW Reactor will operate with reduced inert following advantage claimed by casale High co 2 conversion (63-64%, N/C=3.2%,H/C=0.41% ) High stripping efficiency Low amount of untreated to the down stream section. Reduced corrosion in “HPCC”. High L.P. steam pressure . Low passivation o 2 required in 25/22/2, 316 urea grade lined reactor, will not cause problem according to casale. PowerPoint Presentation: “HPCC & SPLIT FLOW” VAPOUR FROM STRIPPER CARBAMATE FROM ABSORBER BFW LPS,4.6 BAR Vapour To HP Scrubber TO REACTOR Thermo siphon recirculation Higher heat transfer Increased, retention Time. 50-60% urea PBABOO PowerPoint Presentation: GRANULATION TECHNOLOGY FOR UREA The prilling process is still the most largely used process for the manufacturing of solid urea. In fact the larger urea producing countries in the world like India, Indonesia, China and former USSR are still utilizing the prilling process. This choice is mainly due to the simplicity of this process that essentially consists of a prilling tower and collecting storage or bagging without any further treatment.however,the prilled product has some major drawbacks in respect of the quality of the product having LOW HARDNESS,SMALL SIZE AND TENDENCY TO CAKE . Furthermore the prilling process has the drawback of emitting to the atmosphere urea dust and gaseous ammonia, from the top of the prilling tower. This problem is difficult to solve because of the large amount gas , The small size of the urea dust and the extremely low partial pressure of the ammonia contained in the gas. the problem of the pollution of the air from the prilling tower of the urea plant is becoming more and more important because of the more respective environment protection rules and the sensibility of the population to the problem. At the beginning the above mentioned unsatisfactory characteristics of the prilled urea slightly improved by treatments with additives) pushed several companies to make efforts to improve the said charecteristics.Several Granulation processes have been studied,patented,tested in pilot plants basically to make harder and larger granules suitable for easier handling in plant or shipment even pneumatic handing) as well as for blends with other fertilizers . In the last 20 years, several companies focused their attention on the fact that another advantage of the granulation over the prilling process was the easier control of the pollutants urea and ammonia In some cases this advantages has been even more important than the advantage of a better product quality in convincing manufacturing to install a granulation unit in plants that previously were using prilling process. PowerPoint Presentation: DIFFERENT GRANULATION PROCESS COMPONY TNA TVA NORSK HYDRO C&I GIRDLER [NOW BECHTEL] NIRO ATOMIZER FISONS HYDRO AGRI [FORMER NSM] KALTENBACH –THURING TEC SNAMPROGETTI KINDS OF PROCESS PAN GRANULATION FALLING CURTAIN DRUM GRANULATION PAN GRANULATION SPHERDIZER DRUM GRANULATION FLUID BED GRANULATION DRUM GRANULATION FLUID BED GRANULATION FLUID DRUM GRANULATION SPOUTED BED GRANULATION FALLING CURTAINS DRUM GRANULATION ADVANTAGES OF GRANULATION PROCESS Strongly improved quality product [higher hardness, larger size and no tendency to cake] Practically no pollution, in any case with values matching the most stringent pollution regulations. Possibility to produce larger size of graules(6mm). Possibility of single train even for large capacity(2000TPD) with consequent lower investment and production costs. Lower solution recycle to the synthesis section to the urea plant. Compact layout gravity flow). PowerPoint Presentation: SNAMPROGETTI DRUM GRANULATION FOR UREA The main feature of this process, that is different from all the others, is the fact that the feed urea solution is 96% and not at about 99%. As a consequence, the step of urea vacuum concentration from 96% to 99% and more is avoided together with the relevant vacuum condensation of the vapours obtained in said concentration In few cases urea plant with a prilling finishing .have been converted to granulation by using a part of the prilled urea as seed for the granulation unit. This is the case of a 1100 TPD plant that has used the so called fattening process of Kaltenbach Thuring process fluid drum granulation technology. The quantity of prilled urea used as seed is as high as 50% of the output product of the granulation. The other 50% of molten urea is sprayed in the granulator on the prills. This process can be called a “once through granulation” because the granulation unit has no internal solid recycle. PROCESS DESCRIPTION In figure the step of the process, common to all granulation process, are shown granulation in a rotating drum. Cooling of the recycle in a fluid bed cooler Screening (oversize, fines and good product) Crushing the oversize Washing of the effluent air. Feed stock is molten urea at a concentration of 99.4-99.8% and at a temperature of 136-140 0 C Formaldehyde is added to the molten urea in order to improve the physical characteristics of the product of the produced granules. The molten urea is then sent to the rotating drum granulator, where it is sprayed at a pressure of 5-6 bar. Granulation occurs in this drum provided with specially designed internal equipment that form a double falling curtain of seeds represented by the recycled under size granules onto which the molten urea is sprayed. PowerPoint Presentation: SNAMPROGETTI GRANULATION UREA PROCESS ATM AIR ATM AIR UREA MELT COND ELEVATOR UNDER SIZE OVER SIZE NORMAL SIZE GRANULAR UREA TO STORAGE CRUSHER DRUM GRANULATOR CHILLER FAN FAN COOLER AIR OUT FAN H 2 SO 4 SOLN. AMM. SULPHATE SOLN UREA SOLN COOLER SCRUBBER AIR OUT ABSORPTION TOWER PBABOO PowerPoint Presentation: The drum is the heart of the process. As it rotates ,the recycled undersize granules are elevated from the bed by lifting flights and then discharge onto inclined collecting pans. Sprays of molten urea are directed onto this double falling curtain. As the melt spreads over the surface of the granules, it quickly solidifies forming a coating. Granules of the desired size range are produced by successive layering of melt onto the recycled granules. Cooling inside the granulator is provided by a combination of heat transfer to air flowing through the granulator drum and the introduction of cool recycle. The latter provides the main percentage of heat removal .It enters the drum at a temperature of 50-60 0 C and it leaves it at 115 0 C Granules from the granulator drum fall into a fluid bed cooler, which provides further necessary cooling by using ambient air as cooling medium. In hot and wet climates, air conditioning may be required in the second half of the cooler. Further cooling of the granules is necessary at this stage so that they do not break up during screening and form dust. After cooling the granules are elevated and screened. PRODUCT CHARECTERISTICS Total N 46.2% By weight Biuret 0.255 By weight. Humidity 0.25% By weight. Formaldehyde 0.3% By weight. Size of granules 94% By weight ( between 3-5 mm) Hardness 3 Kg on 3 mm PowerPoint Presentation: A A A-A SEC . MOLTEN UREA AIR RECYCLE UREA AIR OUT FOR RECOVERY DRUM GRANULATOR GRANULAR UREA DOUBLE FALLING CURTAIN GRANULES PBABOO PowerPoint Presentation: RAW MATERIAL AND UTILITIES CONSUMPTIONS PER TONS OF UREA PRODUCT STEAM (AT 6 BAR) 45 Kg ELECTRICITY 21 KWH FORMALDEHYDE 3 Kg DEMI WATER 80 Kg (P-18 DISH.) Process Condensate, slightly acidified with sulphuric acid, is used for scrubbing ammonia. The ammonium sulphate solution so obtain at 40% by wt. is disposed off from the factory. PRODUCT CHARECTERISTICS As regards the biuret value it must be pointed out that the molten urea (99.8%) comes from the top of the existing Prilling Tower, therefore with a long path during which biuret content increases. In a normally designed new urea plant with granulation finishing the value of the biuret can be consider to be about 0.9% by wt. A product with an average size as high as 6-8 mm has been produced in operation of short periods of time. POLLUTION There are two sections of pollution abatement From the gaseous emission of the granulator, first dust and then ammonia is washed. by means of a weak acid water solution : This double washing has reduced the pollution in the air. The emission from the cooler, contains only few ppm of ammonia and urea dusts and are essentially caught in a separate abatement. In a new plant of course the abatement of the dusts from the granulator and the cooler can be performed in only one step. LIMITS OF THE UREA AND AMMONIA IN THE AIR TO THE ATMOSPHERE URAEA DUST-----------15mg/Nm 3 AMMONIA -----------20mg/Nm 3 PowerPoint Presentation: “TEC” SPOUT FLUID BED GRANULATION TEC’S Technology for urea granulation was developed in early 1980s. This process, SPOUT-FLUID BED Granulation, is shown in the Fig . The granulator consists of a spouted bed and a fluidized bed on a perforated plate with spray nozzles and air duct manifolds. The spouted bed is surrounded by a fluidized bed without partitions. Each spouted bed has one spray nozzle each. As shown in the fig, the granulator has a multispouted bed arrangement, Recycled urea granules are enlarged while passing through the spouted and fluidized beds. Urea solution is sprayed into the spouted beds through pressure spray nozzles without compressed air. Air for the spouted and fluidized beds is introduced into the lower section of the granulator separately. The spout-fluid bed granulator’s drying function means that a 95% wt. urea solution can be fed as feedstock, so there is no need for a final evaporation stage and the steam requirement is reduced. TEC asserts that spout-fluid bed granulator’s power consumption of 23KWH/T is lowest of all available urea granulation technologies as it does not require compressed, atomizing air as result of the low pressure drop through the granulator and dust scrubber. TEC’S urea granulation process has been used in 19 urea plants, of which seven plants have been commissioned in the last four years. Five large scale plants with capacities of over 1700TPD are currently being built in ASIA and will be commissioned in 1999,2000 and 2001 respectively. PowerPoint Presentation: “ TEC’S SPOUT-FLUID BED GRANULATION PROCESS” PRODUCT CRUSHER SCREEN OVER SIZE UNDER SIZE NORMAL SIZE AIR AIR COOLER RECOVERED UREA SOLN FEED UREA UREA DUST UREA DUST ATM. . COND ELEVATOR GRANULATOR PREM BABOO PowerPoint Presentation: THE SPOUT –FLUID BED GRANULATOR AIR AIR UREA SOLUTION RECYCLE GRANULES INLET GRANULES OUTLET SPOUTED BED FLUIDIZED BED AIR HEADER PERFORATED PLATES SPRAY NOZZLES UREA DUST PREM BABOO PowerPoint Presentation: TYPICAL YARA (HYDRO-AGRI) DESIGN UREA GRANULATOR FLOW SHEET UREA GRANUALES STORAGE FANAL COOLER A/C AIR COURSE FINES ELEVATOR Dust Scrubber Formaldehyde 0.5% UREA MELT 94-96% RECYCLE GRANULATOR COOLER ATOMIZER AIR FAN FAN BLOWER 0.5 BAR SIEVE Process water Cleaned air (FLUID BED ) PBABOO PowerPoint Presentation: ATOMIZATION SPRAY NOZZLE PRINCIPLE OF YARA(HYDRO-AGRI)GRANULATOR HIGHLIGHTS Requires relative high spraying energy Water evaporation up to 6.0% Significance dust aerosol formation Formaldehyde content shall be high as crystallization retarded Dust formation about 3-4% of feed . Small granulation surface Lower fluidization air requirements . Lower power requirements than STAMICRBON, higher than TOYO GRANULATOR UREA MELT 95% ATOMIZING AIR AT ABOUT 0.5 BAR Atomizing urea melt To fine droplets by High energy EACH NOZZLE ABOUT 10 MTD PowerPoint Presentation: STAMICARBON’S LIQUID FILM NOZZLE HIGHLIGHTS Spraying energy is low, but overall power is high. Water evaporation 1.5%wt.low granules humidity. Very little dust aerosol generation, simple scrubber design. Formaldehyde content is low <0.3%less hygroscopic product. Dust formation 1.0-1.5%of feed but dusting & scrubber big. Small nozzle capacity (about 4.5 MTD each) High DP perforated plate . No high pressure atomizing air blower required. Stable cone of liquid urea grow in size by layering UREA MELT SECONDARY AIR PowerPoint Presentation: COATING OF UREA WITH NEEM IN NFL VIJAIPUR It is well known that name has great potential of increasing the use efficiency of urea. Indian agricultural scientist were the first in the world to establish neem as nitrogen regulator,NFL Vijaipur started in October 2004 following advantages of neem coated urea: Neem cake when applied along with urea retards the nitrification rate for about two weeks and thus more nitrogen remains available as ammonium for a long period. 350 ppm of neem oil content is being maintain at NFL vijaipur as per guide line of under section 20(a) FCO. Worth as germicide to help crop decaying. Neem product namely neemoil,cake,neem bitters concentrate and neem oil were identified as good nitrification inhibitors. DEVELOPMENT OF PROCESS OF COATING UREA PRILLS IN FERTILIZERS PLANT The work involve in developing process for coating of urea in fertilizers plants required a different approach as the use of neem cake or neem bitters was not compatible with the requirements of coating of urea under the plant conditions. The work was divided in two parts namely Developing suitable neem product which could easily be sprayed on urea prills at the final product stage. Development of suitable arrangement for spraying neem product after leaving the prilling tower. PowerPoint Presentation: SPRAYING ARRANGEMENT IN NFL VIJAIPUR To bunker Neem oil tank Spray Nozzle ET-7 A/B FROM UREA LINE 1&2 PowerPoint Presentation: BIOLOGICAL PROCESS FOR POLLUTION CONTROL SUCCESSFULLY COMISSIONED IN NFL VIJAIPUR National fertilizers limited, vijaipur has developed and commercialized a unique and efficient process for control of pollution in the urea plant discharge from the fertilizers plant. The process known as biohydrolizer process. The recently in the NFL Vijaipur Biohydrolizer comissioned.It is the 1 st of its kind installed in the country and is very simple. The mixed cutler of urea hydrolyser micro-organism HAFNIA ANVIE-1426 BACTERIA has been developed in laboratory under established parameters maintained in liquid medium. The bioculter is highly resistant even to as high concentration of urea as 20000ppm present in effluent. It can be hydrolyzed 99% urea in to Nitrogen in 4 to 5 hours . UREA EFFLUENT FROM UREA PLANT LINE 1&2 (400-800 PPM) UREA BIO HYDROLIZER “HAFNIA ALVIE 1426 ” CLEANED WATER HAVING 1 TO 10 PPM UREA AMMONIA IS REMOVED BY STRIPPER INLET CONDITION 2+2 NM 3 / HR WATER FLOW TO BE MAINTAINED CONTINUOUSLY FROM LINE 1&2 RESPECTIVELY P H RANGE 6.5 TO 9.5 TEMPERATURE-NOT MORE THAN 50 0 C PowerPoint Presentation: FLOW DIAGRAM OF BIOHYDROLIZER BIOHYDROLISER BACTERIA HAFNIA ALVIE 1426 TO STRIPPER FROM LINE-1 FROM LINE-2 (REMOVING AMMONIA) TO BIOHYDROLISER (REMOVING UREA) INLET UREA 200-800 PPM OUTLET UREA 1-10 PPM 1 ST TANK 2 ND TANK 3 RD TANK UREA FLOOR WASHING STRIPPER TO POND “B” PREM BABOO I.D. FAN PowerPoint Presentation: P.BABOO THANKS C-69 N.F.L.COLONY, VIJAIPUR,GUNA (M.P.)

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