Published on January 16, 2008
Inertia Welding of Nickel Base Superalloys for Aerospace Applications: Inertia Welding of Nickel Base Superalloys for Aerospace Applications G.J. Baxter1, M. Preuss2 and P.J. Withers2 1 Rolls-Royce plc, UK 2 Manchester Materials Science Center, UMIST/University of Manchester, UK Slide2: Inertia Welding Project Operation temperatures are constantly increasing to improve engine efficiency High g’ v/o nickel-base Superalloys (RR1000, Alloy 720LI) are replacing conventional nickel base Superalloys (Waspaloy, IN718) Only friction welding is capable of reliably joining RR1000 and Alloy 720LI Characterization of residual stresses, microstructure and mechanical properties of inertia friction welded RR1000 Slide3: Inertia Welding Process Welding Parameters: Rotational Speed Inertia Level Axial Pressure no liquid phase during welding join dissimilar metals/alloys Slide4: 2000 ton force Inertia Welder Rolls-Royce plc. Compressor rotor factory (CRF) near Nottingham Slide5: Inertia Welding Process Slide6: 143 mm specimen Slide7: Residual Stress neutron diffraction Slide8: All stresses are in the units of MPa a) as-welded, b) conventional and c) modified PWHT conditions Hoop residual stresses in RR1000 z is axial position from the weld line, R is radial position from the centre of weld Slide9: a) as-welded Hole drilling and neutron diffraction results Axial and hoop stresses of RR1000 as a function of R at the weld line Slide10: a) conventional PWHT Hole drilling and neutron diffraction results Axial and hoop stresses of RR1000 as a function of R at the weld line Slide11: a) modified PWHT Hole drilling and neutron diffraction results Axial and hoop stresses of RR1000 as a function of R at the weld line Slide12: Residual stresses in inertia welded RR1000 large stresses generated during welding largest stresses observed in the hoop direction, at the weld line and close to the inner diameter conventional PWHT reduces the residual stresses but not to an acceptable level modified PWHT gives acceptable level of residual stresses Slide13: Metallurgical characterization in inertia welded RR1000 what effect has the PWHT on the microstructure and the mechanical properties Microstructure in the heat affected zone ’ volume fraction and particle size, grain size, work hardening , coherency strain etc. how do the mechanical properties vary in the weld zone Slide14: Spatially resolved tensile testing modified PWHT Slide15: Spatially resolved tensile testing modified PWHT Slide16: 0.2% Yield stress variation 0.2% yield stress profiles (measured – nominal 0.2% yield stress) of the conventional and modified PWHT’d RR1000 samples as a function of axial distance from the weld line (z=0) Slide17: Hardness testing (RR1000) Hardness profiles of the as-welded and PWHT’d conditions Slide18: Synchrotron Integr. Intensity of the (100) superlattice reflection divided by the integr. Int. (200) reflection (RR1000) Slide19: FEG-SEM, low mag. images of g’ g’ across a weld in RR1000 weld line 2.5 mm away from the weld line Slide20: FEG-SEM images of RR1000 secondary and tertiary g’ Secondary and tertiary g’ across the weld modified PWHT ’ distribution only changes dramatically between the weld line and 2mm Slide21: Image Analysis Secondary and tertiary g’ across the weld line modified PWHT Slide22: Coherency strain between g and g’ Secondary and tertiary g’ across the weld line As-welded Slide23: EBSD Euler-Maps of the as-welded sample (RR1000) Slide24: grain size measured by EBSD Grain size across the weld line (RR1000) Slide25: EBSD + Synchrotron Comparing stored energy and FWHM of the (111) peak Slide26: between the weld line and 2mm dramatic microstructural changes between 2 and 4 mm from the weld line only increased coherency strain observable 20% increase of strength in the heat affected zone after PWHT New PWHT (conventional PWHT + 50°C) results in no overall significant loss of strength Microstructure in inertia welded RR1000 as-welded and PWHT Slide27: Questions ??