beetleborers

Information about beetleborers

Published on January 2, 2008

Author: Breezy

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Beetle Borers:  Beetle Borers Dr. Vera Krischik, Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota Ambrosia Bark Beetle:  Ambrosia Bark Beetle Xylosandrus germanus Family Scolytidae Introduced Pest Hosts: Ash, beech, birch, bald cypress, dogwood, elm, holly, honeylocust, linden, maple, pine, willow, red cedar, sycamore. John Davidson Ambrosia Bark Beetle:  Ambrosia Bark Beetle Life History: Adults emerge in spring, look for sites to make tunnels, and lay eggs. They bore into the hardwood and introduce a fungus, which they farm for food. One generation a year. Overwintering: Adults in tunnels. John Davidson Ambrosia Bark Beetle:  Ambrosia Bark Beetle Damage: The fungus may cause cankers. Dieback in heavy infestations only. Monitoring: Look for frass emerging from entrance holes near ground. Look for black fungal stains in tunnels. Physical Control: Cut, remove, and burn dead or infected tree tops and branches. Chemical Control: Spray for adults when they emerge in spring. European Elm Bark Beetle:  European Elm Bark Beetle Scolytus multistriatus Family Scolytidae Introduced Pest Hosts: Elm and Japanese zelkova. Life History: Adults emerge when elm leaves have fully developed and feed in twig crotches on healthy elms. They move to and excavate egg galleries in weak or dead elms, and larvae live in galleries, which they construct under the bark. One generation a year. John Davidson European Elm Bark Beetle:  European Elm Bark Beetle Overwintering: Larvae under bark. Damage: Adults may transmit Dutch elm disease to trees, which causes wilting and yellow flagging on branches. The infection will spread down the tree and kill it. John Davidson European Elm Bark Beetle:  European Elm Bark Beetle Monitoring: Hang pheromone traps in spring to monitor for adults. In summer look for flagging and yellowing in crown terminals. John Davidson Ophiostoma ulmi fungus fruiting bodies inside galleries of European elm bark beetle European Elm Bark Beetle:  European Elm Bark Beetle Physical Control: Infected trees, and diseased or damaged branches should be removed and burnt or buried. Cultural Control: Maintain tree health by watering and fertilizing. Prune only when dormant. Plant resistant varieties of elm. Chemical Control: Spray residual insecticides on tree tops in spring. Biological Control: Parasitic wasps, clerid beetles, and the fungus Beauveria bassiana. Native Elm Bark Beetle:  Native Elm Bark Beetle Hylurgopinus rufipes Family Scolytidae Native Pest Hosts: Elm species, particularly American, Siberian, and Chinese. Life History: Adults emerge in April and May, feed in healthy branches, then fly to dying or dead branches. The beetles excavate brood galleries and lay eggs. Larval galleries branch out from brood galleries. New adults move to healthy elms to feed. One generation a year. John Davidson Native Elm Bark Beetle:  Native Elm Bark Beetle Overwintering: Adults at tree bases. Damage: Branches with Dutch elm disease wilt, turn yellow, then brown, and die. Beetles leave pin- sized holes in bark and frass at tree bases. Infected sapwood has brown streaks. Monitoring: Monitor for wilt symptoms throughout the summer. Remove suspicious branches and send them to the diagnostic laboratory for analysis. Pheromone traps in spring monitor adult beetles. John A. Williams USDA Forest Service The Bugwood Network University of Georgia Native Elm Bark Beetle:  Native Elm Bark Beetle Physical Control: Remove and burn or bury infected trees and branches. Remove root grafts by trenching around infected trees. Cultural Control: Maintain healthy trees by proper watering and fertilizing. Prune only when dormant. Pruning outside the dormant season should be avoided. Plant resistant elms. Chemical Control: Apply insecticides in April. Inoculate elms against the Dutch elm disease fungus. Pine Engraver:  Pine Engraver Ips pini Family Scolytidae Native Pest Hosts: Most pine and spruce species. Life History: In spring adult males cut entrance holes through bark which they extend into nuptial chambers. Mated females construct and lay eggs in galleries that lead from nuptial chambers. Larvae feed galleries. Young adults emerge in September or October. Two to three generations a year. John Davidson Pine Engraver:  Pine Engraver Overwintering: Young adults in duff and larvae under bark. Damage: Sticky white pitch tubes from boring, brown sawdust on trunk or branches, yellowish- red treetops, death. Scott Tunnock USDA Forest Service The Bugwood Network University of Georgia Robert L. Anderson USDA Forest Service The Bugwood Network University of Georgia Pine Engraver:  Pine Engraver Monitoring: Look in spring for brown sawdust on bark or branches and for white pitch tubes. Check under bark for galleries and larvae. Monitor tree tops for yellowing. Physical Control: Remove and chip trees that are dead or dying prior to the following spring. Cultural Control: Minimize tree stress by watering during droughts. Chemical Control: Spray with residual insecticides when boring appears. Treat nearby trees of the same species. Pine Shoot Beetle:  Pine Shoot Beetle Tomicus piniperda Family Scolytidae Introduced Pest Hosts: Scots pine and other conifers. Life History: Adults enter cut pine stumps, logs, or trunks of weakened trees in spring. They lay eggs in vertical egg galleries and then die. Larvae develop in galleries and exit as adults in May or June, then fly to crowns of living trees, where they feed on shoots. One generation a year. John Davidson Pine Shoot Beetle:  Pine Shoot Beetle Overwintering: Adults under bark at bases of trees. Damage: Bent, brown shoots with a 5 mm circular hole at the base of the bend, sawdust emerging from fresh cut logs. Damaged shoots turn yellow to red, droop, and fall. Monitoring: Look for damaged shoots in summer. Terminal damage John Davidson Pine Shoot Beetle:  Pine Shoot Beetle Physical Control: Place freshly cut pine logs or last year’s Christmas trees in pine field. Beetles will fly to freshly killed logs or stumps to breed. In April and May, remove and destroy all infested logs. From June to July, remove and destroy infested tips. Chemical Control: In February, treat all freshly cut stumps or logs with permethrin or carbaryl. From June to July, treat with permethrin on shoots. Biological Control: The clerid beetle Thanasimus formicarius. Black Turpentine Beetle:  Black Turpentine Beetle Dendroctonus terebrans Family Scolytidae Native Pest Hosts: Southern, loblolly, slash pines, red spruce. Life History: Adults bore into cambium and lay eggs in a gallery. Larvae feed in groups and pupate under bark. One generation a year. Overwintering: Adults. Damage: Sticky reddish to white pitch tubes, death in severe infestations. Black Turpentine Beetle:  Black Turpentine Beetle Monitoring: In spring, look for sawdust and white pitch tubes on bark. Check under the bark for galleries and larvae. Physical Control: Remove and destroy dead or dying trees prior to the following spring. Cultural Control: Water trees during droughts to prevent stress. Chemical Control: Spray with residual insecticides when the first signs of boring appear. Treat nearby trees of the same species. Southern Pine Beetle:  Southern Pine Beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Family Scolytidae Native Pest Hosts: Pines, spruces. Life History: Adults emerge in spring and attack trees infested the previous year, beginning at the upper trunk and working downward. One or more generations a year. Overwintering: All life stages in bark. Texas Agricultural Extension Service Archives Texas A&M University www.forestryimages.org Southern Pine Beetle:  Southern Pine Beetle Damage: Pitch tubes, reddish boring dust, emergence holes, yellow and reddish brown needles, crown death. Adults introduce a blue stain fungus into trees. Monitoring: Look for damage in May through September. Ronald F. Billings, Texas Forest Service www.forestryimages.org Southern Pine Beetle:  Southern Pine Beetle Cultural Control: Remove trees that are at risk because of physical damage or prior insect attacks. Avoid drought, flooding, and overcrowding. Chemical Control: Spray trunks with residual insecticides when pitch tubes are first detected, usually in May. Asian Longhorned Beetle:  Asian Longhorned Beetle Anoplophora glabripennis Family Cerambycidae Introduced Pest Hosts: Maple, elm, birch, willow, poplar, and horsechestnut. Life History: Adults are present from May to October. Females lay 30 to 70 eggs which hatch in 10 to 15 days. Larvae tunnel under bark and into the wood where they pupate. One generation per year. Robert A. Haack USDA Forest Service Asian Longhorned Beetle:  Asian Longhorned Beetle Overwintering: Prepupae. Damage: Girdling, dieback, death. Monitoring: Look round exit holes somewhat larger than the diameter of a pencil. The holes may ooze sap and frass. Look for yellowing or drooping leaves. James E. Appleby Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Asian Longhorned Beetle:  Asian Longhorned Beetle Chemical Control: Spray for adults after they have emerged from tree stems and branches. James E. Appleby Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Robert A. Haack, USDA Forest Service Elm Borer:  Elm Borer Saperda tridentata Family Cerambycidae Native Pest Hosts: American elm, slippery elm, others. Life History: Adults emerge in May and continue into summer. Adults feed on leaves and petioles and lay eggs in cracks in stressed trees. Females live for one month and lay single eggs in bark cracks at night. One generation per year. Larvae may take longer to emerge in recently killed trees. John Davidson Elm Borer:  Elm Borer Overwintering: Pupal cells in sapwood. Damage: Leaf damage, flagging at petioles, weakening, death. May vector Dutch elm disease. James Solomon, USDA Forest Service, The Bugwood Network, University of Georgia Elm Borer:  Elm Borer Monitoring: Monitor for adults from May to August. Notice thin, dying foliage, or flagging and yellowing crown terminals. Look for frass extruding from openings in bark. Hang pheromone traps in spring to monitor adults. Physical Control: Remove young larvae mechanically. Remove and destroy heavily infested trees. James Solomon, USDA Forest Service, The Bugwood Network, University of Georgia Elm Borer:  Elm Borer Cultural Control: Follow practices that increase tree vigor, such as mulching, fertilizing, and watering. Elms should be maintained in a healthy and stress-free condition by proper watering and fertilizing. Prune only when dormant and plant resistant elms. Chemical Control: Spray trunks of residual insecticides. Spray foliage to kill feeding adults. Elm Borer:  Elm Borer Biological Control: Six species of parasitic wasps: Atanycolus simplex and A. ulmicola, Cenocoelius saperdae, Heterospilus sp., Spathius benefactor, and Xorides albopictus. John Davidson Roundheaded Appletree Borer:  Roundheaded Appletree Borer Saperda candida Family Cerambycidae Native Pest Hosts: Crabapple, apple, mountain ash, hawthorn, serviceberry, and cotoneaster. Life History: Adults are active from June to September, laying eggs in slits cut in the base of trees. Larvae feed on bark for one year and then bore into wood. Two or more years are required to complete the life cycle. John Davidson Roundheaded Appletree Borer:  Roundheaded Appletree Borer Overwintering: Larvae in galleries. Damage: Circular exit holes at the base of trees, frass on bark or at tree bases, dieback. Monitoring: Look for adults on bark from June onward and for bark cracks and frass at bases of trees from June to September. John Davidson Roundheaded Appletree Borer:  Roundheaded Appletree Borer Cultural Control: Water newly planted trees until roots are established. Maintain tree vigor with standard cultural practices. Chemical Control: Spray residual insecticides on the base of newly planted trees in June if adults are active. Biological Control: Parasitic wasps and woodpeckers. Locust Borer:  Locust Borer Megacyllene robiniae Family Cerambycidae Native Pest Hosts: Black locust. Life History: Beetles emerge in summer, feed on goldenrod flowers, and lay eggs in bark cracks and wounds of hosts. Larvae bore into bark and resume activity the following spring, tunneling into heartwood until pupating in July. One generation a year. Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service Locust Borer:  Locust Borer Damage: Entrance and exit holes, sap stains, oozing sap and frass, and dieback. Monitoring: Look for damage in spring and early summer, and again in fall. Cultural Control: Promote tree vigor. Plant trees on good sites, out of full sun, and provide adequate water. Mulch well. Eliminate goldenrod near trees. Chemical Control: If adults are detected in September, spray the bark with a residual insecticide. Twig Girdler:  Twig Girdler Oncideres cingulata Family Cerambycidae Native Pest Hosts: Basswood, dogwood, hackberry, elm, honeylocust, oak, poplar, pecan, persimmon, sourwood, fruit trees. John Davidson Twig Girdler:  Twig Girdler Life History: Eggs are laid in previously girdled twigs or branches, and these parts soon die and fall to the ground. Larvae feed on these fallen limbs. Adults emerge in late summer and feed on twig tips or tender stem bark. One generation a year. Many larvae do not pupate until the second year. Overwintering: Larvae in twigs on the ground. John Davidson Twig Girdler:  Twig Girdler Damage: Girdled branches. Monitoring: In August and September, look for twigs that have gathered under trees and which display signs of having been cut. Cut open to look for larvae. Physical Control: Collect and destroy infested branches at the end of the growing season. Biological Control: Downy woodpecker, blue jay, chickadee. John Davidson Twig Pruner:  Twig Pruner Elaphidionoides villosus Family Cerambycidae Native Pest Hosts: Elm, hackberry, oak, hickory, locust, maple, pecan, sweetgum, walnut. Life History: Adults emerge in spring and lay eggs in bark slits at twig tips and leaf axils. Larvae feed under bark and then bore down the center of stem. One generation a year. James Solomon USDA Forest Service www.forestryimages.org Twig Pruner:  Twig Pruner Overwintering: Pupae in twigs on ground. Damage: Severed twigs and branches. Monitoring: In August and September cut open fallen twigs and branches to look for larvae. James Solomon USDA Forest Service www.forestryimages.org Twig Pruner:  Twig Pruner Physical Control: Collect and destroy infested twigs and branches in the spring before adults emerge. Biological Control: Three hymenopteran parasitoids. James Solomon USDA Forest Service www.forestryimages.org Bronze Birch Borer:  Bronze Birch Borer Agrilus anxius Family Buprestidae Native Pest Hosts: Birch species, especially Betula papyrifera, B. pendula, and B. populifolia. Life History: Adults emerge in June, leaving D-shaped exit holes in bark, and feed on leaves for three weeks before laying eggs. Young larvae bore through bark and excavate galleries in cambium. One generation a year. David Laughlin Bronze Birch Borer:  Bronze Birch Borer Overwintering: Larvae in galleries. Damage: Girdling, dieback, death. Monitoring: In June look for 3mm long, D-shaped exit holes in bark. Look for dieback. Physical Control: Remove dead and dying branches before adults emerge in June. Oregon State University Extension Service Cliff Sadof Bronze Birch Borer:  Bronze Birch Borer Cultural Control: Replace susceptible species with Betula nigra, Heritage birch, which is a more resistant riverbirch. Improve tree vigor with fertilizer and watering. Chemical Control: Spray terminals and bark in June if adults are present. Biological Control: Various hymenopteran parasitoids. John Davidson Twolined Chestnut Borer:  Twolined Chestnut Borer Agrilus bilineatus Family Buprestidae Native Pest Hosts: Chestnut and black, bur, red, scarlet, white oaks. Life History: Adults begin to emerge and lay eggs in June. Larvae bore into phloem in trunk and large branches, beginning in tops of trees. Adults feed gregariously on hardwood foliage. One generation a year. Some larvae require two years to complete their life cycle. John Davidson Twolined Chestnut Borer:  Twolined Chestnut Borer Overwintering: Pupal cells in outer sapwood or bark. Damage: D-shaped exit holes in bark, foliage feeding, discoloration, sparse foliage, dieback. Monitoring: Look in June for 3 mm long, D-shaped exit holes in bark. Look for damage. James Solomon, USDA Forest Service The Bugwood Network, University of Georgia Twolined Chestnut Borer:  Twolined Chestnut Borer Cultural Control: Maintain tree vigor with appropriate watering, fertilizing, mulching, and pruning. Chemical Control: Spray terminals and bark in June if adults are present. Biological Control: The Chalcid wasp Phasgonophora sulcata, the trogsitid borer Tenebroides corticalis, and the clerids Phyllobaenus verticalis, Phyllobaenus sp. and Cymatodera bicolor, as well as woodpeckers. Flatheaded Appletree Borer:  Flatheaded Appletree Borer Chrysobothris femorata Family Buprestidae Native Pest Hosts: Apple, beech, cotoneaster, dogwood, elm, linden, maple, oak, sycamore, willow, others. Life History: Adults emerge throughout summer and lay eggs under bark or in cracks. Larvae bore into bark and feed on phloem. In the following spring, mature larvae bore into heartwood to pupate. One generation a year. James Solomon USDA Forest Service The Bugwood Network University of Georgia Flatheaded Appletree Borer:  Flatheaded Appletree Borer Overwintering: Larvae in galleries. Damage: Girdling, loss of bark, dieback, death. Monitoring: Look for adults on exposed, sunny bark. Look for dieback and for sap oozing from cracks. Look under bark for larval galleries. Flatheaded Appletree Borer (bottom) and roundheaded borer (top) David Laughlin Flatheaded Appletree Borer:  Flatheaded Appletree Borer Cultural Control: Water and fertilize adequately. Avoid deep planting. Chemical Control: Spray trunk and limbs three times: the third week of May, the second week of June, and the first week of July. Biological Control: Parasitic wasps and woodpeckers. Eggs David Laughlin John Davidson

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