Published on May 9, 2008
BEHAVIOUR BASED SAFETY IN ORGANIZATIONS : DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS India 1 BEHAVIOUR BASED SAFETY IN ORGANIZATIONS Dr. H L Kaila University Professor of Psychology BBS Trainer 25 yrs OHS exposure India The principle of BBS : BBS India 2 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 The principle of BBS Its important to think about safety, its more important to ensure that people behave safely in organizations. BBS approach : BBS India 3 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS approach Prevention of near misses, injuries, accidents is relative to correcting series of unsafe behaviors on part of every employee at work. With BBS approach, we can not only bring down accidents, we can also prevent them. SAFETY IS THE RESPONSIBILTY OF: : BBS India 4 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 SAFETY IS THE RESPONSIBILTY OF: FIRE & Safety dept; Management; Employees; All Satisfaction with safety : BBS India 5 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Satisfaction with safety Job Satisfaction of Indian managers with safety in their respective departments range between 5.5 and 9.5 out of 10. BBS meets OHSAS 18001:2007 compliance : BBS India 6 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS meets OHSAS 18001:2007 compliance The object of The Factories Act, 1948 is to protect workers against industrial and occupational hazards and secure employment conditions conducive to workers health and safety. OHSAS 18001:2007 document includes in OH&S management systems: Participation and consultation section 18.104.22.168: that the organization shall establish, implement and maintain a procedure(s) for: a) the participation of workers by their appropriate involvement in hazard identification, risk assessments and determination of controls. Slide 7: BBS India 7 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 OHSAS 18001:2007, clause 4.3.1 (Planning Hazard identification, risk assessment and determining controls) reads that the organization shall establish, implement and maintain the procedure(s) for hazard identification and risk assessment that shall take into account: c) human behaviour, capabilities and other human factors. Slide 8: BBS India 8 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 OHSAS 18001:2007, clause 4.4.2 (Competence, training and awareness) reads that The organization shall establish, implement and maintain a procedure(s) to make persons working under its control aware of: a) the OH&S consequences, actual or potential, of their work activities, their behaviour, and the OH&S benefits of improved personal performance. BBS has included the above OHSAS 18001:2007 compliances in its training applications. BBS workshops : BBS India 9 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS workshops We have conducted BBS workshops for ITC, ESSAR, Reliance Industries, Colourtex, Reliance Energy, Ultratech, GAIL, Sandoz, Chambal Fertilizers, RKHS, Tata Motors, Jindal,NPC and also conducted 20 safety awareness surveys for various locations in India. Research and experience indicate that: : BBS India 10 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Research and experience indicate that: 90% or more of the accidents are due unsafe human acts or behaviors; 50% of the unsafe behaviors are identified or noticeable at any plant at any given point of time; 25-30% of safety awareness is lacking among employees which gets reflected in their unsafe behaviors; So we need to focus our efforts on unsafe and safe behaviors in safety. BBS secret of success is that the safety control is in hands of each employee, they feel empowered and responsible. Slide 11: BBS India 11 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS is Human Resource Safety (HRS). We produce life saving drugs; BBS produces life saving process – a doctor from Sandoz With BBS implemented, we can achieve zero accidents in our organization – a chief manager from Jindal BBS touches the root cause of accidents. Unsafe behaviors are at the core of any near misses, injury, accidents. If we control unsafe behaviors, we may not even have near misses. : BBS India 12 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS touches the root cause of accidents. Unsafe behaviors are at the core of any near misses, injury, accidents. If we control unsafe behaviors, we may not even have near misses. Unsafe Behaviors Near Misses Injuries Fatalities BBS Key words: : BBS India 13 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS Key words: unsafe and safe behavior, observation, feedback, steering committee, BOFP, DO-IT. Common unsafe behaviors : BBS India 14 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Common unsafe behaviors PPE Housekeeping Using tools and equipment Body positioning / protecting Material handling Communication Following procedures Visual focusing Slide 15: BBS India 15 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Engineering solutions have been achieved to a great extent in organizations but behavioral engineering in managing safety is a lot more challenge to learn. Slide 16: BBS India 16 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 This presentation shall be useful in understanding and application of the concept and process of behavior based safety (BBS) for safety professionals and everyone who is concerned about correcting unsafe behaviors for reduction of accidents and promoting safe behaviors for developing injury free culture in their organizations. Slide 17: BBS India 17 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS emphasizes that employees need to take an ownership of their safe as well as unsafe behaviors. If they behave unsafe, they are not punished, instead they are repeatedly told to correct; and when they behave safe, they are encouraged. Slide 18: BBS India 18 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Both unsafe and safe behaviors are counted and displayed. BBS also discusses the unsafe conditions that influences unsafe behaviors. Slide 19: BBS India 19 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS is a data driven decision-making process. BBS believes that what gets measured gets done and each employee can make a difference in organizational safety. Slide 20: BBS India 20 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Employees are the basic source of expertise of behavioral change (observe and correct). BBS begins by briefing sessions for all work areas and depts. BBS is a teamwork, it is company wide, and people driven. Slide 21: BBS India 21 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS purpose is not to enforce safety rules, force change, gossip about others, reporting to boss. Its purpose is to identify safe and at-risk behaviors, identify possibility for injury, communicating the risk, and helping to identify safer solutions. Slide 22: BBS India 22 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 An implementation team or BBS steering committee monitors its progress. Essentially BBS is not a management driven tool for safety. It’s an employee driven approach with management support. Highlights of BBS : BBS India 23 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Highlights of BBS BBS Concepts Observation and Feedback process BBS implementation and Steering committee Slide 24: BBS India 24 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Actively caring of unsafe and safe behaviors leads to improved safety behavior. Listening, praising, group problem solving, and celebrating safety achievements can increase actively caring behaviors. Attitude and behavior : BBS India 25 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Attitude and behavior BBS targets both Attitudinal as well as behavioral change. Slide 26: BBS India 26 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Attitude is internal, refers to thinking; whereas behaviour is external, observable, and an active experience. Behaviour is a combined reflection and performance of our psycho-motor actions (such as RT, EHC, THC, etc) Slide 27: BBS India 27 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS does not substitute or replace process evaluation, incident analysis, or environmental solutions. At-risk behaviors are identified, the comments are made on the environmental factors that reduce or prevent such behaviors. Slide 28: BBS India 28 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS effects can be seen by measuring safety climate or awareness before and after its implementation for understanding change in safety performance. Slide 29: BBS India 29 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS finally needs customized approach as per needs of your organization. BBS follows DO-IT: define, observe, intervene and test. Slide 30: BBS India 30 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS has shown positive results in terms of safe behaviour and reduction in accidents rates across industries and countries. BBS increases safe behaviours and reduces injuries, illnesses and related financial costs. Slide 31: BBS India 31 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS involves a process of observation and feedback, a system of collecting, analyzing and dissemination of data, and a proactive approach of management support. Slide 32: BBS India 32 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS is ‘actively caring’: its beyond the call of duty for safety for self and others. BBS is “safety for each other”. BBS is a continuous process till you intend to prevent unsafe behaviors at workplace. Slide 33: BBS India 33 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS is a peer-to-peer learning of safe behaviours. BBS is a process of determining progress in reduction of unsafe behaviours. BBS is more than safety regulations. BBS is not magic. It’s a gradual process. Slide 34: BBS India 34 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS is not punishment or disciplinary action or focusing on incident rate, or personal prejudice, or top-down implementation. It’s a praise, encouragement and reinforcement of safe behaviors. Slide 35: BBS India 35 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS is not a top-driven but bottom-up approach. BBS is one of the best and latest safety approaches that will help you increase safe behaviors and decrease unsafe behaviors in your organization if applied with full commitment of everybody. Slide 36: BBS India 36 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS is to ultimately develop concern for each other’s safety at the workplace and developing empathy for each other. Slide 37: BBS India 37 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Behavior is a transaction of person (attitude, personality) and environment (management systems, organizational climate). Total safety culture requires attention to these three areas; actively caring improves all these three Slide 38: BBS India 38 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS is by the people, of the people and for the people. It is based on the established principles of behavior theory in Psychology. Principles of BBS are based on research and an established theory. Observation and Feedback process : BBS India 39 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Observation and Feedback process BBS is process of repeatedly going to an employee and making random observations till he reaches safe behaviors and learns the concept of self-observation and observing others for safe performance. Slide 40: BBS India 40 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS is to collect observation data on specific safe and unsafe behaviors by department, date, month and time. BBS trained observers monitor safety behaviors on regular basis. Slide 41: BBS India 41 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Behavior change precedes attitude change. We experience behavior change, and then re-adjust our attitude. Behavioral change brings ‘attitudinal change’, not necessarily vice-versa, so focus on behavior and feedback process. Slide 42: BBS India 42 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Critical behaviors can be listed in checklist based on previous accident and injury records and also by brainstorming. Different observers will notice different safe and unsafe behaviors, which is why employees need to observe each other. Slide 43: BBS India 43 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Establish observation routines and continuously improve safety process. Feedback can be on-the-spot and graphical feedback, and also weekly / monthly briefings are given. Slide 44: BBS India 44 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Feedback is an interaction based on genuine concern; let us not doubt our own attitude in giving and receiving feedback, it provides insight into our own behaviors. Slide 45: BBS India 45 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Feedback is to be given one on one, immediate, specific behavior to be reinforced, appreciate safe behavior to set example. In Hindi language, BBS is all about dekho, and bolo with sensitivity and concern. Individual name of an employee is not recorded in the BBS checklist. Slide 46: BBS India 46 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Observers target observable safe and unsafe behaviors of co-workers. Observation and couching may take some time to be accepted by co-workers. Observation and feedback skills improve with practice and by using checklist. Slide 47: BBS India 47 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Observation sampling should be undertaken randomly (not on fixed timings) throughout week. Observational comments: wrong tool used, instead say which tool needs to be used and why. Slide 48: BBS India 48 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Observe both safe and at-risk behaviours and use detailed comments for problem solving, follow up etc. Observe in team of two (new observer with veteran observer). Observers provide feedback on safe and unsafe behaviors to an observee as per completed checklist. Slide 49: BBS India 49 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Observers provide immediate feedback for correction of behaviors. Safety coaching fosters open communication about safety. Safety coaching serves as constant reminder for workplace safety. Slide 50: BBS India 50 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Safety observer / coach in every department may use different critical behaviors (use of PPE, body positioning, use of tools) on checklist, and coaching process (problem solving, follow up). Slide 51: BBS India 51 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Some characteristics of BBS observer are: concern for others, self-initiation for correcting the observee, developing mutual insight on safe behavior, transforming the observee for self-observation on safe behavior. Reasons on why a BBS observer may fail in observation and feedback process: An aggressive way of respondingGiving feedback in front of others. : BBS India 52 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Reasons on why a BBS observer may fail in observation and feedback process: An aggressive way of respondingGiving feedback in front of others. Slide 53: BBS India 53 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 He himself not following SOP. Improper communication. Incorrect way to pass feedback. Lack of cordial relations. Slide 54: BBS India 54 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Lack of knowledge about the job of an observee. Lack of patience to correct an observee. Lack of responding skills. Mentioning person instead of unsafe behavior. Slide 55: BBS India 55 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 No proper follow up. Personal grudge. Superiority complex. Unable to convey that we are concerned about injury free culture. Slide 56: BBS India 56 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 While taking care of the above points, a BBS observer should not formalize too much on the observation and feedback process; he should not dominate. An observer should be flexible and sensitive enough to interact with an observee. BBS implementation and Steering committee : BBS India 57 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS implementation and Steering committee BBS Implementation problems include lack of work force buy-in; unsafe behaviors not defined with precision; accident records / near miss injuries not analyzed properly for targeting accident causing behaviors. Slide 58: BBS India 58 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS may start small and build which means that make a beginning in one department. Remember that there is no best approach. BBS can be customized. BBS needs to be integrated as an organizational system. It’s a new initiative, new emphasis and new direction on safety. Slide 59: BBS India 59 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS secret of success is that the safety control is in hands of each employee, they feel empowered and responsible. BBS should have pre and post measures of safety awareness levels of employees in all departments through Safety Awareness Survey in order to compare its effects before and after implementation. Slide 60: BBS India 60 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS speed of success depends upon existing injury / accident rate and readiness to implement it. BBS success depends upon a strong steering team, which clearly defines its roles and responsibilities. Slide 61: BBS India 61 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Behavioral safety management support and leadership of first line and senior managers can be measured quantitatively. Implementation team / steering committee routinely monitor the progress of BBS. In the long run, BBS is cost effective as it reduces accidents, which actually cost huge. Slide 62: BBS India 62 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Initially BBS can be implemented in one or two departments and then introduce to other departments. It requires a steering committee comprising of a senior manager, a front line manager and about ten of BBS trained safety observers. Slide 63: BBS India 63 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 It’s an employee movement on behavioral safety with support and commitment of management. Management allows observers time to conduct observation tours, conduct feedback session, and organize data analysis to display, without which BBS will fail. Slide 64: BBS India 64 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 People are asked to volunteer to either become observers or be a part of steering team. These people carry out responsibilities / duties. Researches indicate that BBS has reduced 40-75% accident rates within six months to one year of its implementation. Slide 65: BBS India 65 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Participants in every BBS workshop has identified 50-75% unsafe behaviors during BBS practicum at their workplaces. BBS Training: : BBS India 66 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS Training: Before BBS is launched in organizations, training exposure to the employees is essentially envisaged. Hence BBS training workshop of one-day duration should be organized. Responses of BBS training participants: : BBS India 67 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Responses of BBS training participants: BBS will increase interaction among workers. ‘It has added to my knowledge as safety professional’ – a safety officer. We can implement BBS on day-to day basis at workplace. Maximum employees must take BBS training. Slide 68: BBS India 68 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Involving all employees shall benefit. BBS training makes participants as mini counsellor. One-day training for senior manager would help in implementing BBS. Conclusion : BBS India 69 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Conclusion People behave unsafe because it saves their time and effort (taking short cuts or not using PPE). Environmental solutions don’t work so effectively as people may remove guards and work in bad housekeeping. Punishment may lead to positive or negative effects. Attitude change does not help much, as it does not really convert into behavior. So BBS can be tried for still better safety results. Slide 70: BBS India 70 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS underlines that take active responsibility for safety of each other. Target observable behaviour, focus on positive consequence we expect to receive i.e. change unsafe to safe behaviour; monitor behavioral trends of each individual or group everyday / week / month in order to understand percentage of safe and at-risk behaviors across departments during the years. Slide 71: BBS India 71 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 In case, PPE are not being used by 50-60 percent of employees, it’s an unsafe behaviour; but it’s also a system failure, as it does not take action against violation of non-use of PPE. Total safety culture encompasses that safety mechanisms are in place and active, and then implementing BBS gives wonderful results. According to a senior safety professional, “punishment never works for sustainable results for safety in organizations”. Slide 72: BBS India 72 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Another safety professional added, “BBS is going to be one of the best components of safety in the years to come”. According to another senior safety professional, “ you may have operational controls at the workplace, you may have told employees for safety, human beings still meet with accidents due to unsafe behaviors”. Slide 73: BBS India 73 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS believes that psychological change can be achieved with repeated and active care of each other. BBS emphasizes that when 80-90 percent of accidents and injuries are due to unsafe behaviors, let us focus on unsafe as well as safe behaviors more than the unsafe conditions. Behavior is objective, definable, observable, correctable and measurable. Slide 74: BBS India 74 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 BBS approach needs a visible presence and a clear management adoption and open communication down the line for its launch with full breath, failing which it is difficult to succeed. Frequently asked questions : BBS India 75 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Frequently asked questions Can we incentivate observees who show safe behaviors consistently: instead we can award the department or the ship which show highest percentage of safe behaviors How do we select an area or dept. for BBS implantation to begin with: the depts. which have highest incident or injury rate, and the depts. that have trained BBS employees. How do I document, analyze or report BOFP data: by department, shift, day, week, month, behaviour category wise etc. When can we audit BBS: normally 3 months after its implementation, but monthly review is essential. Managers, observers can be reviewed towards their roles and responsibilities. Slide 76: BBS India 76 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 Thanks for your attention and participation About the Author : BBS India 77 DR HL KAILA 09322 00 6518 About the Author Dr H L Kaila is Head Dept of Psychology, SNDT Women’s University, Mumbai - 400020. He has 21 years professional experience in the field of psychology. He has published books / articles and participated in national / international conferences. He is BBS trainer and member expert panel at National Safety Council. E-mail: [email protected] Tel.: 09322006518, 0250-2384562.