Published on December 23, 2007
Benchmark project1945- Present: Benchmark project 1945- Present By Edward McAninch, Cameron Harris, Samantha DeSantis, Itamar Ben- Amos, and Joshua Hendarto Introduction: Introduction During the time period, the world were evolving into a new world. This is the period when humans knowledge also evolved. It’s the time when advance technology were created but a new kind of problems were also created. World events, health and disease, energy, tools and technology, and engineering and architectural took part in the growth of the world. Slide3: World events World events from 1945-2006: World events from 1945-2006 1.Cold war 2.Nuclear weapons 3.Iranian revolution 4.Raise of radical Islam 5.September 11 6. The war with Iraq 7. Global warming 8. Apollo 11 Slide5: The cold war was an economic struggle that emerged after WW2 between a world wide military alliance of capitalist states led by the United States and a rival alliance of communist states led by the Soviet Union. It lasted from 1947 to the period in which the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991. Cold War Nuclear weapons: Nuclear weapons A nuclear weapon is a weapon which derives it’s destructive force from nuclear reactions of fission or fusion. As a result, even a nuclear weapon with a relatively small yield is more powerful than the largest conventional explosives, and a single weapon is capable of destroying an entire city. The Berlin Wall: The Berlin Wall The Berlin Wall was an iconic symbol of the Cold War. It was constructed starting on August 13,1961 and was dismantled during the following weeks of November 9,1989. Part of the Iron curtain,the Berlin wall was the most prominent part of the GDR border system. September 11: September 11 The September 11 attacks consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist suicide attacks on the United States, predominantly targeting civilians, carried out on Tuesday, September 11, 2001. Global Warming: Global Warming Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere and oceans in recent decades. The Earth’s average near-surface atmospheric temperature rose 0.6 + 0.2 degrees Celsius in the 20th century. Apollo 11: Apollo 11 Apollo 11 was the first manned mission to land on the moon. It was the fifth human space flight of the Apollo program, and the third human voyage to the moon. Launched on July 16, 1969, it carried commander Neil Armstrong, command module pilot Michael Collins and lunar module pilot Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin. Armstrong and Aldrin became the first humans to land on the moon, while Collins orbited above. Slide11: Engineering and architectural FF #1Three Gorges Dam: FF #1 Three Gorges Dam Spans the Yangtze River at Sandouping, Yichang, Hubei province in china. Largest Hydroelectric Dam in the world, more than 5 times the size of Hoover Dam. Finished on May 20, 2006. Some generators still have to be installed and dam not expected to be completed and fully operational until 2009. FF#2Hoover Dam: FF#2 Hoover Dam Also known as Boulder Dam. Concrete Gravity-Arch dam in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River, on the border of Arizona and Nevada. Named after Herbert Hoover. Was begun in 1931 and completed in 193 FF#3N.O.R.A.D.: FF#3 N.O.R.A.D. Stands for North American Aerospace Defense Command. Joint organization of US and Canada which gives North America aerospace warnings and control. Main facility in Colorado. FF#4Space Flight: FF#4 Space Flight now humans can fly into outer space in space ships to study the cosmos. Not all flights were successes. First flight was in 1961. FF#5Nanotechnology: FF#5 Nanotechnology Robotics on a microscopic scale, allowing us to work in the blood stream and other places that were previously thought untouchable Slide17: Tools and technology computers: computers The first one is the computer. The computer is the most brilliant advance technology in the face of this planet. Now, I don’t think we could survive right now if it weren’t for computers and the person who created it. What is a computer? Well a computer is an electronic device for storing and processing data, typically in binary form, according to instructions given to it in a variable program. In 1946 John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchly created the ENIAC 1 Computer. It has over twenty thousand vacuum tubes attached to it. The computer takes up a whole large entire room. In 1947 – 1948, John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and Wiliam Shockley Created The Transistor. The transistor is replacing the vacuum tubes later on. It is a semiconductor device with three connections, capable of amplification in addition to rectification. Also transistor radio, a portable radio using circuits containing transistors rather than vacuum tubes. It really changes the history of computer. In 1953, International Business Machines IBM 701 EDPM Computer enters into the history of computers. IBM is now one of the known leading brands of computer industry. In 1954, John Backus and IBM FORTRAN created the first Computer Programming Language. In 1958, Jack Kilby & Robert Noyce Created the Integrated Circuit also known ad the chip. The chip let you store data into the computer and also that’s where the program is saved. Slide19: Later on in the year 1964, Douglas Engelbart created the computer mouse and windows. In 1969, ARPAnet/ the real internet started. In 1971, Alan Shugart and IBM created the floppy disk. Floppy disk is a flexible removable magnetic disk, typically encased in hard plastic, used for storing data and that’s the start of time where data storage object can evolve into a better one. In 1981, IBM - Home Computer started. It’s the time where many people own computers. But of course they were a lot more expensive and not that portable like the ones we used today. Today computers have evolved into huge part of our life. I don’t think that many scientific discoveries can be made without the existence of computers. These are some pictures of the computers itself. Take a look at it, what changes did it make? Cellular phone: Cellular phone The next huge thing is cell phone. It was invented in 1984. It was a great advance technology where people could reach into their pockets, then simply make a call to someone anywhere in the world. This new wireless technology was huge, expensive compared to the cell phone sold today. It is also very expensive to use and back then, only people who are wealthy enough could own the device. Through time, cell phone become more popular and normal. The owners of cell phones increased since 1984 and by the year 1999 almost 105 million people in the US and about 500 million worldwide owned a mobile phone. Now, more then 15 million Americans had cell phones. The technology behind cell phones now evolved. Now it’s far more advance than before. Now cell phone came in different models and sizes, it is not that big old phone as with a height of a hemmer and a width of palm (finger to wrist). There are many models to choose from. There are the flip phones, slide phones, regular mode and 360 degree opening and closing. It also had many different colors. The cell phones today can connect with the internet wirelessly. It can also connect with other cell phone using Bluetooth technology, sending pictures and videos. Cell phone today can take pictures and videos. It is capable of recording voices and also capable of playing an MP3. Now about 60 percent of the world owned cell phones. Slide21: Can you tell or see the difference? What is it? Look at the Difference! The mri machine: The mri machine The one last thing that changes and help mankind in this world is the MRI machine. MRI machine is a form of medical imaging that measures the response of the atomic nuclei of body tissues to high-frequency radio waves when placed in a strong magnetic field, and that produces images of the internal organs. The invention of MRI in 1977 was a major breakthrough in imaging technology. It helps people especially doctors to see inside the brain and what’s going on inside of it. The MRI machine is usually used only in hospitals and it’s for patients only. Now the MRI machine have evolved into a better technology. Slide23: Health and disease What We Will Be Learning: What We Will Be Learning Sars Polio Vaccine Stem cell research Aids/Hiv The Artificial Heart Slide25: Severe acute respiratory syndrome, also known as SARS, was an atypical pneumonia that first appeared in the city on Foshan, of the Peoples Republic of China in November 2002. It is known that SARS is part STD, in which it can be spread through both sexual, and casual contact. SARS was first repoted in in Asia in February of 2003, and of the few months ahead it spread to more than 24 countries in Asia, North America, South America, and Europe before the global outbreak was contained in 2003. Inital symptoms are similar to that of the flu which are: fever, myalgia ( muscle pain ), lethargy ( fatigue ), gastrointestinal symptoms, cough, sore throat, and other non- specific symptoms. The mortality rate varies on the reports of other countries and organizations. Sars Polio/ Vaccine: Polio/ Vaccine Polio is a viral disease that enters the body orally and infects the intestinal wall. It can travel to the blood stream and then to the central nervous system which can cause muscle weakness and paralysis. Its an ancient disease that was first recognized by Jakob Heine in 1840. Polio is categorized as a disease of civilization and spreads through human-to-human contact, and usually enters the body through contaminated water or food. Here are some statistics on what amount of paitents are left with when experiencing polio: 90% have no or almost no symptoms or their disease is indistinguishable from, 50% recover fully, 40% are left with only partial recovery or permanent paralysis, 10% die, 9% have non-paralytic polio, 1% have paralytic (spinal or bulbar) polio, of which, Of those 0.4% of polio patients who are left with permanent paralysis, the most affected locations are either or both lower limbs. Quadriplegia or resipiratory paralysis occur in only 0.01% (1 in 10,000) of all polio patients. In the 1950, amid a U.S. polio epidemic, millions of dollars were invested in finding and marketing a polio vaccine by commercial interests, including Lederle Laboratories in New York under the direction of H. R. Cox Polish-born virologist and immunologist Hilary Kaproswki also worked at Lederle, claims to have created the first successful polio vaccine in 1950. The first effective polio vaccine was developed by Jonas Salk at the University of Pittsburgh, although it was the oral vaccine developed by Albert Sabin eight years later that was used for modern mass inoculation Aids/Hiv : Aids/Hiv Human Immunodeficiency virus or ( HIV) is a retrovirus that causes AIDS, a diseas that kills the immune system and leaves you open to many infections. HIV is now a human pandemic and as of January 2006, has killed 25 million people world wide since first discovered in December 1981. AIDS, was first discovered on June 5, 1981 when the Center of Disease Control and Prevention reported Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in five homosexual men from Los Angeles. AIDS used to be called GRID ( Gay-Related Immune Deficiency) but then changed the name when health authorities realized that half the infected people wern’t homosexual. In 1982 the name was changed to AIDS, but is sometimes still called GRID. The top 3 ways AIDS is transmitted is sexual intercourse, blood or blood products, and mother to child transmitting. Blood Transfusions is the top way HIV is passed to people, not through sexual intercourse as most people think. Most people are unaware that they are infected with HIV, which is why testing is very important. There is no currently known cure for AIDS or HIV, but there are way to prevent it. Africa still remains the worst infected area of HIV, having an estimate of 21.6 to 27.4 million people currently living with HIV. Globally, between 33.4 and 46 million people currently live with HIV. The Artificial Heart: The Artificial Heart In 1953, a heart machine was used during the first successful open heart surgery. Dr. John Heysham Gibbon performed the operation and had developed the heart lung substitute himself, so that could count as the first artificial heart. The first real artificial heart was created in 1963 by Paul Winchell and he assigned the patent to the University of Utah, where Robert Jarvik used his model to create the Jarvik-7. Jarvick’s first human patient was a 61 year old man who lasted for 112 days after it was implanted in the University of Utah on December 2, 1982. After about 90 people received the Jarvik-7, the artificial heart was banned for permanent use because of heart failure in patients. Most of the patients couldn’t live past half a year, but it is used for immediate use if there is no real hearts available. September 6, 2006 became the AioCor device became the first fully implantable artificial heart to be approved, under Humanitarian Use Device rules.