Published on October 10, 2007
I am because we are and therefore we are because I am. (Asante Proverb): I am because we are and therefore we are because I am. (Asante Proverb) Black Psychology What Shall We Say?: What Shall We Say? Black Psychology African Psychology Africentric Psychology Afrocentric Psychology African American Psychology Psychology of African Americans: Psychology of African Americans Black (African) Psychology System of knowledge concerning the nature of the universe from an African perspective (Baldwin, 1986 as cited in Belgrave and Allison). Africentric (Afrocentric) Psychology Focuses on defining African psychology experiences from an African perspective (Grills, 2004 as cited in Belgrave and Allison) Psychology of African Americans: Psychology of African Americans African American Psychology Pro-Black Study Blacks in the United States without using African structure to interpret those experiences Pro-African African philosophies are central to studying African Americans and their experiences. The Journey: The Journey Cecil Sumner, Ph.D Father of Black Psychology First African American earn Ph.D (1920) Kenneth Clark and Mamie Clark (1939, 1940s, 1950s) Association of Black Psychologists (ABPsi) Modern Era (1968) More Traveled Roads: More Traveled Roads Joseph White (1970, 1972). Toward a Black Psychology Reginald Jones (1972). Black Psychology William Cross (1978). “nigrescence’ model Wade Nobles (1980). writings on African philosophy Joseph Baldwin (1985) African Self-Consciousness Scale NA’IM AKBAR (1991) . Effects of oppression DAUDI AJANI YA AZIBO (1996) system of diagnosing Wood may remain ten years in the water, but it will never become a crocodile.(Zairian proverb): Wood may remain ten years in the water, but it will never become a crocodile. (Zairian proverb) Not White! Black! DIFFERENT And That’s All!: DIFFERENT And That’s All! Historical Themes in Psychological Research (Parham,White, and Ajamu, 2000) Inferiority—Blacks are intellectually, physically, and mentally inferior to whites Deficit-Deficiency—Blacks are deficient respect to intelligence, cognitive styles, family structure Multi-cultural—all cultural distinct groups have strengths and limitations. Ghetto-centricism: Ghetto-centricism Failure of traditional and general psychology to provide a full and accurate picture of Black reality. (Parham, White, and Ajamu, 2000) Normative standards developed by analyzing working-class, ghetto-dwelling Black people (Akbar, 1981 as cited in Belgrave and Allison, 2006) Biases generated against Blacks who do not fit the stereotype. One Course of Action: One Course of Action Black psychologists are making attempts to establish a normative standard of appropriate and inappropriate behaviors using an Afrocentric framework. Humphries, Parker, and Jagers (2000) Woods and Jagers (2004) Methodological Issues: Methodological Issues Low number of African American Psychologist Design Experimental often favored Interviewing and observations more appropriate Self-knowledge Constructs being measured Self-esteem Collective rather than individualistic Family definition Afro and Euro OppositesCulturally different Worldviews: Afro and Euro Opposites Culturally different Worldviews Self Feelings Survival Language Time Universe Death Worth Family The ruin of a nation begins in the homes of its people. (Ashanti proverb): The ruin of a nation begins in the homes of its people. (Ashanti proverb) The foundation of an authentic Black psychology is found in the Black family (White,1972 as cited in Belgrave and Allison) African American Families: African American Families “The Black family has ended up as the most maligned, unappreciated, and least understood of American institutions” (Lincoln, 1978, p. 489). African American FamilyStructure and Function: African American Family Structure and Function Enslavement Harsh conditions of slavery Mother-child relationship not husband-wife Permanent union not possible Reconstruction Increase 2 parent families Migration Urbanization and single-parent homes African American Familiesbeyond Extended and Nuclear (Billingsley, 1968): African American Families beyond Extended and Nuclear (Billingsley, 1968) Nuclear-Incipient Nuclear-Simple Nuclear-Attenuated Extended-Incipient Extend-Simple Extended-Attenuated Augmented-Incipient Augmented-Incipient-Extended Augmented-Nuclear Augmented-Nuclear-Extended Augmented-Attenuated Augmented-Attenuated -Extended African American Males: African American Males Stud Lacked emotional maturity Confused identity Irresponsible Missing The most shameful chapters in America as a Christian nation is the systematic exploitation of the Black male as a domestic animal and denying him the status of being a responsible father (Erikson, 1968). African American Women: African American Women Breeder Dominant Extended self-worth Devalued African American men Strong Black Women (SBW) The multiple roles assumed by Black women has been out of necessity (Lincoln, 1978) African American FamiliesMethodological Issues: African American Families Methodological Issues Historical, cultural, social, economic, political factors, and institutional practices Lack of longitudinal studies Oversampling of low income families Knowledge kept to oneself is as useless as candle burning in a pot.(Oromo proverb): Knowledge kept to oneself is as useless as candle burning in a pot. (Oromo proverb) Why Study Black Psychology? Bringing It Home To DTCC: Bringing It Home To DTCC Diverse population of students from African descent. Within group differences of African students. Between group differences between African students and African-American students. Understanding culturally different world views of self, time, and language may help to promote positive student outcomes. The list could go on and on, but let us stop here.: The list could go on and on, but let us stop here. See you next time. List of Sources: List of Sources Belgrave, F. Z. and Allison, K. W. (2006). African American psychology: From Africa to America. London: Sage Publications. Billingsley, A. (1968). Black Families in White America. Englwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity youth and crisis.NY: W. W. Norton and Company. Humphries, M. L., Parker, B. L., and Jagers, R. J. (2000). Predictors of moral reasoning among African American children: A preliminary study. Journal of Black Psychology. 26(1), 51-64. Lincoln, C. E. (1978). Black family, the black church, and the transformation of values. Religion in Life. 47, 486-496. Psychology. 26(1), 51-64. Parham, T. A., White, J. L, and Ajamu, A. (2000). The psychology of blacks: An African center perspective. (3rd ed.). NJ: Prentice-Hall Publishers. Woods, L. N. and Jagers, R. J. (2003). Are cultural values predictors of moral reasoning in African American adolescents? Journal of Black Psychology. 29(1), 102-118.