Boyadjieva Grozev

Information about Boyadjieva Grozev

Published on December 30, 2007

Author: Boyce

Source: authorstream.com

Content

NADIA BOYADJIEVA, PH.D. KOSTADIN GROZEV, PH.D. BULGARIA:  NADIA BOYADJIEVA, PH.D. KOSTADIN GROZEV, PH.D. BULGARIA Second International Conference on Intercultural Communication and Diplomacy, DIPLOFOUNDATION Diplomacy, International Intervention and Post-War Reconstruction::  Diplomacy, International Intervention and Post-War Reconstruction: Interactions between States, International Organizations and Local Authorities in the Implementation of the Dayton Accords for Bosnia and Herzegovina (1996-2003) 1. Multi-track Diplomacy in the Post-Cold War World Order :  1. Multi-track Diplomacy in the Post-Cold War World Order Communicating National Interests and Implying Humanitarian Considerations A. The Notion of Multi-Track Diplomacy:  A. The Notion of Multi-Track Diplomacy Multi-track Diplomacy aims to incorporate all levels of diplomacy in building a real and sustainable peace Bosnia and Herzegovina an appropriate case-study government-negotiated settlements (Dayton) unofficial moves by parties to the conflict academics/intermediaries aiming conflict resolution efforts by community groups or NGOs furthering the peace process and the creation of a durable peace. Multi-Track Diplomacy Model:  Multi-Track Diplomacy Model Track I – Dayton Accords Track II and Track III – creating “real and sustainable peace” Using the tools of Conflict Transformation Approach – Political Settlement PLUS Restructuring of the System that allowed the Conflict to Flourish Definitions of the Term:  Definitions of the Term “Unofficial, non-structured interaction between members of adversarial groups or nations that is directed toward conflict resolution by addressing psychological factors" Joseph Montville, 1990 “Unofficial, informal interaction between members of adversary groups or nations that aim to develop strategies,influence public opinionorganise human and material resources in ways that might help resolve their conflict, J. Burton Diplomacy – Track I to V :  Diplomacy – Track I to V Track One: Official government-to-government diplomatic interaction Track Two: Unofficial, non-governmental, analytical, policy-orientated, problem-solving efforts by skilled, educated, experienced, and informed private citizens interacting with other private citizens; Track Three: Businessman-to-businessman, private sector, free-enterprise, multinational and corporation interactions; Diplomacy – Track I to V:  Diplomacy – Track I to V Track Four: Citizen-to-citizen exchange programs of all kinds, such as scientific, cultural, academic, educational, student, film, music, art, sports and youth exchanges; Track Five: Media-to-media based efforts designed to expose and educate large segments of the population in conflict to the philosophy, ideas, culture, and needs of the other national, society, or ethnic group with whom they are in conflict McDonald, 1991 How to Resolve Ethnic Conflicts::  How to Resolve Ethnic Conflicts: Two sets of Factors: Political/ diplomatic topics Personal /humanistic concerns Neither of them can create peace independently, as each is dependent on and supportive of the other UN Official May 1996: :  UN Official May 1996: “We have to admit at this point and realize that Bosnia will never again be a unified country. Bosnia is rapidly turning into a permanently divided society in which there is peace between people, across guarded borders, with no interaction whatsoever” NATO Officer (early 1996)::  NATO Officer (early 1996): It’s going well by definition. That is, we’ve succeeded in separating the three groups in their defined areas. That’s the most important thing, because if they don’t talk to each other, they don’t argue and insult each other. If they don’t do that, they don’t fight. If they don’t fight, there won’t be any bullets flying. So the peace is safe as long as we keep them in their own places, apart from one another” NATO Handbook (2001)::  NATO Handbook (2001): “The Bosnian experience has fundamentally transformed modern peacekeeping. It has broken down cultural barriers between military and civilians. It has fostered new training and education programs that bring together all parties involved in rebuilding a failed state. It has been a model for entirely new peacekeeping partnership where it matters: on the ground” B. The Challenges of Intervention in the Former Yugoslavia Area (up to 1995):  B. The Challenges of Intervention in the Former Yugoslavia Area (up to 1995) Ethnic Tensions and Conflicts Researgence of Old Historic Rivalries Outbreak of Violence Coincide with Democratization in Eastern Europe Results: Bloodshed and Diplomatic Setbacks War in Bosnia and Herzegovina – Successes and Failures of International Actors (1992-1995):  War in Bosnia and Herzegovina – Successes and Failures of International Actors (1992-1995) UNITED NATIONS NATO EUROPEAN COMMUNITY OSCE MAJOR WORLD POWERS NATO IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (1991-1995):  NATO IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (1991-1995) “When the Bosnian war began in 1991, NATO had never fired a shot in anger. It had never conducted an operation outside its own territory. It had never even considered taking on robust peacekeeping operations. It had never had significant relations with other institutions. Indeed, in the minds of many, NATO had less and less reason to stay in business at all. Bosnia and Herzegovina made it clear why NATO had to remain in business”. THE UNITED STATES IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (1992-1999):  THE UNITED STATES IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (1992-1999) The Sole Remaining Superpower Pro-interventionist Track in order to Safeguard World Peace and Regional Stability Moral Challenges in Bosnia Overcoming NATO’s “Out of Area Syndrom” Leading Role of European Community in 1991-1993 INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY’S INVOLVEMENT UP TO 1995:  INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY’S INVOLVEMENT UP TO 1995 A Very Complex, Multi-layered, Web-like Involvement of the International Community NATO’s Engagement - Mainly Supporting One, Restricted to Supplying Mainly Military Support and Other Related Services Leading Role - the Peacekeeping Efforts of the UN and the OSCE TOOLS OF DIPLOMACY:  TOOLS OF DIPLOMACY CONTACT GROUP SPECIAL ENVOY SPECIAL MIILITARY ADVISOR TO U.S. SECRETARY OF STATE SHUTTLE DIPLOMACY TALKS IN DAYTON, OHIO NATO v. UN in Bosnia and Herzegovina:  NATO v. UN in Bosnia and Herzegovina NATO - a Regional Security Organization UN – Overoptimistic About its Ability to Prevent Conflicts and Guarantee Peace and International Stability in Co-operation with Regional Organizations Deepening of International Involvement and the Accompanying Risks :  Deepening of International Involvement and the Accompanying Risks Enforcement of the UN Embargo Military Flights Ban Establishment of the Safe-areas Exclusion Zone Ultimatums Hostages Crises Bombing Campaign Late August 1995 The Road to Dayton, November 1995:  The Road to Dayton, November 1995 Failure of Crisis Management – Ineffectiveness of UNPROFOR Acceptance of the Use of Greater Force on the Part of NATO and the U.S. Operation Deliberate Force NATO – Controlling Military Aspects Holbrooke – Used Military Arguments on the Diplomatic Table Expert’s Opinion on the End-Results::  Expert’s Opinion on the End-Results: “By the time the parties to the Bosnian conflict signed a peace agreement in Dayton, NATO’s involvement with the UN had gone from virtually non-existent to having been the source of NATO’s first military action since its creation” 2. Diplomacy, International Involvement and the Implementation of the General Framework Agreement for Peace :  2. Diplomacy, International Involvement and the Implementation of the General Framework Agreement for Peace Communications and Interactions between the Different Actors on the Scene in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1996-2003) General Framework Agreement for Peace, 14 December 1995, Paris:  General Framework Agreement for Peace, 14 December 1995, Paris Primary Goal – Stop the War in the Multiethnic, Multiconfessional and Multicultural Society Establish a Completely New Kind of Statehood New Institutions and Tools With Specific Forms, Means and Methods of Action Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina:  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina One State Two Entities Three State-Formative Peoples’ Final Goal – to Become a Unified Multiethnic and Democratic Actor in International Relations International Community:  International Community Complex Web of Interlinked Institutions Using the Whole Spectrum of Previous Mandates Combined with Newly Acquired Functions Aiming at Enforcing Order in a Secure Environment New Federation (Anex II):  New Federation (Anex II) ONE COUNTRY WITH COLLECTIVE EXECUTIVE AUTHORITY Bosniak-Croat Federation – 51% Republica Srbska – 49 % IMPLEMENTATION FORCE - IFOR:  IMPLEMENTATION FORCE - IFOR Under NATO Command with a Grant of Authority from the UN (Article VI) Primary Mission - Monitoring Compliance of the Agreement on Military Matters (Disarmament and Withdrawal of Forces) Right to Use Force as Necessary and to Have Freedom of Movement OFFICE OF THE HIGH REPRESENTATIVE - OHR:  OFFICE OF THE HIGH REPRESENTATIVE - OHR Coordinate and Facilitate the Civilian Aspects of the Agreement: Humanitarian Aid Economic Reconstruction Protection of Human Rights Holding of Free Election New Potential for Communication:  New Potential for Communication Between NATO and non-NATO States in a Peace-enforcement Operation Between Military and Civilian Institutions (in an environment that was apt to producingoutbreaks of violence at any moment) IFOR ACCOMPLISHMENTS 1996 – Military Tasks :  IFOR ACCOMPLISHMENTS 1996 – Military Tasks Causing/maintaining cessation of hostilities by - separating the armed forces of the Bosniac - Croat Entity (the Federation) and the Bosnian - Serb Entity (the Republika Srpska) mid-January 1996 transferring areas between the two Entities by mid-March moving the Parties' forces and heavy weapons into approved sites by the end of June IFOR’S OTHER TASKS:  IFOR’S OTHER TASKS It had the right ‘to help create secure conditions for the conduct by others of other tasks associated with the peace settlement…to assist UNHCR and other international organizations in their humanitarian missions…to observe and prevent interference with the movement of civilian populations, refugees, and displaced persons, and to respond appropriately to deliberate violence to life and person Annex 1A, Article VI:3 of the GFAP IFOR INTERACTED IN 1996 WITH:  IFOR INTERACTED IN 1996 WITH OHR OSCE - in Preparing and Conducting Peacefully the September 1996 elections Conclusions from IFOR’s Actions in 1996 - both Potential for Peace-enforcement and Restrictions, due to Certain Flaws in the Mechanism of the Early Implementation of the Agreements Limitations to Carl Bildt (OHR):  Limitations to Carl Bildt (OHR) Bildt was Entrusted with the Overall Civilian Implementation but with Few Formal Powers IFOR had 60 000 troops, the High Representative had to Build from Nothing an Organization Capable of Running the Institutions of the Civilian Implementation. STABILIZATION FORCE – SFOR, 1997:  STABILIZATION FORCE – SFOR, 1997 IFOR – Implement the Peace SFOR – Stabilize the Peace Transition from Peace-keeping to Peace-enforcement and Later to Peace-building SFOR – Mission and Tasks:  SFOR – Mission and Tasks Mission - Contribute to the Safe and Secure Environment Necessary for the Consolidation of the Peace Tasks - to Deter or Prevent a Resumption of Hostilities or New Threats to Peace; to Promote a Climate in which the Peace Process Could Continue to Move Forward and to Provide Selective Support to Civilian Organizations within its Capabilities Reduction of Size of SFOR – Indicative of Changing Environment:  Reduction of Size of SFOR – Indicative of Changing Environment Initially 32 000 troops – twice Smaller than IFOR Open-ended Military Commitment in Bosnia and Herzegovina by Talking not of ‘End-date’ but Instead of ‘End-state’ SFOR - a Multi-national Peace Operation, including Troops from non-NATO Members IFOR/SFOR: Communicating With Russia:  IFOR/SFOR: Communicating With Russia Major Step in the Evolving NATO-Russia Co-operative Relationship Russian Forces were Deployed within IFOR in January 1996 after Special Arrangements between NATO and Russia Later Russian forces became part of SFOR as well - Uniqueness of IFOR/SFOR Operations :  Uniqueness of IFOR/SFOR Operations Deep, Daily Cooperation between Security Institutions Military and Civilian Roles/Responsibilities clearly intermingled The Final Success of the Operations was to Be Judged by the State of the Economy, by the Stability of the Political System and Self-sustainability of the Emerging Civil Society INTERACTIONS IN PEACE IMPLEMENTATION AFTER 1995:  INTERACTIONS IN PEACE IMPLEMENTATION AFTER 1995 Common Goals Achieved Through Joint Work of a Variety of Inter-governmental and non-governmental bodies. NATO Provided the Secure Environment UN Provided Legitimacy to the Oversight and Overall Coordination of the High Representative. OSCE Helped to Train Police Officers and to Run Elections EU Provided Financial and Technical Assistance

Related presentations


Other presentations created by Boyce

Homophones 2
05. 11. 2007
0 views

Homophones 2

Chap 24
13. 04. 2008
0 views

Chap 24

oct28 singapore sg
30. 03. 2008
0 views

oct28 singapore sg

Kalsi 6 3 06
27. 03. 2008
0 views

Kalsi 6 3 06

europesecommissie
18. 03. 2008
0 views

europesecommissie

recent
14. 03. 2008
0 views

recent

hospitality recruitment
11. 03. 2008
0 views

hospitality recruitment

NucPower Kendal07
05. 03. 2008
0 views

NucPower Kendal07

Distribution Point Brief 06 7 05
29. 02. 2008
0 views

Distribution Point Brief 06 7 05

Motion Pictures still
27. 02. 2008
0 views

Motion Pictures still

groupandfamilyinflue ncelecture
24. 02. 2008
0 views

groupandfamilyinflue ncelecture

GPS power point
05. 11. 2007
0 views

GPS power point

physics 101 astronomy
13. 11. 2007
0 views

physics 101 astronomy

PHYS362 set8b
14. 11. 2007
0 views

PHYS362 set8b

When Generation Collide Aug07
23. 11. 2007
0 views

When Generation Collide Aug07

Holiday Eating
17. 12. 2007
0 views

Holiday Eating

group 7 Motor Sport
18. 12. 2007
0 views

group 7 Motor Sport

JavaSIG Flex Yakov
27. 11. 2007
0 views

JavaSIG Flex Yakov

ase06jpftut
04. 01. 2008
0 views

ase06jpftut

f05 outlikne Conformity
05. 11. 2007
0 views

f05 outlikne Conformity

AC
04. 10. 2007
0 views

AC

Limocar fr
05. 11. 2007
0 views

Limocar fr

20050829 2
01. 11. 2007
0 views

20050829 2

Primal
19. 02. 2008
0 views

Primal

Hitlerdictator
23. 12. 2007
0 views

Hitlerdictator

LEARN ABOUT PRAIRIE DOGS
19. 11. 2007
0 views

LEARN ABOUT PRAIRIE DOGS

Drury CHI04 wk shoppres
31. 12. 2007
0 views

Drury CHI04 wk shoppres

yasartekdemir PPP
23. 11. 2007
0 views

yasartekdemir PPP

CorrectionFac2005
29. 10. 2007
0 views

CorrectionFac2005

ULSD Distribution
07. 11. 2007
0 views

ULSD Distribution

msn
18. 12. 2007
0 views

msn

july15
26. 11. 2007
0 views

july15

Pastpracticetraining
05. 11. 2007
0 views

Pastpracticetraining

ZR EZR rozhovory
16. 11. 2007
0 views

ZR EZR rozhovory

HelpNetwork1003
29. 12. 2007
0 views

HelpNetwork1003

PermCoursePictures
28. 12. 2007
0 views

PermCoursePictures

Rapanos pp show
03. 01. 2008
0 views

Rapanos pp show

Historia soft propietario
05. 11. 2007
0 views

Historia soft propietario

RET Experience JMcMillian1
28. 11. 2007
0 views

RET Experience JMcMillian1

Estadistico Presentacion 2005
05. 01. 2008
0 views

Estadistico Presentacion 2005

Affreightment
15. 11. 2007
0 views

Affreightment

undergradplanningnig ht0708
06. 12. 2007
0 views

undergradplanningnig ht0708

SS S06 C39 01
12. 11. 2007
0 views

SS S06 C39 01

Evillage
04. 12. 2007
0 views

Evillage