Brussels 11May06

Information about Brussels 11May06

Published on October 25, 2007

Author: Javier

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Alternatives to Imprisonment: Do They Work?:  Alternatives to Imprisonment: Do They Work? Findings from the QCT Europe Study Alex Stevens University of Kent Plan:  Plan Description of quasi-compulsory treatment Questions on quasi-compulsory treatment The QCT Europe study Emerging answers to QCT questions. What is quasi-compulsory treatment?:  What is quasi-compulsory treatment? Treatment for drug dependent offenders that is ordered, motivated or supervised by the criminal justice system (outside regular prisons). England – Drug Treatment and Testing Order, Drug Rehabilitation Requirement Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Italy – “therapy instead of punishment” (Netherlands – Early Intervention Approach, SOV) (USA – Treatment Alternatives to Street Crime, Drug Court, Drug Treatment Alternatives to Prison) Questions on QCT:  Questions on QCT Does it get more offenders into treatment? People who are younger than other drug treatment clients? People who are more prolific offenders than other clients? Is it less effective than ‘voluntary’ treatment? It does not work because offenders are not motivated to get treatment? Does it damage treatment for volunteers? Does it reduce crime? for individuals? for society? Is it an effective alternative to imprisonment? The QCT Europe study:  The QCT Europe study Quantitative interviews at intake and then 6, 12 and 18 month follow-ups Comparing people who go through QCT (n=428) with others who enter comparable treatment ‘voluntarily’ (n=417) Qualitative interviews with a smaller sample of clients, staff, probation officers, lawyers and judges. Funded by 5th Framework Research & Development programme QCT Europe Sample (n=845):  QCT Europe Sample (n=845) UK – 157 Austria – 150 Germany – 153 Switzerland – 85 Italy – 300 At entry to treatment:  At entry to treatment Mean age – 31 QCT does not appear to get younger people into treatment than the people who ‘volunteer’ Offending (average reported days of offending in previous six months) 69 days for QCT clients. 35 days for ‘volunteers’. Motivation QCT clients were not less motivated to change than ‘volunteers’ Does QCT get more offenders into treatment?:  Does QCT get more offenders into treatment? Most (85.3%) QCT clients had previously been in treatment. Some reported that they would not have entered treatment this time without the “push” of QCT. Differences between countries in the type of offender who gets this ‘alternative’ to imprisonment. Crimes leading to QCT sentence:  Crimes leading to QCT sentence Is QCT less effective than ‘voluntary’ treatment?:  Is QCT less effective than ‘voluntary’ treatment? Does QCT damage treatment for volunteers?:  Does QCT damage treatment for volunteers? Some concern over effects of having reluctant clients in treatment groups. May damage process of recovery for more motivated clients. Some evidence of increase in QCT provision leading to barriers to treatment entry for other people. But these concerns can be dealt with by improving process: Carefully planning the induction of QCT clients into treatment. Increasing capacity of treatment system. Does QCT reduce crime (for individuals)?:  Does QCT reduce crime (for individuals)? Does QCT reduce crime for societies?:  Does QCT reduce crime for societies? These individual level reductions in crime are valuable, but unlikely to lead to major reductions in overall levels of crime. Small proportions of criminals are caught and convicted. Peak age for offending is in the teenage years (before the age that people enter QCT). Limitations:  Limitations Sample sizes are relatively small in each country. The sample did not compare QCT clients to prisoners (it was not possible to randomise sentencing). Results so far rely on self-report (which other studies have found to be reliable). There were large differences between treatment centres in the quality and outcomes of treatment. QCT as an alternative to imprisonment:  QCT as an alternative to imprisonment Our results suggest: QCT does get some people into treatment who would otherwise not be there. These people are not necessarily less motivated to change. QCT is no less (or more) effective in reducing drug use and crime than voluntary treatment. QCT as an alternative to imprisonment:  QCT as an alternative to imprisonment QCT is likely to be less expensive than prison and to save costs of future crimes avoided. More research is needed (including randomised and qualitative studies). QCT can be an effective alternative to prison. When it is a real alternative to prison. When the quality of treatment is high. When coordination between treatment and justice systems is well managed. QCT Europe Partners:  QCT Europe Partners Alex Stevens, Neil Hunt, EISS, University of Kent, UK Paul Turnbull, Tim McSweeney, ICPR, King’s College, UK Daniele Berto, Barbara Tabachi, Morena Tartari, ULSS No. 16 Padova, Italy Marianne van Ooyen, Ministry of Justice, Netherlands Marc-Henry Soulet, Kerralie Oeuvray, Université de Fribourg, Switzerland Ambros Uchtenhagen, Susanne Schaaf, Insititut für Suchtforschung, Switzerland Wolfgang Werdenich, Gabriele Waidner, Barbara Trinkl, University of Vienna, Austria Wolfgang Heckmann, Elfriede Steffan, Andrea Viktoria Kerschl, MISTEL/SPI, Germany More information: www.kent.ac.uk/eiss/qct/ [email protected]

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