BS120 CHAPTER 19

Information about BS120 CHAPTER 19

Published on October 16, 2007

Author: Woodwork

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Chapter 19:  Chapter 19 Eukaryotic Genomes Organization, Regulation, and Evolution Figure 19.1 DNA in a eukaryotic chromosome from a developing salamander egg:  Figure 19.1 DNA in a eukaryotic chromosome from a developing salamander egg Figure 19.2 Levels of chromatin packing:  Figure 19.2 Levels of chromatin packing Mitotic chromosome vs. Interphase chromosome. Interphase chromatin is generally much less condensed Interphase chromosomes have highly condensed areas, heterochromatin, and less compacted areas, euchromatin. Figure 19.3 Stages in gene expression that can be regulated in eukaryotic cells:  Figure 19.3 Stages in gene expression that can be regulated in eukaryotic cells Figure 19.4 A simple model of histone tails and the effect of histone acetylation:  Figure 19.4 A simple model of histone tails and the effect of histone acetylation Methylation and genomic imprinting. Inheritance of traits by mechanisms not directly involving the nucleotide sequence is called epigenetic inheritance. Histones leave the DNA only transiently during DNA replication. They stay with the DNA during transcription. The members of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) family play important roles in various cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation, cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Inhibitors of histone deacetylases are emerging as an important new class of chemotherapeutic agents. As such, identifying stable and potent chemical HDAC inhibitory compounds is an important focus for translational research. Figure 19.5 A eukaryotic gene and its transcript:  Figure 19.5 A eukaryotic gene and its transcript These modifications seem to facilitate the export of mRNA from the nucleus. They help protect mRNA from hydrolytic enzymes. They help the ribosomes attach to the 5’ end of the mRNA. Figure 19.6 A model for the action of enhancers and transcription activators:  Figure 19.6 A model for the action of enhancers and transcription activators combination of control elements Eukaryotic genes also have repressor proteins Slide8:  The transcription process as depicted by Roger Kornberg (Nobel prize in 2006, Chemistry) RNA-polymerase in white, DNA-helix in blue and the growing RNA-strand in red. Figure 19.7 Cell type–specific transcription:  Figure 19.7 Cell type–specific transcription Cis-regulatory element (a DNA sequence) vs. trans-regulatory element (proteins) cellular differentiation, the divergence in form and function as cells in a multicellular organism specialize. Totipotent stem cells Figure 19.8 Alternative RNA splicing:  Figure 19.8 Alternative RNA splicing Figure 19.9 Regulation of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs):  Figure 19.9 Regulation of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) Slide12:  The short RNA fragments are known as small interfering RNA (siRNA) when they derive from exogenous sources and microRNA (miRNA) when they are produced from RNA-coding genes in the cell's own genome. The phenomenon of inhibition of gene expression by RNA molecules is called RNA interference (RNAi). may have originated as a natural defense against infection by RNA viruses. Small single-stranded RNA molecules called microRNAs, or miRNAs, that bind to complementary sequences in mRNA molecules; to break down or inhibit translation. Slide13:  RNA interference. Nobel Prize in 2006 Craig C. Mello, born 1960, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA. Andrew Z. Fire, born 1959, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA. Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature. 1998 Feb 19;391(6669):806-11. Slide14:  Figure 1. Phenotypic effect after injection of single-stranded or double-stranded unc-22 RNA into the gonad of C. elegans. The unc-22 gene encodes a myofilament protein. Decrease in unc-22 activity is known to produce severe twitching movements. Injected double-stranded RNA, but not single-stranded RNA, induced the twitching phenotype in the progeny. Figure 19.10 Degradation of a protein by a proteasome:  Figure 19.10 Degradation of a protein by a proteasome Many proteins, like the cyclins in the cell cycle, must be short-lived to function appropriately. Slide16:  Ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004 Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose Figure 19.11 Genetic changes that can turn proto-oncogenes into oncogenes:  Figure 19.11 Genetic changes that can turn proto-oncogenes into oncogenes Cancer-causing genes, oncogenes, were initially discovered in retroviruses, but close counterparts, proto-oncogenes, have been found in other organisms. The products of proto-oncogenes are proteins that stimulate normal cell growth and division and play essential functions in normal cells. Slide18:  David Baltimore Renato Dulbecco Howard Temin Harold Varmus Michael Bishop Nobel Prize in 1989 Nobel Prize in 1975 the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell discovered reverse transcriptase upset the widely held belief at the time of the "Central Dogma" of molecular biology posited by Nobel laureate Francis Crick the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes. Viruses, especially retroviruses, play a role in about 15% of human cancer cases worldwide. i.e. papillomavirus (HPV, cervical cancer) Figure 19.12 Signaling pathways that regulate cell division:  Figure 19.12 Signaling pathways that regulate cell division proto-oncogenes are proteins that stimulate normal cell growth and division and play essential functions in normal cells. tumor-suppressor proteins inhibit cell division Figure 19.13 A multistep model for the development of colorectal cancer:  Figure 19.13 A multistep model for the development of colorectal cancer predispositions to cancer that run in some families APC is mutated in about 60% of colorectal cancers. one mutant BRCA1 allele (a tumor suppressor gene) has a 60% probability of developing breast cancer before age 50 Figure 19.14 Types of DNA sequences in the human genome:  Figure 19.14 Types of DNA sequences in the human genome Centromeres and telomeres Figure 19.15 The effect of transposable elements on corn kernel color:  Figure 19.15 The effect of transposable elements on corn kernel color Figure 19.16 Movement of eukaryotic transposable elements:  Figure 19.16 Movement of eukaryotic transposable elements Figure 19.17 Gene families:  Figure 19.17 Gene families higher affinity for oxygen Figure 19.18 Gene duplication due to unequal crossing over:  Figure 19.18 Gene duplication due to unequal crossing over Figure 19.19 Evolution of the human -globin and -globin gene families:  Figure 19.19 Evolution of the human -globin and -globin gene families The necessary function provided by an a-globin protein was fulfilled by one gene, while other copies of the a-globin gene accumulated random mutations. Table 19.1 Percentage of Similarity in Amino Acid Sequence Between Human Globin Proteins:  Table 19.1 Percentage of Similarity in Amino Acid Sequence Between Human Globin Proteins Figure 19.20 Evolution of a new gene by exon shuffling:  Figure 19.20 Evolution of a new gene by exon shuffling Mixing and matching of different exons within or between genes owing to errors in meiotic recombination is called exon shuffling

Related presentations


Other presentations created by Woodwork

alphabet
15. 06. 2007
0 views

alphabet

what can schools do JulieMetos
22. 04. 2008
0 views

what can schools do JulieMetos

All Access Live Oct 2004
17. 04. 2008
0 views

All Access Live Oct 2004

Summit3 NormSokoloff
14. 04. 2008
0 views

Summit3 NormSokoloff

okie
13. 04. 2008
0 views

okie

NextTenYearsInAmeric aMcCaffrey
10. 04. 2008
0 views

NextTenYearsInAmeric aMcCaffrey

gallegati
09. 04. 2008
0 views

gallegati

ccbdg sfbt
07. 04. 2008
0 views

ccbdg sfbt

Death of an Analyst Final 1
30. 03. 2008
0 views

Death of an Analyst Final 1

Barry Popkin
27. 03. 2008
0 views

Barry Popkin

Giving Feedback
06. 08. 2007
0 views

Giving Feedback

Algebra II
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Algebra II

MALIGNANT MELANOMA
03. 01. 2008
0 views

MALIGNANT MELANOMA

all about plants
15. 06. 2007
0 views

all about plants

Hypoxia presentation
06. 08. 2007
0 views

Hypoxia presentation

Mind Reading
13. 08. 2007
0 views

Mind Reading

moments in life
13. 08. 2007
0 views

moments in life

2 Digit Division
15. 06. 2007
0 views

2 Digit Division

Human Genetics
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Human Genetics

THE LITTLE RED HEN
04. 10. 2007
0 views

THE LITTLE RED HEN

tornados
07. 10. 2007
0 views

tornados

stanley Phylum Chordata
12. 10. 2007
0 views

stanley Phylum Chordata

1120
16. 10. 2007
0 views

1120

ALL GDS IVCA
11. 12. 2007
0 views

ALL GDS IVCA

item file 3177 alistrair brett
26. 10. 2007
0 views

item file 3177 alistrair brett

Retail Data Warehouse
29. 10. 2007
0 views

Retail Data Warehouse

Charlene Harrington Slides 7 24
29. 10. 2007
0 views

Charlene Harrington Slides 7 24

watchstand
07. 11. 2007
0 views

watchstand

Week10
13. 11. 2007
0 views

Week10

trademark Dania
20. 11. 2007
0 views

trademark Dania

embodied histories
22. 11. 2007
0 views

embodied histories

02 10 Doyle complexity
23. 11. 2007
0 views

02 10 Doyle complexity

dubai projects
13. 08. 2007
0 views

dubai projects

Amarnath Darshan
13. 08. 2007
0 views

Amarnath Darshan

Football Team Tactics
13. 08. 2007
0 views

Football Team Tactics

Tulips of Holland
13. 08. 2007
0 views

Tulips of Holland

Draw Your Boss
13. 08. 2007
0 views

Draw Your Boss

Anna Kournikova
13. 08. 2007
0 views

Anna Kournikova

Ganesh Chaturthi
13. 08. 2007
0 views

Ganesh Chaturthi

SC armada
22. 08. 2007
0 views

SC armada

aug30
15. 11. 2007
0 views

aug30

HEA Accretion 2005 06
01. 12. 2007
0 views

HEA Accretion 2005 06

kawamura
03. 01. 2008
0 views

kawamura

Chap11pt4
04. 01. 2008
0 views

Chap11pt4

BBQ Party
13. 08. 2007
0 views

BBQ Party

frew
03. 09. 2007
0 views

frew

Session 11 3
22. 08. 2007
0 views

Session 11 3

tudor module
22. 08. 2007
0 views

tudor module

group17
26. 11. 2007
0 views

group17

HGM2006 S7 04 Ross
06. 08. 2007
0 views

HGM2006 S7 04 Ross

HB188 SexOffenderPhotograph
06. 08. 2007
0 views

HB188 SexOffenderPhotograph

IOM
06. 08. 2007
0 views

IOM

HeartStyles Scriptures 6 01 07
06. 08. 2007
0 views

HeartStyles Scriptures 6 01 07

interstate study GLAMA talk
06. 08. 2007
0 views

interstate study GLAMA talk

sharp aware1
05. 01. 2008
0 views

sharp aware1

Pawlikowski Keynote
03. 01. 2008
0 views

Pawlikowski Keynote

ExposicionTaller
24. 10. 2007
0 views

ExposicionTaller

j2j 2006 optimized Jon Cohen
06. 08. 2007
0 views

j2j 2006 optimized Jon Cohen

wtc 2002
04. 10. 2007
0 views

wtc 2002

dbaFile4267
12. 10. 2007
0 views

dbaFile4267

Class1 05
16. 02. 2008
0 views

Class1 05

lhj TudorFood
22. 08. 2007
0 views

lhj TudorFood

lhj ElizabethI
22. 08. 2007
0 views

lhj ElizabethI

2004 10 18 Presentation1
20. 02. 2008
0 views

2004 10 18 Presentation1

d9
24. 02. 2008
0 views

d9

23 Feb 06 Mahan
26. 02. 2008
0 views

23 Feb 06 Mahan

RegHazeGuid pitchford
22. 08. 2007
0 views

RegHazeGuid pitchford

Katz
17. 10. 2007
0 views

Katz

carter6
22. 10. 2007
0 views

carter6

4th ARSCP UV Presentation
01. 01. 2008
0 views

4th ARSCP UV Presentation

ppt23
29. 02. 2008
0 views

ppt23

2006 Health nutrition
04. 03. 2008
0 views

2006 Health nutrition

general studies
06. 03. 2008
0 views

general studies

Health Promotion 2 7 07
06. 08. 2007
0 views

Health Promotion 2 7 07

april cyprus wipro
13. 03. 2008
0 views

april cyprus wipro

Co op Experience
22. 08. 2007
0 views

Co op Experience

Ive been thinking
13. 08. 2007
0 views

Ive been thinking

DOLLS Of Horror
13. 08. 2007
0 views

DOLLS Of Horror

LePrince pressbook
03. 10. 2007
0 views

LePrince pressbook

PenguinsandPolygamyu oft
24. 02. 2008
0 views

PenguinsandPolygamyu oft

18 Early Paleozoic
03. 09. 2007
0 views

18 Early Paleozoic

GRANDUM Presentation
18. 06. 2007
0 views

GRANDUM Presentation

QM dis
15. 10. 2007
0 views

QM dis

BiH CQ PLW May 2002 final
26. 10. 2007
0 views

BiH CQ PLW May 2002 final

How Now
18. 06. 2007
0 views

How Now

cui
10. 10. 2007
0 views

cui

hubbard ohds
06. 08. 2007
0 views

hubbard ohds

Tu AHM 2005
22. 08. 2007
0 views

Tu AHM 2005

5313 Richest Indians
13. 08. 2007
0 views

5313 Richest Indians

HGSS Chapter22 Personality
06. 08. 2007
0 views

HGSS Chapter22 Personality

Comm409spr2007
05. 10. 2007
0 views

Comm409spr2007

fp 815
03. 09. 2007
0 views

fp 815

hercules poem
22. 08. 2007
0 views

hercules poem

blend steps
15. 06. 2007
0 views

blend steps

beetle report
15. 06. 2007
0 views

beetle report

aussie
15. 06. 2007
0 views

aussie

auism
15. 06. 2007
0 views

auism

antarctica2
15. 06. 2007
0 views

antarctica2

animals utah
15. 06. 2007
0 views

animals utah

animals talk
15. 06. 2007
0 views

animals talk

animals of utah
15. 06. 2007
0 views

animals of utah

african
15. 06. 2007
0 views

african

abe lincoln
15. 06. 2007
0 views

abe lincoln

4 seasons
15. 06. 2007
0 views

4 seasons

henryviii
22. 08. 2007
0 views

henryviii

finalcathalac
22. 10. 2007
0 views

finalcathalac

Heracles
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Heracles

Humanistas 9 Mec Cuantica
15. 10. 2007
0 views

Humanistas 9 Mec Cuantica

JKolodzy
08. 10. 2007
0 views

JKolodzy

granteeGuideArabic
11. 10. 2007
0 views

granteeGuideArabic

Gorter 05 20 Final
23. 10. 2007
0 views

Gorter 05 20 Final

bobcats
15. 06. 2007
0 views

bobcats

ISA PANAMA
22. 10. 2007
0 views

ISA PANAMA

eci101e
22. 10. 2007
0 views

eci101e

matsbusiness
20. 03. 2008
0 views

matsbusiness

p gherman
29. 09. 2007
0 views

p gherman

CombeDay NF
19. 11. 2007
0 views

CombeDay NF

masterpieces
13. 08. 2007
0 views

masterpieces

108751
26. 03. 2008
0 views

108751

housemtg 20051004
02. 11. 2007
0 views

housemtg 20051004

HG6 lect12
06. 08. 2007
0 views

HG6 lect12

Alaei at MIT1
07. 01. 2008
0 views

Alaei at MIT1

GatewayDoubleJeopardy
19. 11. 2007
0 views

GatewayDoubleJeopardy

HR kontrolling estudo 2002
18. 06. 2007
0 views

HR kontrolling estudo 2002

In This I Belive parte
18. 06. 2007
0 views

In This I Belive parte