BYU diversification

Information about BYU diversification

Published on December 30, 2007

Author: Emma

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Slide1:  Convergent evolutionary divergence across environmental gradients DeWitt Lab Evolutionary Ecology Dept. Wildlife & Fisheries Sciences Texas A&M University Slide2:  One question: From whence did organic diversity arise? Explanation 1: It arose spontaneously from the ashes as the mythical phoenix. Explanation 2: Stochastic and deterministic ecological factors drove (and are driving still) the evolution of alternative forms. Slide3:  One constant in the universe: things change A consequence of environmental change is that organisms adapted to any one environment soon find themselves in another (and environmental change is the stuff of creation) Slide4:  I. Predator gradients A. Gambusia affinis (Texas, USA) B. Gambusia hubbsi (Bahamas) C. Poecilia reticulata (Trinidad) D. Brachyrhaphis rhabdophora (Costa Rica) E. Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor (Uganda) II. Other (flow, diet and habitat structure gradients) A. Biotodoma wavrini (Venezuela) B. Bryconops caudomaculatus (Venezuela) C. Leiostomus xanthurus (Gulf of Mexico) D. Gambusia affinis (Texas, USA) Road Map to the Talk Slide5:  I. Predator gradients A. Predator gradient in Gambusia affinis (Texas, USA) 6 populations - 3 with predators - 3 without predators 410 individuals Gambusia affinis (Mosquitofish) Bluegill Green Bass Longear How we measured body shape:  1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 7 How we measured body shape Capture images of organism Digitize landmarks Use geometric morphometrics to analyze and visualise shape change across predator gradients Slide7:  -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 1 2 Predator Effect Canonical Axis NP1 NP2 NP3 P1 NP1 NP2 NP3 P3 P2 P1 Females Males P2 P3 MANCOVA results: Predator regime, Population (Predator regime): P < 0.0001 95% confidence centroids Predator-associated divergence in G. affinis New powers of visualization!:  New powers of visualization! Exaggerated caudal region, smaller body/head, more elongate with predators Using canonical scores from MANCOVA magnified 3X. Predator-free Predators Slide9:  Functional consequences? Do predator-assoc. shapes enhance escape ability? Increases escape scores Canonical scores & velocity × distance (R2 = 0.39, P = 0.023, N = 13) Do predator-assoc. shapes come with a cost? Higher endurance swimming. Canonical scores & endurance swimming (R2 = 0.38, P = 0.024, N = 13) Performance trials by David Gonzales and Mark Belk Slide10:  2 populations Gambusia hubbsi Atlantic needlefish Great barracuda Tarpon I. Predator gradients B. Predator gradient in Gambusia hubbsi (Bahamas) Slide11:  4 populations - 2 with predators - 2 without predators Poecilia reticulata (Guppy) Crenicichla Astyanax Hemibrycon I. Predator gradients C. Predator gradient in Poecilia reticulata (Trinidad) Slide12:  Morphological Divergence G. affinis G. hubbsi P. reticulata Predator Effect Canonical Axis P P P NP NP NP (29% of shape variance) MANCOVA Predator regime, P < 0.0001 Pop (Pred regime), P < 0.0001 DFA: 72% correct 95% confidence centroids Slide13:  Shared and unique partitioning MANCOVA Predator regime: P < 0.0001 Pop (Pred. regime): P < 0.0001 Using “species-free” residuals Submitted to American Naturalist Denied!  Slide14:  But they liked the idea, so… We threw out all the data We collected new fish We changed our morphometric methods We changed our statistical model We changed guppies for Brachyraphis Slide15:  I. Predator gradients D. Predator gradient in Brachyrhaphis rhabdophora (Costa Rica) Brachyrhaphis rhabdophora Parachromis dovii Rhamdia sp. Slide16:  Shared predator response Shared predator-free response Shared and unique partitioning (all 3x) Slide17:  I. Predator gradients E. Predator gradient in Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor (Uganda) Nile perch (Predatorius horribilis) P. multicolor Slide18:  Predator-associated divergence in P. multicolor “Averaged” image: In collaboration with Lauren Chapman (U. Florida) Lakes without Nile perch Lakes with Nile perch (3×) Slide19:  II. Other (flow, diet and habitat structure gradients) A. Flow gradient in B. caudomaculatus B. Flow gradient in B. wavrini Orinoco River (Venezuela) – Note the channel and lagoon structure Slide20:  Flow-associated differentiation A. B. (3×) Submitted, Biol. J. Linn. Soc. Slide21:  Images prepared by warping a single fish image with thin-plate-spline transformation grids (magnification of 3×) Shape of spot from structured habitat Shape of spot from barren habitat II. Other (flow, diet and habitat structure gradients) C. Alternative habitats in Leiostomus xanthurus (Gulf of Mexico) Slide22:  II. Other (flow, diet and habitat structure gradients) D. Diet variation in Gambusia affinis (Texas, USA) Slide23:  Trophic differentiation: CA1 Slide24:  Trophic differentiation: CA2 Neg Surface (T) Pos Benthic(B) Slide25:  -0.10 -0.08 -0.06 -0.04 -0.02 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 C H Genetic differentiation MANCOVA: P < 0.03 Central Hensel Hensel Park predator free surface & midwater prey Central Park predators benthic prey Population CA Slide26:  Genetic & phenotypic axes are very similar Slide27:  Some thoughts on what it means… Predator induced indirect plasticity? Future Directions:  Future Directions Functional significance (performance trials, selection gradient analyses…) Plasticity vs. genetics (common garden rearing experiments, molecular genetics…) 3-D geometric morphometrics Financial support from Other organisms: red drum, annual killifish, haplochromines, characins, clupeids, tadpoles, turtles, snails, crayfish, Neurospora…

Related presentations


Other presentations created by Emma

Geothermal Energy
03. 12. 2007
0 views

Geothermal Energy

Science Teaching in 21Century1
18. 03. 2008
0 views

Science Teaching in 21Century1

class2new
04. 10. 2007
0 views

class2new

sharetheroad
28. 09. 2007
0 views

sharetheroad

Suzhou
01. 11. 2007
0 views

Suzhou

dia de muertos 61PPT
06. 11. 2007
0 views

dia de muertos 61PPT

Digester complex
07. 11. 2007
0 views

Digester complex

grp1wk3
15. 11. 2007
0 views

grp1wk3

PresentaciÃn Cilca 2005
15. 11. 2007
0 views

PresentaciÃn Cilca 2005

Boeing
23. 11. 2007
0 views

Boeing

palakal1 iu
10. 12. 2007
0 views

palakal1 iu

rutas por el pasado dos basica
20. 11. 2007
0 views

rutas por el pasado dos basica

FRIENDLY PRESENTATION
23. 12. 2007
0 views

FRIENDLY PRESENTATION

bioterrorism
04. 01. 2008
0 views

bioterrorism

prepro
07. 01. 2008
0 views

prepro

Tema1 Historia
07. 01. 2008
0 views

Tema1 Historia

doe review sep07 reich r0
06. 12. 2007
0 views

doe review sep07 reich r0

Conjoint
24. 02. 2008
0 views

Conjoint

dedicated
26. 02. 2008
0 views

dedicated

Reusable Filters
28. 02. 2008
0 views

Reusable Filters

chapter5
04. 03. 2008
0 views

chapter5

FaNeilKift2004
06. 03. 2008
0 views

FaNeilKift2004

20074482634
10. 03. 2008
0 views

20074482634

fdida
14. 03. 2008
0 views

fdida

Inspectors 06
21. 03. 2008
0 views

Inspectors 06

Early Cold War
27. 03. 2008
0 views

Early Cold War

1 10 61005347 IRSCpresentaio0A6
30. 03. 2008
0 views

1 10 61005347 IRSCpresentaio0A6

AnastasiaVICKI
21. 11. 2007
0 views

AnastasiaVICKI

HowtoDoResearchonMov ies2nd
19. 02. 2008
0 views

HowtoDoResearchonMov ies2nd

inspire1
19. 12. 2007
0 views

inspire1

INDEPTH slides bis PRINCIPIA
09. 11. 2007
0 views

INDEPTH slides bis PRINCIPIA

EDUCAR PARA O SUCESSO
29. 12. 2007
0 views

EDUCAR PARA O SUCESSO

sustentabilidad rbsg
21. 11. 2007
0 views

sustentabilidad rbsg

newproducts
03. 01. 2008
0 views

newproducts

drager
27. 09. 2007
0 views

drager

The Snowy Day Module 1
01. 10. 2007
0 views

The Snowy Day Module 1