C1 2 TheFoundationsofCivi lization

Information about C1 2 TheFoundationsofCivi lization

Published on October 12, 2007

Author: Alohomora

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Chapter 1 – Section 2 :  Chapter 1 – Section 2 The Foundations of Civilization Slide2:  The Story Continues By the end of the New Stone Age, people had learned to make tools and weapons, use fire, create works of art, tame animals, and grow food. Many had established permanent settlements. The stage was set for the next level of development. I. Characteristics of a Civilization:  I. Characteristics of a Civilization Civilizations are complex cultures with several common characteristics I. Characteristics of a Civilization:  I. Characteristics of a Civilization Improved agriculture and control of water with irrigation systems and dikes resulted in food surpluses and increased population Shadouf Irrigation I. Characteristics of a Civilization:  I. Characteristics of a Civilization People living together in cities required leadership and rules to guide their behavior - governments and laws were established Reconstruction of Harappa Indus River Valley I. Characteristics of a Civilization:  I. Characteristics of a Civilization Improvements in agriculture meant fewer people were needed in the fields and others could perform different jobs I. Characteristics of a Civilization:  I. Characteristics of a Civilization As the division of labor continued, artisans, merchants, traders, etc. emerged Sumerian Pottery Cloth Merchant I. Characteristics of a Civilization:  Job Specialization - Individuals could not master all skills and began to specialize in certain jobs I. Characteristics of a Civilization Egyptians artisans smelted copper and gold for artistic, architectural, and military purposes. I. Characteristics of a Civilization:  Social classes-people were ranked according to their jobs, leading to the growth of social classes I. Characteristics of a Civilization I. Characteristics of a Civilization:  Arts and Architecture - expressed the beliefs, values, strength and power of their government and religion I. Characteristics of a Civilization Mesopotamian Ziggurat Temple of Hephaistos I. Characteristics of a Civilization:  Public Works- public works were built to benefit the city, protect it from attack, and ensure its food supply I. Characteristics of a Civilization I. Characteristics of a Civilization:  Writing and calendar – Writing was developed to record and pass on information. Calendars were developed to keep track of yearly events I. Characteristics of a Civilization Cuneiform tablet II. Spread of Civilization:  Migration, trade, and warfare resulted in the spread of ideas, customs, and technologies – cultural diffusion II. Spread of Civilization II. Spread of Civilization:  Migration led to interaction with other groups and cultures II. Spread of Civilization II. Spread of Civilization:  Traders transported goods and also spread ideas, technology, beliefs, and culture II. Spread of Civilization Traders approaching Timbuktu in Mali II. Spread of Civilization:  Warfare brought change when the victors forced their way of life upon the people they defeated II. Spread of Civilization III. The River Valley Civilizations:  III. The River Valley Civilizations Four “Cradles of Civilization” - Nile River Valley - Tigris and Euphrates River Valley - Indus River Valley - Huang River Valley III. The River Valley Civilizations:  III. The River Valley Civilizations Climate and flooding greatly influenced the development of civilizations in these river valleys Nile River Floodplain A. The Use of Metals:  A. The Use of Metals Over 6,000 years ago, people were using copper and by 5,000 years ago they had begun making bronze - the Bronze Age Bronze Age Metalworking A. The Use of Metals:  A. The Use of Metals About 3,200 years ago people in SW Asia learned to make iron - the Iron Age Blacksmith in Ancient Greece (ca. 530 BC) B. Family and Religion:  Women managed the family, grew the crops, prepared the food, and had authority and independence B. Family and Religion The Venus of Willendorf carved between 24,000 - 22,000 BCE Mother goddess seated between two leopards. Catal Huyuk, Turkey c.7250-6700 bce. B. Family and Religion:  With the invention of the plow, men became the primary food providers and the authority in society B. Family and Religion B. Family and Religion:  Religion was animistic - the world was full of spirits and forces residing in animals or objects that controlled life B. Family and Religion B. Family and Religion:  Most ancient people were polytheistic, had complex rituals, built temples and offered sacrifices B. Family and Religion Egyptian Gods: Amon - The creator god. Anubis - God of mummification. Isis - Mistress of Magic. Also the wife of Osiris and mother of Horus. Osiris - God of farming and ruler of the underworld. Horus - The sky god. Son of Osiris and Isis. Set - God of disorder. An enemy of Horus. Sobek - The crocodile god. Ra - The sun god.

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