Published on January 18, 2008
Metrology: Metrology Bob O’Brien Dave Miller NHCTC at Pease “In theory, reality and theory are the same. In reality, they are not.” Welcome to the Eggsentrix Annual Stockholder’s Meeting!: Welcome to the Eggsentrix Annual Stockholder’s Meeting! Our mission: To meet or exceed our customer’s expectations for highest quality extra large eggs. Al Bumen, CEO Eggsentrix Inc. The News: The News Production costs up 48% Extra Large egg yield down by 65% However, medium and small egg production up by 65% offsets some losses Customer satisfaction is up! $ Yield Our Process: Our Process Raise top quality laying hens Collect eggs with a computerized egg handling system to ensure the freshest eggs Classify eggs according to weight to assure consistency of extra large eggs Package eggs in protective containers Listen to our customers! Customer Feedback!: Customer Feedback! “I used to use three eggs in my omelets, but with Eggsentrix eggs, two are plenty!” N. E. Juan “Eggsentrix eggs are the first and last things I can place in my shopping basket!” R. U. Serius “Two dozen Eggsentrix eggs feed my family of four for a week!” I.C. Yu Recent Production Solutions: Recent Production Solutions Intensive selection of breeding stock to develop hens that lay extra large eggs Development of specialized high yield feed Utilization of custom packaging to handle the improved egg requirements Continued engineering to find solutions to producing extra large eggs! What do you think is the real problem?: What do you think is the real problem? Are the eggs getting smaller? Are the engineering methods effective? What is the real issue? 2005 2006 80 80 The Real Problem!: The Real Problem! Calibration of the balance scale! Over time, the measurements of an instrument can become inaccurate. This can be from Wear Misuse Aging of components Environmental changes Stuff happens! What Should Be Done?: What Should Be Done? ???? System approach: System approach Monitor/verify Periodic maintenance Periodic calibration Scheduling SOP Documentation QA Traceability Who Can Perform Calibrations: Who Can Perform Calibrations Instrument user Line supervisor Internal calibration team External calibration service Instrument manufacturer In all cases, proper training and documentation are required Calibration Periods: Calibration Periods Manufacturer-recommended calibration interval. Before a major critical measuring project. After a major critical measuring project. After an event. If your instrument took a hit Per requirements. Some measurement jobs require calibrated, certified test equipment Monthly, quarterly, or semiannually. Annually. Biannually. Never. PRINCIPLES OF A CALIBRATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: PRINCIPLES OF A CALIBRATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Calibration Management System (CMS): Calibration Management System (CMS) Essential elements: Trained personnel Instrumentation assessment Management Documentation Corrective action procedures Features of a CMS: Features of a CMS Identifies instruments that can be calibrated Determines calibration requirements for instruments Establishes calibration procedures Develops corrective action procedures Documents calibration results and activities Supports audit trails for calibration system Purpose of a CMS: Purpose of a CMS Defines: What is required? Who is responsible? When does it need to be done? Why does it need to be done? How it is accomplished? Important Definitions: Important Definitions Calibration: The operations which assure that an instrument readings are accurate referenced to established standards. Validation: Proving that a system (equipment, procedure, process, material) will yield expected results. Qualification: Assuring that equipment can produce expected results. Instrument: A device which measures a parameter. Test Equipment: Devices used during the calibration of instruments. These devices must be traceable to known standards. Requirements for a CMS: Requirements for a CMS Each instrument requires: Unique identification A recorded history and current calibration status Use appropriate for the function of the instrument Calibration procedures require Approved procedures for calibration Schedule for calibration Process range limits Calibration standards and test equipment Must be more accurate than the required accuracy of the instrument (typically 4 times more accurate) Traceable back to national or international standards Personnel Proof of appropriate training Perform within an established change management process Establishing a Calibration Management System: Establishing a Calibration Management System Criticality assessment Life cycle phases Project Pre-Operational Operational Training Change control Documentation Electronic Records Auditing Criticality assessment: Criticality assessment Process owners, Engineering, and Quality Assurance establish for all instruments involved with the process and their respective criticality Identification, range, accuracy, history, capabilities Criticality and calibration rationale Categorization (product critical, process critical, safety critical, non critical) Schedule for calibration service Life cycle phases: Life cycle phases Project: definines instruments to measure process variables. Ensure proper selection of instrumentation and procedures. Pre-Operational: ensures transfer of calibration data and historical information to the operational phase. SOPs established. Operational: calibration, cleaning, decontamination, and documentation of the process instrumentation. Training: Training Ensure that all personnel involved with calibration are properly trained Training records must be maintained Personnel and identification records Future training needs Qualification records Experience records Competence records Courses and presentations certificates Change Control: Change Control Updates and refinements of the calibration system must be done in a methodical and documented manner The changes must be evaluated and approved by all stakeholders including users, Engineering, Quality Assurance, and Process Owner. Documentation: Documentation Documentation standards must be followed: Master document file Approval procedures Change procedures Version control Distribution control Assure only current documents are deployed Electronic Records: Electronic Records Management of electronic records for “paperless” calibration operations FDA 21 CFR Part 11 standard for electronic records, electronic signatures, and time stamps Key concepts: validation, audit trail, copies of records, record retention Auditing: Auditing Periodic audits assure that the calibration plan is being followed Provides an opportunity to implement corrective action Formal audit report documents audit process Calibration Management Software: Calibration Management Software Commercial software packages are available to: Automate calibration management tasks Assure compliance with standards organizations Comply with FDA 21 CFR Part 11 electronic signatures Maintain documentation and instrument records Trace standards used in calibration Track changes with audit trail Support “paperless” calibration management Generate reports EXAMPLE CALIBRATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: EXAMPLE CALIBRATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Calibration Management Technician: Calibration Management Technician Responsible for responding to calibration needs Perform calibration procedures Document calibration operations Handle out-of-calibration conditions Perform TQM tasks Example of a Traceability Certification : Example of a Traceability Certification Example Calibration Work Form: Example Calibration Work Form Equipment Log Book: Equipment Log Book Example Calibration SOP: Example Calibration SOP Example Calibration Label: Example Calibration Label STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS: STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS Standards Organizations: Standards Organizations ISO - International Origination for Standardization ANSI - American National Standards Institute NIST - National Institute for Standards and Technology ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials CLSI (formerly NCCLS) - Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute US EPA – US Environmental Protection Agency AOAC - Association of Analytical Communities UPC - United States Pharmacopeia ISO: ISO ISO International Origination for Standardization: worldwide federation of national standards bodies from 156 different countries that promotes the development of standards and related activities in the world with a view to facilitating the international exchange of goods and services. Developing by consensus international standards including the ISO 9000 quality series Publishing and updating the SI metric systems of units. ANSI : ANSI ANSI the American National Standards Institute : administrator and coordinator of the united States private sector voluntary standardization system. ANSI does not itself develop American National Standards : rather it facilities their development by establishing consensus among qualified groups . ANSI is the sole U.S representatives to ISO. NIST: NIST NIST the National Institute for Standards and Technology : A U.S. federal agency that works with industry and government to advance measurement science and development standards. Examples of measurement –related services provided by NIST. ASTM: ASTM ASTM, the American Society for Testing and Materials : coordinates efforts by manufacturers , consumers , and representatives of government and academia to develop by consensus standards of materials , products, systems, and services. Examples of measurement –related services provided by ASTM are: CLSI: CLSI CLSI: (formerly NCCLS) :The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) is a global, nonprofit, standards-developing organization that promotes the development and use of voluntary consensus standards and guidelines within the healthcare community. Recognized worldwide for the application of a unique consensus process. CLSI is based on the principle that consensus is an efficient and cost-effective way to improve patient testing and services. U.S. EPA: U.S. EPA EPA employs 18,000 people across the country, including our headquarters offices in Washington, DC, 10 regional offices, and more than a dozen labs. Our staff are highly educated and technically trained; more than half are engineers, scientists, and policy analysts. In addition, a large number of employees are legal, public affairs, financial, information management and computer specialists. EPA is led by the Administrator, who is appointed by the President of the United States. AOAC : AOAC As the "Association of Analytical Communities," AOAC INTERNATIONAL is committed to be a proactive, worldwide provider and facilitator in the development, use, and harmonization of validated analytical methods and laboratory quality assurance programs and services. AOAC also serves as the primary resource for timely knowledge exchange, networking, and high-quality laboratory information for its members. AOAC International Checklist : AOAC International Checklist Do you have an independent quality assurance department? Is your lab accredited with any organization? If so, which one(s)? Do you follow any published standard of good laboratory practices? What information can I provide that will be helpful in the analysis of my product? Will any of the sample testing be outsourced to another lab? Please describe how you handle samples from the time of receipt, through lab analysis, report issuance, and data archiving. Do you have written procedures and schedules for instrument and equipment maintenance and calibration? If so, how can you substantiate this? AOAC International Checklist : AOAC International Checklist Do written valid test methods exist for the sample analysis? How do you assure that the test result(s) is both accurate and precise? How much experience does your lab, and the analyst working on the sample, have in dealing with this analyte and matrix? Do you record raw data in bound books (laboratory notebooks) or in other laboratory information systems? Is there a way to track a final report to the original raw data? What is the time period for retaining raw data and will you provide such data upon request? Based on your experience with this test/matrix and the current lab workload, do you anticipate on-time delivery of the results? What policies and procedures do you follow to assure that those results are valid? USP : USP The United States Pharmacopeia–National Formulary (USP–NF) is a book of public pharmacopeial standards. It contains standards for medicines, dosage forms, drug substances, excipients, medical devices, and dietary supplements. References: References ISPE “GAMP Good Practice Guide, Calibration Management” “Rules and Guidance for Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Distributors,” MCA, 1997 US Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Food and Drugs 21 CFR Part 211 – “Current Good Manufacturing Practice for Finished Pharmaceuticals” 21 CFR Part 11 – “Electronic Records, Electronic Signatures” Federal Standard 209E, “Airborne Particulate Cleanliness Classes in Clean Rooms and Clean Zones,” 1992, Institute of Environmental Science Kaye SOP for valprobe system: Kaye SOP for valprobe system Kaye Validation/ Calibration Equipment Supplier: Kaye Validation/ Calibration Equipment Supplier CALIBRATION PHYSICS AND INSTRUMENTS: CALIBRATION PHYSICS AND INSTRUMENTS Calibration physics and Example Instruments: Calibration physics and Example Instruments Temperature Pressure Weight/mass pH RPM Electrical Aseptic Fluid flow Humidity Optical Time Volume The buzz words (1): The buzz words (1) Data : Raw figures that are gathered Information: knowledge that is extracted from data Qualitative: data that is purely descriptive Quantitative: magnitude or intensity of a physical phenomenon Empirical data: values recorded directly from an experiment or observation Processed data that has been analyzed Analysis is the process of explaining results Error is the difference between the true or best to be accurate if the error is small Systematic: consistently appear in measurement in the same direction factors to look at : contaminated solution, malfunctioning instrument, and environmental inconsistencies. Random: tend to vary in both directions from the true value, extremely or impossible to find and eliminate . The buzz words (2): The buzz words (2) Gross errors : human mistakes Accuracy refers to the comparison of the measured and accepted , or true value Precision is a measure of the repeatability of a series of data points taken in the measure of some quantity, both resolution and stability Stability freedom form random variations in the results Repeatability is the precision of measurements made under uniform conditions repeated in successions.. Reproducibility is the precision of measurements made under non-uniformed conditions , such as different locations. Performance verification : is a process of checking that an instrument is performing properly. Validation( instrument): is a comprehensive set of test done before an instrument is put into service that demonstrate that it will work within specified parameters and in the conditions under which it will operate. Preventative maintence: is a program of scheduled inspections of instruments and the equipment that leads to minor adjustments and ensures that proper function of equipment or instruments. Measurement: Measurement If a parameter is not measured, it cannot be controlled Measurement: is the process of association a number with a quantity by comparing the quantity to a standard. Characterized by the sensitivity, dynamic range, and resolution of the measurement. Transducer Conditioning Signal Processing Signal Displayed Information interpretable by human or computer Simplified Measurement System Physical Quantity Transmission path Statistics: Statistics Method for handling data and drawing conclusions Descriptive stats: deal with the collection processing and analysis of data to make it comprehensive. Statistical inference goal is the interpretation of the data and drawing conclusions. Frequency distribution number of occurrences for which measurement that lie with in some interval Normal distribution error that is strictly random X= X1+X2+X3+… +Xn n % Error= True Value- Measured Value(100%) /True Value PM : PM Ensure correct results are capable of being obtained Identify weakened components that require replacement to maintain proper functioning. Ensure instruments are safe to operate Ensure that failing instrument will not result in major shut down or out of specification issue Lower cost of repairs Lockout/Tagout: Lockout/Tagout Aseptic Practices: Aseptic Practices Used while performing calibration to avoid inadvertently cross-contaminating: Biological pharmaceutical products Buffers Tools Supplies Transducers: Transducers Sensor selection is dependent on: measurement range required to perform, environmental conditions operated in Conversation of a physical parameter into an electrical quantity: Temperature, heat, stress, strain, pressure, displacement, velocity, and acceleration Load cell: measures a force indirectly by deformation produced in a beam or other structure. The deformation is converted to a resistance change by a strain gauge that is bond ed to the surface of the beam. Resistive transduction can be used to measure light and temperature. Constructed from platinum and their resistance increases as temperature increases. Traceability : Traceability Traceability describes the chain of calibrations that establishes the value of a standard or of a measurement. In the U.S. traceability for physical and some chemical standards is often to NIST since NIST maintains primary standards. Uncertainty of the standard used for calibration Intervals is dependent on various factors accuracy and confidence level , daily usage, predicted or actual drift performance check or verification . Basic Principles of Weight Measurement: Basic Principles of Weight Measurement Weight is the force of gravity on an object. Balances are instruments used to measure this force. Balance Range Balance Capacity Balance Sensitivity Mechanical Electronics Weight vs. Mass: Weight vs. Mass Mass is the resistance of an object to a change in its motion, while weight is the gravitational force of attraction between the object and the Earth. Mass and weight even have different units. Nonetheless, the terms weight and mass are sometimes used interchangeably. Weight = force of attraction between the Earth and an object = mass * acceleration due to gravity Mass = Mass is the amount of matter in an object Basic Procedures for Weight Measurement: Basic Procedures for Weight Measurement Make sure balance is level Adjust balance to zero Make sure the weight plan is clean and empty and chamber doors are in the closed position Tare the weight container Place the sample into the weighing pan and read the value for the measurement Remove the sample Clean the balance and area around it Balance Basics : Balance Basics The sample placed onto a balance weight boat on the pan pushes the pan down with a force equal to m g, where m is the mass of the object and g is the acceleration of gravity. An electronic balance uses electromagnetic force to return the pan to its original position. 3. Electric current required to generate the force is proportional to the mass, which is displayed on a digital readout on the balance. Electronic Balance: Electronic Balance Ohaus Scout Pro Balance Internal overload protection ensures safety from damage caused by excessive weight Sudden impact protection eliminates the worry of dropping or being unexpectedly struck Multiple weighing units and built-in application modes Built-in calibration procedures Balance Scale (Triple Beam): Balance Scale (Triple Beam) Ohaus Triple Beam Balances Precision-cast poises and deep notchs in beams for accurate values every time Precision-ground knife edges and self-aligning agate bearings provide maximum sensitivity and reproducibility Response time is quick and accurate Magnetic dampening minimizes oscillation Tare beam allows containers up to 225g to be balanced out Autoclaves: Autoclaves Autoclaves have instrumentation and control packages varying from relay controlled with simple pressure and vacuum gauges and a chart recorder to microprocessor controlled systems with full SCADA2 functionality. Replace all of the air in contact with the load to be sterilized with steam of the right quality and of the right temperature and pressure for the correct length of time. The critical parameters are steam quality, temperature and time. The critical calibrations are temperature, pressure and time. Calibration of an Autoclave : Calibration of an Autoclave Temperature calibration Thermocouple is placed into chamber to allow same source location for both thermocouples Correlation between the temperature gauge on instrument and gage on autoclave Autoclave: Autoclave Tuttnauer Autoclaves An autoclave is a device that uses heat to sterilize equipment and other objects. This process inactivates all bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Features slow and fast exhaust for steam sterilization of liquids, media, instruments and glassware Self-contained design with refillable reservoir allows control of the water purity for sterilization Drying cycle removes residual moisture after sterilization Temperature range: 100° to 134°C (212° to 273°F) pH: pH pH is a unit of measurement which describes the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution. pH refers to a combination of p for power and H for the symbol of the element hydrogen. pH is defined in chemistry as the negative log of the activity of the hydrogen ion: pH=-log10H+ pH is a measurement of the activity of hydrogen ions in a solution at a given temperature. Activity is a function of the availability of hydrogen ions and not their concentration in a solution. pH is measured on a scale of 0 to 14 where pH values less than 7 are considered acidic and values greater than 7 are alkaline. pH of Common Substances: pH of Common Substances pH Value Compound 0.3 Sulfuric acid Wines 5-6 Purified laboratory water Pure water Sea water 8.4 Sodium bicarbonate 12.6 Bleach 14 1 M Sodium Hydroxide pH Meter: pH Meter Oakton pHTestr 2 Compact, portable pH meter. Features of this meter include one-piece body design, microprocessor control with digital display, and automatic temperature control (ATC). pH Meter Calibration (1): pH Meter Calibration (1) Calibration PH meters must be calibrated properly and regularly to provide accurate readings. The OAKTON pHTestr 2 uses up to three-point calibration (pH 4, 7,and 10) and automatically recognizes the selected buffer. 1. Turn the instrument on using the ON/OFF button. 2. Dip the electrode end of the unit into the selected buffer (pH 4, 7, or 10) up to the color band. Immersing the unit deeper into the test solution could damage electronic components in the instrument. pH Meter Calibration (2): pH Meter Calibration (2) Calibration (cont’d) 3. Press the CAL button. The instrument is in calibration mode and “CA” will appear on the display. Calibration begins when a number close to the selected buffer starts to flash on the display. 4. After about 30 seconds confirm calibration by pressing the HOLD/CON button. If calibration is confirmed, “CO” will appear on the display. The buffer value reading will then be shown on the display. 5. The procedures listed in steps 2-4 are then repeated using the other two buffers, if desired. 6. Periodically check the calibration of the instrument to verify proper operation. Full calibration of the instrument should be performed daily. Confirmation of calibration with a known buffer solution should be performed before, and after the measurement of a set of samples. Temperature: Temperature In a qualitative manner, we can describe the temperature of an object as that which determines the sensation of warmth or coldness felt from contact with it. When the thermal changes have stopped, we say that the two objects (physicists define them more rigorously as systems) are in thermal equilibrium . We can then define the temperature of the system by saying that the temperature is that quantity which is the same for both systems when they are in thermal equilibrium. Celsius is more widely used that the Fahrenheit scale. Freezing point for water is 00 and boiling point is 1000 Celsius ° F = 1.8° C + 32 ° K = ° C + 273 ° C = 1.8 ° F - 32 Measurement of Temperature: Measurement of Temperature In industrial process controlled applications , temperature is one of the most frequency controlled and measure variable in biotechnology. Transducers fall into two categories a direct connected or inserted into the body to be measured is a thermometer. If the temperature is measured by observing the body to be measure through indirect contact is a pyrometer, by radiant heat or sensing the optical properties of the body. Transducers/ RTD: Transducers/ RTD Calibration record: is the data taken during calibration. Calibration curve is a line of connecting data points for a particular transducer. Static calibration: a calibration in which the transducer is allowed to settle to a fixed value. Dynamic calibration: is often a comparison of the transducer that is being calibrated and that of a know reference transducer. Step-function response test: a rapid change is introduced 10%-90% of transducer range. The time it takes for the transducer to settle to new measured value is a measurement of the response time. Thermocouples: Thermocouples A thermocouple junction is created when two dissimilar metal wires are joined at one end. When the junction is heated , a small thermionic voltage that is directly proportional to the temperature appears between the wires. Type J thermocouples containing iron are relatively inexpensive but limited range. Type R and S thermocouples are (platinum-rhodium) are particularly stable . Type E thermocouple has advantages for measurement of low temperatures but has a high non0linerarange. Type –w (tungsten-rhenium) thermocouples are suited for very high temperatures. Exposed-junction thermocouples are prone to corrosion and are fragile, to help prevent these problems probes are sheathed probes are made in metal or ceramic. Thermocouple Meter: Thermocouple Meter Digi-Sense* DuaLogR* Thermocouple Meters Real-time datalogging with infrared output to transfer data to your computer. Logs up to 1000 readings in one second to 60-minute intervals. Thermometer measures minimum, maximum and differential readings using one to two probes. UL listed intrinsically safe for use in Class I; Groups A, B, C, and D Division 1 hazardous locations. Thermometer is also available with NIST certification Thermometer: Thermometer Fisherbrand* Factory-Calibrated Thermometers Total immersion. Use to verify and calibrate routinely used thermometers including Liquid-In-Glass, RTD's, Thermistors, Thermocouples and Bi-Metal thermometers. Each thermometer is certified at points listed below. Calibrated to meet the requirements of ISO/EC Guide 25, ANSI/NCSL 2540-1-1994, ISO 9000/QS 9000 Series of Quality Standards, and MIL STD 45662A. Supplied with documentation to prove traceability to NIST. Temperature Calibration Meter: Temperature Calibration Meter Omega CL20 High Precision Handheld Meter, Calibrator / Thermometer, Thermocouples, RTD's and Thermistors Simulate, measure and record RTD, ohm, thermocouple and thermistor signals–all in one meter. 0.3°C 0.5°F accuracy and in ambient temperatures from 18 to 28°C 64 to 82°F). Conform to the temperature/voltage tables of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (N.I.S.T.). OMEGA provides a free NIST Traceable Certificate of Calibration for your records. Pyrometer: Pyrometer Barnstead* Handheld Digital Pyrometer Measures temperature of solids, liquids or gases. Ambient operating temperature limits: 0–50°C. •Can be calibrated to NIST standards •Type K readout range: -200 to +1372°C/-328 to +2502°F; Type J: -200 to +1000°C/-328 to +1832°F RTD: RTD Digi-Sense* ThermoLogR* RTD Thermometers Perfect for on-site documentation. Infrared output allows data transfer to your computer via the optional RS-232 adapter. Simultaneously monitor current, minimum, and maximum readings. CAL button enables you to field calibrate the meter. °F/°C selectable range is -330 to +2210°F (-201 to +1210°C). Resolution is 0.01°F/°C from -99.99 to 99.99°F/°C; 0.1°F/°C from -100.0 to -330°F/°C and from 100.0 to 999.9°F/°C; and 1°F/°C above 1000°F/°C. Accuracy is ±0.06°F (±0.03°C) from -99.99 to 99.99°F/°C; ±0.1°F/°C from -100.0 to -330°F/°C and 100.0 to 999.9°F/°C; ±1°F/°C above 1000°F/°C. Use probes (not included) with round, 3-pin locking connector. Freezers, Refrigerators: Freezers, Refrigerators Fisher Isotemp* General-Purpose Refrigerator/Freezer Capacity: 17.9 cu. ft. (507L) (refrigerator, 12.9 cu. ft. [365L]; freezer, 5.0 cu. ft. [142L]) Temperature range from 2° to 13°C (refrigerator), -18° to -10°C (freezer) CFC-free R-134a refrigerant Manual or automatic defrost Yellow warning label reads: "Laboratory Refrigerator" Separate adjustment of refrigerator and freezer temperatures Furnace: Furnace Thermolyne Muffle Furnaces These laboratory muffle furnaces are ideal for the determination of volatile and suspended solids, drying and evaporating, ignition tests, gravimetric analysis, ashing organic and inorganic samples, and heat treatment operations. Stepless input controller holds any temperature from 100° to 1100°C. Direct reading pyrometer has °C and °F scales. All models are compensated for room temperature variations and molded with ceramic fiber insulation, offering excellent chemical stability and resistance to corrosive agents Depyrogenation Oven: Depyrogenation Oven HF4-2 SHEL LAB High Performance Oven Designed for continuous drying operations at temperatures up to 300°C. Factory-set over-temperature protection prevents control failure from damaging contents and guards against burnout. The temperature controller provides 24-step ramp and soak, 0.1°C control, multiple levels of operator access and automatic resumption of program following a power failure. Time and temperature are displayed in three-digit LED readout for fast and accurate setting. Hot plate: Hot plate Cimarec Digital Hotplates and Stirring Hotplates LED indicates temperature settings, adjustable in 5° increments, from 5° up to 550°C (41° to 1022°F) Microprocessor-controlled feedback technology maintains consistent, repeatable temperature settings CSA approved Stirring models Microprocessor feedback control provides constant speed regardless of changes in viscosity and prevents runaway and magnetic decoupling Stirring speed ranges from 60 to 1200rpm Incubator: Incubator Lab-Line Incubators These incubators were specifically designed to meet the requirements of clinical and teaching laboratories. The educational model (not for clinical use) is designed for microbiological and biochemical studies. •Feature adjustable bimetallic thermostat control •Front light indicates when heaters are active Pressure Calibration Meter: Pressure Calibration Meter Omega DPI603 Pressure Calibrators Enables pressure instrumentation to be serviced in remote locations. Features a built-in pump to generate pressures up to 300 psi. An optional pressure/ vacuum pump enables the hand pump to source pressure or vacuum down to 22 inHg. In addition to the pressure/vacuum measurement, can also measure voltage or current up to ± 50 Vdc or ± 55 mA dc. Pressure measurement : Pressure measurement Each a square meter of the bottom area carries the same weight as every other square meter, force per unit area is defined as pressure. P=F/A P= pressure n/m2(Pa) F= force , N A+ area, m2 newtons per square meter = pascal (Pa) Pounds per square inch (PSI) Gage pressure (PSIG): reading difference between the atmospheric pressure. pressure readings that including the atmospheric contribution are called absolute pressures (PSIA); Differential pressure :is the difference between two pressures Electrical Terminology : Electrical Terminology Analog signals or digital signals Alternating current AC: electrical current that cycle between flowing first in on direction and then in the other direction. Current: the flow of charge , may involve the movement of electrons in a conductor or ions in a solution. Direct current: current that always flows in the same direction. Discrete time signals Current Analog to Digital converters: device that converts analog to digital values. Frequency : the rate at which alternating current cycles back and forth, measured in cycles / sec usually referred to as Hertz = 1Hz /1 cycle second. Polarity: the characteristic of having a positive or negative charge. Transformer: a device used to change AC voltages. Signal: an electrical change that conveys information. For example, a change in voltage, current, or resistance. Noise (electrical) Unwanted electrical interference which corrupts a signal. Watts, W: unit of power . Commonly Measured Electrical Parameters: Commonly Measured Electrical Parameters Electromotive force (Volts = Amps * Ohms) Current (Amps = Volts / Ohms) Resistance (Ohms = Volts / Amps) Conductivity (Siemens = 1 / Ohms) Capacitance and Inductance (The passive ability to store or release electrical energy in a circuit. Measured in units of Farads and Henrys respectively) Frequency (Cycles per second of a time-varying signal) VOM (Volt Ohm Meter)Digital Multimeter DMM : VOM (Volt Ohm Meter) Digital Multimeter DMM Typically capable of measuring: AC voltage: Select an appropriate range higher than expected. Values displayed id the RMS value DC Voltage :Select an appropriate range higher than expected AC current: typically requires movement of probe leads into appropriate jacks along with appropriate range higher than expected. Meter must be connected in series with the electrical circuit under test. Values displayed id the RMS value DC current: typically requires movement of probe leads into appropriate jacks along with appropriate range higher than expected Ohms: the zero adjust should be verified at each use referred to as confidence test Some meters will also measure other parameters such as temperature, frequency, or capacitance Digital Multimeter: Digital Multimeter Fluke 189 Data Logging Multimeter The Multimeter and Software Combo Pack provides a practical, affordable approach to achieve significantly improved maintenance performance with the flexibility to monitor more than 20 different electrical functions plus temperature. Conductivity: Conductivity Oakton Waterproof TDS/Conductivity Meters Microprocessor-controlled TDS or conductivity testers offer field durability, plus ±1% full-scale accuracy Automatic temperature compensation over the entire 0° to 50°C (32° to 122°F) range for quick response, even in fluctuating temperatures Unique electrode sensor-cup design allows use as a conventional dip-style tester or as a cup-style tester Calibrate using the one-point, push-button calibration feature Environmental chamber: Environmental chamber Barnstead/Thermolyne Lab-Line Environmental Chambers Feature precise microprocessor-based PID control, an operating temperature range of 10° above ambient to 60°C, temperature control and uniformity of ±0.5°C, spray nozzles for humidification. Refrigeration system has a temperature range of 5° to 60°C for working at or below room temperature. Dehumidification feature maintains humidity at or below ambient conditions with ±5% humidity control. 10 in. (25.4cm), seven-day, two-pen chart recorder creates a permanent record of temperature and humidity. Flow gage: Flow gage Gilmont* Industrial Correlated Aluminum Flowmeter Provides liquid or gas flow readings at capacity levels to 0.48gpm of water while maintaining an accuracy of ±5% of full scale. Includes calibration table for air and water. Certificate indicating instrument traceability to standards provided by NIST available on request. Manometer: Manometer Princo Bench Model Manometer Enclosed in glass jacket, with 5 in. diameter (12.7cm) metal base and 1/4 in. (0.6cm) nipple connections. Inner tube is filled with mercury and open to chamber. Scale is graduated upward and downward from center zero (1mm divisions). Absolute pressure is sum of readings for both columns. Constriction in manometer checks mercury surge if the vacuum is broken suddenly. Fume hood: Fume hood Fisher Hamilton PaceAire Fume Hood Constant volume/bypass airflow system efficiently removes fumes and vapors while keeping the airflow and duct velocity constant. Two-speed integral blower allows the fume hood to operate at a lower mode to conserve energy and offers face velocity adjustment to coordinate with a wide range of duct conditions. Low-speed blower exhaust, 0.11sp at 75fpm face velocity (492cfm) high-speed blower exhaust, 0.28sp at 100fpm face velocity (657cfm). Biological Safety Cabinet: Biological Safety Cabinet Pending GS certification to EN 12469 Product / Operator / Environment Protection ULPA Filters with typical efficiency at >99.999% at 0.12μm provide ISO Class 3 cleanliness within work zone. HPV-compliant for safe decontamination using BIOQUELL’s technology Isocide™ antimicrobial coated structure eliminates 99.9% of bacterial presence on external surfaces within 24 hours. Redundant fans Esco Infinity Class II Type A2 Biosafety Cabinet Humidity: Humidity Fisherbrand Digital Humidity/Temperature Meter Displays relative humidity from 10.0 to 95.0% with a resolution of 0.1% and an accuracy of 1.5% Temperature range is -40.0° to +104.4°C (-40.0° to +220.0°F) with a resolution of 0.1° and an accuracy of ±0.2°C (±0.4°F) Dew point range is -40.0° to +60.0°C (-40.0° to +140.0°F) An ISO 17025 certificate is provided to indicate instrument traceability to standards provided by NIST IR Thermometer: IR Thermometer Fluke 572 Noncontact Infrared Thermometers Highly advanced portable IR thermometer reads surface temperatures at a distance. Broad temperature range of -30° to +900°C (-25° to +1600°F) Certifications: Available with a NIST DKD Calibration Certificate assuring its accuracy and indicating instrument traceability to standards provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Microscope: Microscope University Series Microscopes This microscope series combines advanced features with superior optics. The Kohler illumination with field diaphragm helps to maximize resolution. Features and Specifications • The Seidentopf binocular head design provides superior optical performance • Calibration procedures for cleaning and maintenance • Objectives are available as standard Achromats, or Plan Achromats. Spectrophotometers : Spectrophotometers An instrument that measures concentration on the basis of the ability to absorb light in direct proportion to their concentration. Visible light occurs in a very narrow band of wavelengths approximately 400nm to 700nm. Spectrophotometers that are designed for filters of colored glass are called colorimeters. Spectrophotometer: Spectrophotometer Wavelength selector Meter / Display Photo detector Cuvette containing sample Spectrophotometer: Spectrophotometer Spectronic 20+/20D+ Spectrophotometers Single-beam units are suitable for general colorimetric and spectrophotometric applications A detector covers the entire 340 to 950nm wavelength range, extending measurements into the near infrared and ultraviolet ranges Simple filter selection lever makes changing filters easy Automatically calculate standard curves by inserting sample and reading concentration When standard is unavailable, manually input the factor Timers: Timers Traceable Lab Controller and Timer Three-channel alarm timer features clock; three timing alarms; audible and visual alarms; manual OFF; metric converter; calculator; repeat channel, memory channel, and stopwatch channel. Programmable for up to 224 ON/OFF switchings per day and 1568 per week Cycles equipment ON/OFF at any interval from 100 hours to one second Quartz crystal accuracy Supplied with serial-numbered certificate from an A2LA accredited ISO 17025 calibration laboratory to indicate traceability to standards provided by NIST. Viscosity: Viscosity Haake VT02 Rotational ViscoTester Viscometer Speed-stabilized, rotor-driven motor measures the torque produced by the measured liquid, which directly correlates to viscosity. A scale indicates the deflection of the measuring spring. Calibrated for Newtonian substances, instruments indicate data in units of dPas. Typical testing time is only 1 min. Sample temperature range is up to 150°C (302°F). Rotational speed: 62.5rpm; reproducibility: ±2 full scale; comparability: ±7 full scale. Pipette: Pipette Gilson Pipetman P Individually calibrated ... a Performance Check Report is included with each Pipetman, along with an engraved Identification Number for traceability • Tip holder and tip ejector are fully autoclavable to avoid cross-contamination • P2 and P10 models are ideal for molecular biology techniques (PCR, DNA sequencing, etc.). Accurate and precise: P10 down to 1 µL and P2 down to 0.2 µL (0.1 µL with a good pipetting technique) Tachometer: Tachometer Traceable Digital Tachometers Use the touchless sensor to get speed readouts in rpm, contact sensor for direct readout of surface speeds in feet per minute or meters per minute Detects speeds from 1 to 99,999rpm from a distance of 2 to 12 in. (5.1 to 30cm); resolution is 0.1 below 1000, and 1 above 1000 Contact sensor provides readouts from 1 to 19,999rpm, 0.05 to 1999.9m/min. or 0.2 to 6560 ft./min; accuracy, 0.05% ISO-17025 certificate is provided to indicate instrument traceability to standards provided by NIST Centrifuge: Centrifuge Eppendorf Models 5415D/5415R Microcentrifuges Capacity: 48mL (24 x 1.5/2.0mL) Maximum speed/force: 13,200rpm/16,110xG Digital display for time and speed (rpm or rcf); 5417R also displays temperature Timed-run (30 seconds to 99 minutes), adjustable short-spin and continuous-run modes Variable speed control to maximum in 200rpm increments Quick acceleration and deceleration LABS: LABS Scout Pro Balance Scale Calibration Utilize internal calibration functions to zero set, span, and linear calibrate a Scout Pro. Autoclave Validation BT Sure Biological Indicator Utilize a biological indicator to validate proper operation of an autoclave Lab Procedures: Lab Procedures Review other documents operation SOP, maintenance SOP, calibration SOP (go over reasons for each, equipment intro) Procedures generate work form Fill out work form (calibration form 1) Follow calibration SOP File work form Fill out and attach calibration stickers Scout Pro Work Form (1): Scout Pro Work Form (1) Scout Pro Work Form (2): Scout Pro Work Form (2) Scout Pro Calibration SOP (1): Scout Pro Calibration SOP (1) Scout Pro Calibration SOP (2): Scout Pro Calibration SOP (2) Scout Pro Calibration SOP (3): Scout Pro Calibration SOP (3) Scout Pro Calibration SOP (4): Scout Pro Calibration SOP (4) Scout Pro Calibration SOP (5): Scout Pro Calibration SOP (5) Scout Pro Calibration SOP (6): Scout Pro Calibration SOP (6) Calibration of an Autoclave : Calibration of an Autoclave Temperature calibration Thermocouple is placed into chamber to allow same source location for both thermocouples Correlation between the temperature gauge on instrument and gage on autoclave Autoclave Validation: Autoclave Validation Biological Indicator Strips QC Microbiology BT Sure SOP (1): BT Sure SOP (1) BT Sure SOP (2): BT Sure SOP (2) BT Sure SOP (3): BT Sure SOP (3) BT Sure SOP (4): BT Sure SOP (4) BT Sure SOP (5): BT Sure SOP (5) Comments/suggestions?: Comments/suggestions? Review sheet Any input welcome!