Published on November 15, 2007
Cassini UV Imaging Spectrograph&Saturn’s Wandering Shepherds: Cassini UV Imaging Spectrograph & Saturn’s Wandering Shepherds Larry W. Esposito University of Potsdam and University of Colorado Cassini UV Imaging Spectrograph: Cassini UV Imaging Spectrograph Spectra and images from 550 -1900A Hydrogen-Deuterium cell measures D/H High speed photometer has 20m resolution Chemistry of Saturn, Titan clouds Exospheres of moons Saturn’s magnetosphere neutrals Ring origin and evolution Summary: Cassini: Summary: Cassini Joint USA and European mission to Saturn and Titan Titan probe and 4 year orbiter mission Colorado UVIS will observe Saturn, Titan, moons and rings JUPITER’S IO TORUS: JUPITER’S IO TORUS A DONUT OF GLOWING GAS ORBITING JUPITER MOSTLY SULFUR AND OXYGEN GASES FROM IO’S VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS THE LIGHT FROM THE GASES IS MOSTLY INVISIBLE TO THE HUMAN EYE, BUT CAN BE SEEN BY CASSINI’S UVIS IN THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET THESE GASES HAVE LOST ELECTRONS AND ARE HELD IN PLACE BY JUPITER’S MAGNETIC FIELD, WHICH SPINS ONCE EACH JUPITER DAY COMPUTER ANIMATION OF IO TORUS: COMPUTER ANIMATION OF IO TORUS PRODUCED FROM THEORETICAL MODELS JUPITER IN CENTER, ARROWS SHOW GEOGRAPHIC AND MAGNETIC POLE OFFSET OF MAGNETIC POLE CAUSES THE IO TORUS TO WOBBLE AS JUPITER ROTATES CASSINI UVIS TORUS MOVIE: CASSINI UVIS TORUS MOVIE OBSERVATIONS FROM 11 NOVEMBER 2000 CONTINUOUS 27 HOUR COVERAGE (ABOUT THREE JUPITER DAYS) JUPITER ITSELF WAS EDITED OUT MOVIE IS THE SUM OF THE LIGHT FROM THE FOUR BRIGHTEST EMISSION LINES THE BRIGHTEST PARTS ARE OVER-EXPOSED TO BRING OUT THE DETAILS NOTE THAT THE REAL TORUS IS MUCH MORE PATCHY THAN THE THEORETICAL MODEL WHAT TO WATCH FOR: WHAT TO WATCH FOR TORUS WOBBLES AND ROTATES DUSK (RIGHT SIDE) IS BRIGHTER THAN DAWN (LEFT) SIDE TORUS BRIGHTENS NEAR LONGITUDE 210 (WATCH AS THE MOVING DOT REACHES LEFT EDGE). THE DOT ROTATES WITH JUPITER Summary: Cassini at Jupiter: Summary: Cassini at Jupiter Joint observations with Galileo Jupiter movies show atmosphere dynamics Ring movies complement Voyager, Galileo UVIS movies shows Io torus behavior, composition, temperature SATURN’S F RING: SATURN’S F RING Discovered in 1979 by Pioneer 11 Braids and kinks seen by Voyager Multiple strands, core and broader ring seen by VGR PPS Radio and optical imply large dust fraction Cuzzi and Burns (1988) proposed the current ring is just the latest manifestation of collisions in a moonlet belt Voyager saw bright clumps; RPX saw transients: evidence for moonlet collisions F RING SHEPHERDS: F RING SHEPHERDS Pandora (70 km, outside) and Prometheus (50 km, inside) straddle the ring Initially interpreted as ‘shepherds,’ but F ring not in position to balance the torques Perturbations from these two moons can explain much F ring structure VOYAGER & HST : VOYAGER & HST Ring plane crossing (RPX) observations in 1995/96 showed significant deviations (about 20 degrees) from predicted Voyager longitudes Pandora librates about a nearby Mimas 3:2 corotation resonance Corrected orbits and HST show Prometheus 0.3 km further, and Pandora 0.2 km closer to Saturn: both are approaching F ring (opposite to and slower than the expected shepherd drift) 2001/02 observations: each moon has now moved (Pandora 0.4, Pro 0.3 km) closer to the F ring POSSIBLE EXPLANATIONS: POSSIBLE EXPLANATIONS Since their motions seem coordinated, perhaps there is some coupled interaction between the shepherds (2001 DPS Dones) Shepherds have random interaction with small moonlets in a belt around the F ring (1999 DPS Esposito) RANDOM WALK MODEL: RANDOM WALK MODEL A belt of N moonlets, radius R, with eccentricity e in a region of width W, are gravitationally scattered (and thus perturb the shepherd orbits) This is a kind of Brownian motion! Treat this as a discrete symmetric random walk in semi- major axis, with constant step size and interval MODEL PARAMETERS: MODEL PARAMETERS Symmetric p=q Time interval T = 7 years. During this period HST observed one jump for each shepherd. To get from Voyager to HST requires at least two transitions, so we have 7<T<11 years. Step size 1/2 km. This is the size of the observed change in semi-major axis in 2001 Equal masses of Pandora and Prometheus MODEL RESULTS: MODEL RESULTS NR < 500km: a range of solutions are possible with smaller moons having smaller eccentricities, or fewer larger moons with larger eccentricities Possible solutions: about 50 moonlets of radius 10 km or 25 moonlets with R=20km Random walks simulate longitude excursions resembling the observations: more complex model unnecessary CONFIDENCE LEVELS: CONFIDENCE LEVELS How unlikely are the observed longitudes to arise from a purely random process? Both moons continuing to converge on the F ring: Prob = pq = 1/4 Both independent transitions of Pandora and Prometheus in the same year: Prob = 1/T = 1/10 - 1/7 F RING MODEL: F RING MODEL Barbara and Esposito (2002) find about 50 moonlets with R = 8km in their model The moonlet belt model thus explains F ring origin (Cuzzi and Burns) Transient features seen at RPX (Poulet) Voyager clumps (Barbara and Esposito) Wandering shepherds as a Brownian motion Summary: F ring shepherds: Summary: F ring shepherds Although low in intrinsic likelihood, the moonlet belt model explains the positions of Pandora and Prometheus as purely random outcomes Cassini will seek moonlets in images and indirectly through stellar occultations Imaging resolution better than HST after -45days 80 SATORB searches in first 10 revs F ring movies Up to 100 star occultations exceeding VGR resolution UVIS OBSERVATIONS: UVIS OBSERVATIONS SATURN SYSTEM SYSCANS SATELLITES DISTANT OCCULTATIONS LONGITUDE COVERAGE ATMOSPHERE OCCULTATIONS STARE LIMB SKIM AURORAL MAP SPECTRAL IMAGES RINGS OCCULTATIONS SPECTROSCOPY MAGNETOSPERE SURVEY & AURORA UVIS system scans : UVIS system scans EUV and FUV low resolution spectra of magnetosphere neutral and ion emissions. System scans at every apoapsis. Typical observation periods: 12 h per day for 100 – 150 days. Data volume: 21Mb/day Some observations also required in inner magnetosphere. SATELLITES: SATELLITES LATITUDE, LONGITUDE AND PHASE COVERAGE COORDINATED WITH CAMERAS CLOSE-UP OBSERVATIONS WITH ISS, VIMS DISTANT STELLAR OCCULTATIONS TO DETERMINE SATELLITE ORBITS AND SATURN REFERENCE FRAME. DURATION: 1.5 HOUR, 10-25 PER MOON. ENCELADUS, DIONE, MIMAS, TETHYS ATMOSPHERE: ATMOSPHERE SOLAR OCC : VERTICAL PROFILES OF H, H2, HYDROCARBONS, TEMP IN EXO, THERMOSPHERE STAR OCC: SAME FOR UPPER ATMOSPHERE UVIS STARE: LONG INTEGRATIONS MAP HYDROCARBONS, AIRGLOW LIMB SKIM: MAP EMISSONS WITH HIGHEST RESOLUTION AT THE LIMB AURORAL MAP: H&H2 EMISSIONS OVER SEVERAL ROTATIONS UVIS EUVFUV SPECTRAL IMAGES: MAP HYDROCARBON, AIRGLOW, AEROSOLS FREQUENCY, DURATION, VOLUME: FREQUENCY, DURATION, VOLUME SUNOCC’S TO COVER RANGE OF LATITUDES: 40MIN @ 32 KBITS = 77Mbit EACH. STAROCC’S 19 PROPOSED: 58 Mbit EACH UVIS STARE: ONCE PER ORBIT, 1-11 HOURS, 18-198 Mbit EACH LIMB SKIM: ABOUT ONE/ORBIT, 1-2 HOURS @ 1kbit= 4-7Mbit EACH AURORAL MAP: SEVERAL TIMES DURING TOUR, 11-33 HOURS @2Kbit= 79-238Mbit EACH. SPECTRAL IMAGES: 532 HOURS REQUESTED @ 5Kbit. 76, 152Mbit/ IMAGE CUBE. Ring Stellar Occultation Objectives: Ring Stellar Occultation Objectives Highest radial resolution (20 m) structure of rings. Full radial scans at high and low incidence angles. Discovery and precise characterization of dynamical features generated by ring-satellite interactions. Multiple radial scans. Density waves and bending waves. Edge waves and ring shepherding. Embedded moonlets and discovery of new moons from dynamical response in rings. Discovery and precise characterization of azimuthal structure in rings. Multiple radial scans and azimuthal scans. Eccentric rings. Density waves and edge waves. Small-scale self-gravitational clumping in rings. Ring Stellar Occultation Objectives (2): Ring Stellar Occultation Objectives (2) Measure temporal variability in ring structure. Occultations early and late in tour. Simultaneously measure UV reflectance spectrum of rings. Determine microstructure on particle surfaces. Compositional information on ring particles. Measure size distribution of large particles through occultation statistics. Occultations at large and small distances from rings. Measure dust abundance in diffraction aureole. Simultaneously search for flashes from 0.1 m - 1.0 m meteoroid impacts.