Published on October 10, 2007
Chapter 3Learning and Memory: Chapter 3 Learning and Memory By Michael R. Solomon Consumer Behavior Buying, Having, and Being Sixth Edition Opening Vignette: Quisp: How was Quisp brand cereal saved from product extinction? How can companies capitalize on products that have been previously retired? What makes vintage products so successful in the marketplace? Can you think of a product from your youth that you would buy if it became available? Opening Vignette: Quisp The Learning Process: The Learning Process Learning: A relatively permanent change in behavior caused by experience Incidental Learning: Casual, unintentional acquisition of knowledge Learning is an Ongoing Process: Constantly being revised Can be either simple association (logo recognition) or complex cognitive activity (writing an essay) Learning is a Process: Learning is a Process Our tastes are formed as a result of a learning process, sometimes with painful results. Behavioral Learning Theories: Behavioral Learning Theories Assume that learning takes place as the result of responses to external events. View is represented by two major approaches to learning: 1) Classical Conditioning 2) Instrumental Conditioning People’s experiences shaped by feedback they receive as they go through life Actions result in rewards and punishments, which influences future responses to similar situations. The Consumer as a “Black Box”A Behaviorist Perspective on Learning: The Consumer as a “Black Box” A Behaviorist Perspective on Learning Figure 3.1 Classical Conditioning: Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov’s Dogs Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) – Naturally capable of causing a response. Conditioned stimulus (CS) – Does not initially cause a response Conditioned response (CR) – Response generated by repeated paired exposures to UCS and CS. Eventually, through learned association and repetition, the CS will cause the CR. Discussion Question: In the 1980’s, the Lacoste crocodile was an exclusive logo symbolizing casual elegance. When it was repeated on baby clothes and other items, it lost its cache and began to be replaced by contenders such as the Ralph Lauren Polo Player. Can you thing of other logos that have lost their prestige due to repetition? Discussion Question Classical Conditioning in Advertising: Classical Conditioning in Advertising This American Airlines ad points to classical conditioning as an explanation for why their AAdvantage Marketing Programs will work. Can you identify the UCS, CS, and the CR in this example? Classical Conditioning (cont.): Classical Conditioning (cont.) Stimulus generalization: Tendency of a stimulus similar to a CS to evoke similar, conditioned responses Masked branding: Deliberately hiding a product’s true origin Stimulus discrimination: Occurs when a UCS does not follow a stimulus similar to a CS. Masked Branding: Masked Branding Marketing Applications of Behavior Learning Principles: Marketing Applications of Behavior Learning Principles Brand Equity: A brand has strong positive associations in a consumer’s memory and commands loyalty. Applications of Repetition Applications of Conditioned Product Associations: Semantic associations Phonemes Loyalty to Brands: Loyalty to Brands Rewarding consumers with frequent flyer miles is an effective way to reinforce them and build brand loyalty. Marketing Applications of Behavior Learning Principles (cont.): Marketing Applications of Behavior Learning Principles (cont.) Applications of Stimulus Generalization: Family branding Product line extensions Licensing Look-alike packaging Applications of Stimulus Discrimination: Consumers learn to differentiate a brand from its competitors Unique attributes of the brand Beware of Knockoffs: Beware of Knockoffs Instrumental Conditioning: Instrumental Conditioning Occurs as the individual learns to perform behaviors that produce positive outcomes and avoid behaviors that yield negative outcomes A.K.A. “Operant Conditioning” Occurs one of three ways: Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Punishment Positive Reinforcement: Positive Reinforcement The power of positive reinforcement. Instrumental Conditioning (cont.): Instrumental Conditioning (cont.) Extinction: When a positive outcome is no longer received, the learned stimulus-response connection will not be maintained. Reinforcement Schedules: Fixed-interval reinforcement Variable-interval reinforcement Fixed-ratio reinforcement Variable-ratio reinforcement Four Types of Learning Outcomes: Four Types of Learning Outcomes Figure 3.2 Applications of Instrumental Conditioning Principles: Applications of Instrumental Conditioning Principles Reinforcement of Consumption: Thank you Rebates Follow-up phone calls Frequency Marketing: Reinforces regular purchases by giving them rewards with values that increase along with the amount purchased Frequent flyer miles Cognitive Learning Theory: Cognitive Learning Theory Is learning cognitive or not? Trigger feature A stimulus that cues an individual toward a particular pattern and activates a reaction Observational learning: Occurs when people watch the actions of others and note reinforcements received for their behaviors Learning occurs as a result of vicarious, rather than direct, experience. Components of Observational Learning: Components of Observational Learning Figure 3.3 Applications of CognitiveLearning Principles: Applications of Cognitive Learning Principles Consumers learn vicariously by seeing others receive reinforcement for their behaviors. Marketers can reinforce or punish consumers indirectly by showing what happens to desirable models who do or do not use their products. Consumers’ evaluations of models are not limited to stimulus-response connections. Attractiveness can be based on several components (e.g. physical attractiveness, expertise, similarity to the evaluator) The Role of Memory in Learning: The Role of Memory in Learning Memory A process of acquiring and storing information such that it will be available when needed. Stages of Memory Encoding stage Information entered in a recognizable way Storage stage Knowledge integrated into what is already there and warehoused Retrieval stage The person accesses the desired information The Memory Process: The Memory Process Figure 3.4 Memory and Advertising: Memory and Advertising This Brazilian ad illustrates that external memory aids like Post-Its can help us to remember many of the details of modern life. Encoding Information for Later Retrieval: Encoding Information for Later Retrieval Types of meaning: Sensory meaning (e.g. color or shape) Sense of familiarity (e.g. seeing a food that we have tasted) Semantic meaning: Symbolic associations (e.g. rich people drink champagne) Personal relevance: Episodic memories: Relate to events that are personally relevant Flashbulb memories: Especially vivid associations Narrative: An effective way of persuading people to construct a mental representation of the information that they are viewing Memory Systems: Memory Systems Sensory Memory: Very temporary storage of information we receive from our senses Short-Term Memory (STM): Limited period of time & limited capacity Working memory (i.e., holds memory we are currently processing) Long-Term Memory (LTM): Can retain information for a long period of time Elaboration rehearsal is required: Process involves thinking about a stimulus and relating it to information already in memory Storing Information in Memory: Storing Information in Memory Multiple Store Models of Memory: Traditional perspective which assumes that STM & LTM are separate systems. Activation Models of Memory: Argues that different levels of processing occur depending on the nature of the processing task. The more effort it takes to process information, the more likely that information will be placed in LTM. Storing Information in Memory (cont.): Storing Information in Memory (cont.) Associative Networks: Contains many bits of related information organized according to some set of relationships Knowledge structures: Complex “spider webs” filled with pieces of data Hierarchical processing model: Message is processed in a bottom-up fashion (i.e., starts at a basic level and is subject to increasingly complex processing which requires increased cognitive capacity) Node: A concept related to a category An associative network is developed as links form between nodes. An Associative Network for Perfumes: An Associative Network for Perfumes Figure 3.6 Storing Information in Memory (conc.): Storing Information in Memory (conc.) Spreading Activation: A process which allows consumers to shift back and forth between levels of meaning Levels of Knowledge: Knowledge is coded at different levels of abstraction and complexity. Proposition (a.k.a. belief): A larger unit of meaning (i.e., formed by combinations of nodes) Schema: A cognitive framework (comprised of propositions) developed through experience Script: A type of schema consisting of a sequence of events expected by an individual Retrieving Information forPurchase Decisions: Retrieving Information for Purchase Decisions Factors Influencing Retrieval: Physiological Factors (e.g. age) Situational Factors: Pioneering brand: First brand to enter a market. Is generally easier to retrieve from memory. Descriptive brand names easier to recall than names that do no provide cues to what the product is. Viewing environment: Commercials shown first in a series of ads are recalled better than those shown last. Postexperience advertising effects: When consumers confuse recently viewed ads with their own experiences. Retrieving Information forPurchase Decisions (cont.): Retrieving Information for Purchase Decisions (cont.) State-Dependent Retrieval: (a.k.a. mood congruence effect) A process by which consumers are better able to access info if their mood is the same at the time of their recall as when the info was learned. A few marketing researchers use hypnosis to dredge up past memories of experiences with products. Familiarity and Recall: Prior familiarity enhances recall. Salience and Recall: Salience: The prominence or level of activation of stimuli in memory Von Restorff Effect: Any technique that increases the novelty of a stimulus also improves recall. Pictorial versus Verbal Cues: Pictorial versus Verbal Cues There is some evidence for the superiority of visual memory over verbal memory. Pictorial ads may enhance recall, but do not necessarily improve comprehension. How many of these Ad icons can you remember from the picture alone? Factors Influencing Forgetting: Factors Influencing Forgetting Decay: Structural changes in the brain produced by learning simply go away. Retroactive Interference: Consumers forget stimulus-response associations when new responses to the same or similar stimuli are learned. Proactive Interference: As new responses are learned, a stimulus loses its effectiveness in retrieving the old response. Part-list Cueing Effect: When only a portion of the items in a category are presented to consumers, the omitted items are not as easily recalled. Products as Memory Markers: Products as Memory Markers Products and ads can serve as powerful retrieval cues. Autobiographical memories: Consumer memories related to their own past. Mnemonic qualities: Aspects of a consumer’s possessions that serve as a form of external memory which prompts the retrieval of episodic memories. The Marketing Power of Nostalgia Spontaneous recovery: The ability of a stimulus to evoke a response years after it is initially perceived. Memory and Aesthetic Preferences Ads and products that remind consumers of their past also help to determine what they like now. Memories of the Past as Retrieval Cues: Memories of the Past as Retrieval Cues Nostalgia Appeal: Nostalgia Appeal Fossil’s product designs evoke memories of earlier classic designs Measuring Memory for Marketing Stimuli: Measuring Memory for Marketing Stimuli Recognition Versus Recall: Two basic measures of impact. Typical recognition test: Subjects are shown ads and asked if they have seen them before. Typical recall test: Subjects are asked to independently think of what they have seen without being prompted first. The Starch Test A widely used commercial measure of advertising recall for magazines. Discussion Question: Ads with celebrities like Britney Spears tend to have very high recall rates. Name some ads with celebrities that you can recall easily. Why does the celebrity association with the ad aid your recall? Discussion Question Problems with Memory Measures: Problems with Memory Measures Response Biases A contaminated result due to the instrument or the respondent, rather than the object that is being measured. Memory Lapses Unintentionally forgetting information: Omitting: Leaving facts out Averaging: “Normalizing” memories by not reporting extreme cases Telescoping: Inaccurate recall of time Memory for Facts Versus Feelings Recall is important but not sufficient to alter consumer preferences More sophisticated attitude-changing strategies are needed.