Information about CBNRM

Published on March 11, 2014

Author: shravanrajur



PowerPoint Presentation: 1 WELCOME I SEMINAR ON NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT THROUGH COMMUNITY BASED EXTENSION APPROACH Shravan R. Rajur {PGS12AGR4024} :  I SEMINAR ON NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT THROUGH COMMUNITY BASED EXTENSION APPROACH Shravan R. Rajur {PGS12AGR4024} 2 PowerPoint Presentation:  Introduction NRM Meaning & Classification Resource Management/Development Extension Approaches for NRM Drives and Stages of CBNRM Major constraints in CBNRM Research studies Success Stories Conclusion 3 Scheme of Presentation PowerPoint Presentation:  INTRODUCTION 4 “Earth provides enough to satisfy every man's needs, but not every man's greed.”  ―  Mahatma Gandhi Natural Resource :  Natural Resource Meaning Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. Any part of our natural materials that man can be utilized to promote the welfare, may be regarded as natural resources 5 PowerPoint Presentation:  Classification of natural resources 6 PowerPoint Presentation:  Natural Resource Management The management of natural resources  such as  land, water, soil, plants and animals, with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations Natural resource management approaches can be categorised according to the kind and right of stakeholders Private property regime :- Individual owned Common property regime :- Government owned Non-property regime :- Lake fishery State property regime :- National forest, National park resource management 7 Relationship of Culture, Nature and Resource: Relationship of Culture, Nature and Resource HUMAN NATURE NEUTRAL STUFF NEEDS WANTS ABILITIES Zimmerman, 1951 8 CULTURE RESOURCE Casual factors of threat on NRM: Casual factors of threat on NRM 9 India’s efforts for biodiversity conservation: India’s efforts for biodiversity conservation Dr. M. S. Swaminathan (1983) suggested the following categories Cultivated varieties in current use Primitive cultivars or land races Wild species of potential value to man In-situ conservation -conservation under natural condition It includes conservation of plants and animals in their native ecosystems or even man made eco-systems It appeals only to wild fauna and flora It aims at preservation of land races with wild relatives Ex-situ conservation -conservation under controlled condition It is done through establishment of gene banks It is chief mode for preservation of genetic resources Seeds, plant cells, tissues, organs are preserved under appropriate conditions 10 Adhikary and Acharya Resource management/development: 11 Resource management/development Das Gupta Planning for resources use: Planning for resources use 12 Das Gupta Human dimensions in natural resource management : Human dimensions in natural resource management What are “ Human Dimensions”…..??? Human dimensions are the peoples’ values, beliefs, attitudes, social norms and motivations They use social science concepts to formulate studies that capture and explain human values , beliefs, etc. as they apply to natural resources Knowledge gained from these studies gives the public a voice in natural resource management decisions 13 Basu et al. Human Dimensions Importance......why?: Human Dimensions Importance......why? Awareness and understanding our public values regarding natural resources Improved communication with publics and education of the public regarding natural resource issues Understanding and prediction of the social impacts of natural resource decisions Strengthening of the natural resources profession through improved application of human dimensions information in natural resource decision making 14 Challenges of impact assessment in NRM: 15 Challenges of impact assessment in NRM Basu and Biswas Share of NRM Research and approximate research expenditure on Rainfed Farming in total research expenditure in ICAR: Share of NRM Research and approximate research expenditure on Rainfed Farming in total research expenditure in ICAR Year NRM Research Expenditure (Rs. Crore ) Share of NRM Research Expenditure in total ICAR Research Expenditure (%) Approximate Research Expenditure on Rainfed Farming (Rs. Crore ) Share of RF Research Expenditure in total ICAR Research Expenditure (%) 2000-01 9.00 0.68% 185.22 13.99% 2009-10 279.41 8.57% 419.07 12.85% 16 ICAR Annual Report, 2011 Agricultural Extension Approaches: Agricultural Extension Approaches General agriculture extension approach Commodity specialized approach Training and visiting approach Participatory approach Project approach Farming system development approach Cost sharing approach Education institute approach 17 Axinn , 1988 Extension approaches for NRM: Extension approaches for NRM Creation of natural resources like forests, water bodies Preservation through social fencing Pollution control through policy formulation ITK appropriate use and application Watershed management to generate livelihood and conserve natural resources Monitoring: Benefit monitoring evaluation Elimination of negative factors operating in the eco-system Rejuvenation of degraded or age old resources base Peoples participation 18 Adhikary and Acharya Community Based Organizations : 19 Community Based Organizations Some of the methods followed for capacity building in Community Participation :  Some of the methods followed for capacity building in Community Participation Individual house visits Informal group meeting Village meetings Grama sabhas Jathas Poster distribution Wall painting Conducting PRA exercises Baseline data survey Health camps 20 PowerPoint Presentation: Community Based Natural Resources Management (CBNRM) 21 Basic concept To address the goals of environmental, economic and social justice Integrates wildlife conservation and rural development objective in a single program package Emphasizes benefits to natural resource dependent communities and pursuers of subsistence livelihoods Cont…: 22 Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) is a systemic approach to conservation, that allows those closest to the resource, and who bear the costs of conservation, to manage the resource and benefit from its management and use. Cont… PowerPoint Presentation:  CBNRM…. The key assumptions being that: Locals are better placed to conserve natural resources People will conserve a resource only if benefits exceed the costs of conservation, and People will conserve a resource that is linked directly to their quality of life (Thakadu, O. T. 2005) 23 PowerPoint Presentation: To manage natural resources in a sustainable way to achieve conservation and community development objectives Objective of CBNRM : Tools of CBNRM The PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal) with its tool for planning, awareness raising, and capacity building The simplified land use plan as a natural resource management tool integrated with development The gender approach insuring the participation of disadvantaged groups 24 Community Participation in Development:  Community Participation in Development Facilitates the use of local knowledge and opinions in designing plans, programmes and projects Enhances local ownership and empowers marginalized people by providing opportunities to acquire skills, knowledge and experience Helps to facilitate the integration of marginalized people into wider society, and encourages good governance and economic growth Facilitates co-operation and programme efficiency Helps to ensure sustainability, make development activities more effective, and builds local capacity 25 Bond et al . 2006 Expected results: Expected results Sustainable Natural Resource Management Ownership Equity Improved biodiversity Living together with harmony 26 Conditions for “Successful” Community-Based Natural Resource Management: 27 Conditions for “Successful” Community-Based Natural Resource Management “ Homogeneous” communities – common objectives, recognised common interests , social cohesion Benefits exceed costs Clearly defined boundaries to resources to be managed Limited uses and users Decentralised decision-making “ Simple” administrative structures Long-term engagement Leadership -“champions” to lead the process IFAD Workshop, Rome, 2004 Benefits from CBNRM: Benefits from CBNRM 28 Direct benefits Investment in rural infrastructure through CBO projects Direct cash dividends earned from partnerships Employment opportunities with private sector Employment opportunities with community based organizations Indirect benefits Maintenance or growth of stocks of natural resources Capacity – building Opportunities to diversify local economy, and integration into the market place Bond et al ., 2006 DRIVES FOR COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION: DRIVES FOR COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION Individual drives Rajendra Singh-Rajasthan Anna Hazare- Ralegan Siddhi Pani Panchayat - Maharashtra Salu marada Timmakka Project ( Govt ) mode Sujala Watershed Project Integrated Wasteland Development Project NWDPRA NABARD Watershed projects NGO - Govt Drives Agriculture Science Foundation, H ulakoti - NABARD Watershed Project Grameen Gyan Abhiyan (GGA)- MSSRF MYRADA Agha Khan Rural Support Programme (AKRSP) 29 Rajendra Singh – “Waterman of Rajasthan” :  Rajendra Singh – “Waterman of Rajasthan” Rajendra Singh, popularly known as ‘ Jal Purush ’ or Waterman of Rajasthan  is an inspirational figure who has transformed the life of people in >1,000 villages in Aravalli Hills. In 1985, Rajendra Singh heads an NGO ‘ Tarun Bharat Sangh ’ (TBS) In 1986, he initiated a  Ped Bachao-Ped Lagao padyatra ,  for Forest Protection Committees In 2002 National Water March ( Rashtriya Jal Yatra )   Jungle- Jeevan Bachao Yatra , it covers 21 forest sanctuaries He also organised an ultimately successful  Aravali Bachao Yatra , the Rajasthan Govt. closed nearly 1000 mines in the whole of Rajasthan, 470 of which were in and around Sariska National Park 30 Achievements Awards: 31 Indira Gandhi Paryavaran Puraskar (1994)   by the Govt. of India International River Prize (1995) Ramon Magsaysay Award  for Community Leadership (2001) Jamnalal Bajaj Award (2008) for water harvesting by building check dams across Rajasthan. Awards SUJALA WATERSHED PROJECT (2001): SUJALA WATERSHED PROJECT (2001) Sujala a community driven watershed development project with a total budget of Rs.557 crores , is being implemented in seven districts World Bank Assisted Project of Government of Karnataka Covering areas- Kolar , Chikkabalapur , Tumkur , Madhugiri , Chitradurga , Haveri and Dharwad of Karnataka covering 4.29 lakhs ha. Spread over in 77 sub-watersheds and 1270 villages benefiting nearly 4.0 lakhs households including landless 32 PowerPoint Presentation: Strengthen community and institutional arrangements for natural resource management Strengthen the capacity of communities in the project districts for participatory involvement in planning, implementation, social and environmental management and maintenance 33 sujala water.FLV Objectives Integrated Wasteland Development Project (2001) :  Integrated Wasteland Development Project (2001) Launched by the Ministry of Rural Development for re-generation of degraded non-forest land through people’s participation Objective of the scheme is aimed at an integrated wasteland based on Village/Micro Watershed Plans Major activities can be taken up under this scheme:-   Soil & moisture conservation measures Planting and sowing of multi-purpose trees Encouraging natural regeneration Promotion of agro-forestry and horticulture Encouraging people’s participation 34 National Watershed Development Projects for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA) : National Watershed Development Projects for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA) Introduced during 1990-91 in Andhra Pradesh and continued up to 1996-97 during VIII plan period Implemented in 94 watersheds covering 19 districts of Andhra Pradesh Impact of the implication of the scheme Watershed workers were planned for treatment and development of drainage lines both in arable and non-arable lands in watershed areas with active participation and users group SHGs formed from watershed village community to achieve their income generating activity and self sustainability 35 Objectives :  Objectives Conservation, development and sustainable management of natural resources including their use Enhancement of agricultural productivity and production in sustainable manner Restoration of ecological balance in the degraded and fragile eco-system by trees and grasses Reduction in regional disparity between irrigated and rainfed areas Creation of sustained employment opportunities for the rural community including the landless 36 NABARD PROJECTS: NABARD PROJECTS Watershed Development Projects implemented by NABARD has resulted in creation replicable models of participatory watershed development has helped in augmentation of natural resources and improvement in livelihood of watershed communities Importance of Participatory Approach Focused on the regeneration and equitable use of the resources in the particular environment on which the village depends for its needs The people voluntarily must come together and accept full responsibility for regenerating their environment from concept to planning, implementation, supervision, maintenance of project measures and associated practices To make the project sustainable, it is necessary for all the key actors, like the Watershed Community, NGOs, Banks, Government Institutions and Technical Service Organizations, to participate actively and in close coordination with each other 37 MSSRF (Grameen Gyan Abhiyan) (M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation -1988) : MSSRF ( Grameen Gyan Abhiyan ) (M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation -1988) Six major thematic areas: Coastal Systems Research- To achieve sustainable management of coastal resources, such as cyclone, storm surges and tsunami in coastal zones Biodiversity- To optimize conservation and livelihood benefits of the poor who live in the ‘biodiversity hotspots’ Biotechnology- Genome Clubs in schools and conduct genetic literacy programmes in rural areas for young men and women with a functional knowledge of genetics 38 PowerPoint Presentation: 4) Ecotechnology - To extend the techniques of sustainable management of natural resources, managed by the local community of farm women and men 5) Food Security- The Community Food grain Banks, Kitchen gardens, capacity building of women farmers, to awareness creation on households' entitlements relating to government schemes on food and nutrition 6) Information, Education and Communication- Village Resource Centres (VRCs) and Village Knowledge Centres (VKCs), mainly provide need-based locale-specific, demand driven information content 39 Contd … MYRADA: MYRADA Established in 1968, MYRADA is a non-governmental organization working for micro-credit initiatives and sustainable development in Southern India Areas of Work 1. Rural credit systems 2. Organizations of women 3. Management of micro watersheds 4. Forestry 5. Resettlement 40 PowerPoint Presentation: Hanumantrao Committee Recommendations Based on report of DPAP and DDP project, following recommendations are made: People's participation is must. There must be coordination between line Departments. Local people must involve in planning and implementation. Report of the Technical Committee on Drought prone Areas Programme and Desert Development Programme, April 1994. 41 Districts with Environmental Degradation in an extreme form: Districts with Environmental Degradation in an extreme form Sl. No Districts Agricultural Practices 1 Shimoga , Mandya , Belgaum and Raichur Excessive use of chemicals 2 Gulbarga, Raichur and Bijapur Excessive use of pesticides 3 All districts in the north eastern plain region Soil Erosion 4 Districts in Central and Western Ghat Region Water Erosion 42 Department of Water Resources, GoK . Major Constraints: Major Constraints Community level conflicts Evaluation of action impacts Difficulties to access the sites Lacking GIS expertise Locals may be reluctant to challenge government recommendations for fear of losing promised benefits Partners are expecting too much from the activities taken up 43 PowerPoint Presentation: Research studies 44 PowerPoint Presentation: Research Study 1. SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND NATURAL RESOURCES IMPACT OF SUJALA WATERSHED PROJECT IN KARNATAKA Govinda Gowda, V. and Sathish, A. (2011) I. Land and Water Study area Kolar, Tumkur, Chitradurga, Haveri & Dharwad Sample size 10% of the beneficiaries Study objectives To study the unique approaches & interventions of SUJALA watershed project. To study the resultant impact on the natural resource as well as on the socio-economic life of the beneficiary farmers. 45 PowerPoint Presentation:  Sujala Watershed Project Model Private (NGO) People (CBO’s) Public (Govt) Watershed development department Private People Public Participation Planning Contribution Implementation Management and maintenance Fund management Awareness raising Capacity building Hand holding Agril. and other research instit utions Public finance institutions Facilitators Technical inputs & credit flow 46 PowerPoint Presentation: Impact indicators Baseline Mid-term impacts 1. Household income Avg household income- Rs 10,036 Avg household income- Rs 16,790 2. Crop yields ------ Yield increased upto 6-15% 3. Ground water recharge Bore well – 400ft (drill depth) Dug well - 45 ft Bore well increase in level by 4-5 ft Dug well increase in level by 1.2- 2 ft Period of availability increased by 2- 3 months 4. Milk, Fodder production Fodder 50-80% dependent on others Milk yield increased by 15-20% Fodder dependence decreased by 5-10% 5. Productivity of non-arable land Percentage of land in low productivity (10-20%) Productivity in non-arable lands increased by 5-10% Mid-term Impact of 1st phase watershed interventions on Natural resource base and livelihoods 47 PowerPoint Presentation: Impact on water Resources due to Project Interventions in Phase-1 District % Nalas rejuvenated % Bore wells rejuvenated % Open wells rejuvenated Dharwad 44 52 25 Kolar 38 93 5 Chitradurga 81 75 79 Tumkur 51 76 39 Haveri 25 70 39 Average 48 73 37 48 PowerPoint Presentation: Research Study 2 . IMPACT OF COMMUNITY BASED TANK MANAGEMENT PROJECT ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF BENEFICIERY FARMERS IN BIDAR DISTRICT Savita (2008) Study area Bidar district, Karnataka. Sample size N=150 Objectives of the study: To study the personal, socio-economic and psychological characteristics of beneficiary farmers. Impact of community based tank management project on socio-economic status of beneficiary farmers. 49 PowerPoint Presentation: Impact of community based tank management project on socio-economic status of beneficiary farmers Sl. No Variables Classification Before (%) After (%) Difference (%) 1 Occupation 1. Primary 2. Secondary a. Agriculture b. Agril. labour a. Business b. Service 90.66 09.34 14.00 04.00 97.34 02.66 26.00 04.00 06.66 -06.66 12.00 0 2 No of house owned One house Two house 100.00 0 100.00 10.60 --- 10.66 3 Land holding Marginal farmers Small farmers Medium farmers Large farmers 10.66 36.66 33.34 19.34 08.00 30.67 40.67 20.66 -02.66 -06.00 07.34 01.34 4 Source of irrigation Well Bore well Tank 23.34 12.00 --- 42.00 19.34 04.00 18.66 07.34 04.00 5 Organizational participation Low Medium High 64.00 16.00 20.00 22.00 47.34 30.66 -42.00 31.34 10.66 Contd… 50 PowerPoint Presentation: Sl . No Variables Classification Before (%) After (%) Difference(%) 6. Farm power Bullocks Power tiller Tractor Sprayer Duster One pair Two pair 25.33 --- --- 01.34 30.00 06.00 4134 05.34 01.34 01.34 41.34 11.34 16.00 05.34 01.34 --- 11.34 05.34 7. Material possession Bullock cart Radio Television Improved agril. implements One cart Two cart a. 1-2 b. 3-4 c. 5-6 16.00 --- 22.66 12.66 23.34 08.66 02.00 28.00 --- 61.33 25.34 36.00 13.34 03.34 12.00 --- 38.66 12.66 12.66 04.67 01.34 51 Impact of community based tank management project on land productivity of beneficiary farmers: Impact of community based tank management project on land productivity of beneficiary farmers Crops Before (avg yield/acre) After (avg yield/acre) Difference (avg yield/acre) Sugarcane 35 t/acre 40 t/acre 5 t/acre Redgram 3.5 qt/acre 6 qt/acre 2.5qt/acre Jowar 8 t/acre 13 qt/acre 5 qt/acre Impact of community based tank management project on annual income of beneficiary farmers Farmer category Avg annual income before (Rs) Avg annual income after (Rs) Difference (Rs) Marginal farmers 8,000 17,000 9,000 Small farmers 13,000 26,000 13,000 Medium farmers 19,000 37,000 18,000 Large farmers 29,000 54,000 25,000 52 PowerPoint Presentation: SUCCESS STORIES The five principles of Anna Hazare are Nasbandi  (restriction of family size)  Nashabandi  (ban on alcohol) Charaibandi  (ban on free grazing) Kurhabandi  (ban on tree felling) and  Shramdan  (donation of voluntary labour for community welfare). 1. Model village- Ralegan Siddhi 53 Impact of water conservation activities in Ralegan Siddhi: Impact of water conservation activities in Ralegan Siddhi Sl no Particulars Village scenario before Village scenario after 1 Sowing area Only one crop (300-350 acres) Two crops (1300 acres) 2 Migration All most half the villagers Completely stopped 3 Employment Go to near by villages in search of employment Hiring near by village labours 4 Milk production 300 lts/month 4,000 lts/month 5 Per capita income 250 Rs 2,500 Rs 54 VIDEO PowerPoint Presentation: 2 . Pani Panchayat "Pani Panchayat" is associate organisation of Gram Gaurav Prathisthan.. Pani Panchayat are committed to Sustainable Development of the Villages through equable distribution of water to all of its people in the village Objectives : To achieve sustainable rural development. To identity local needs, local resources, local talents, local strength and to integrate them. To carry out experiments for optimum use of natural resources like water, land and solar energy. To develop cropping patterns agriculture cultivation methods and living habits to suit available resources. Services Community lift Irrigation schemes Assessment of water resources Organic Farming 55 PowerPoint Presentation: Community lift Irrigation schemes Sr. No . Particular 2003-04 2004-05 1 No. of Schemes 4 23 2 No. of Villages 4 19 3 No. of Beneficiaries 20 148 4 Irrigated Area ( in Acre) 77.5 475 5 Total installed HP 21 166 6 Total Cost 286720 1033560 56 PowerPoint Presentation: CONCLUSION 57 PowerPoint Presentation:  Thank you 58

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