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Ceramics and Glass Technology (Silicate Glasses, Boric Oxide and Borate Glasses, Phosphorus Pentoxide and Phosphate Glasses, Germanium Dioxide and Germanate Glasses, Nitrate Glasses)

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Information about Ceramics and Glass Technology (Silicate Glasses, Boric Oxide and Borate...

Published on August 26, 2016

Author: ei1234

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1. Ceramics and Glass Technology (Silicate Glasses, Boric Oxide and Borate Glasses, Phosphorus Pentoxide and Phosphate Glasses, Germanium Dioxide and Germanate Glasses, Nitrate Glasses, Halide Glasses, Chalcogenide Glasses, Modern Glass Working, Monax and Pyrex Glass)

2. Introduction Glass-ceramics are mostly produced in two steps: First, a glass is formed by a glass-manufacturing process. The glass is cooled down and is then reheated in a second step. In this heat treatment the glass partly crystallizes. In most cases nucleation agents are added to the base composition of the glass-ceramic. These nucleation agents aid and control the crystallization process. Glass-ceramics are fine-grained polycrystalline materials formed when glasses of suitable compositions are heat treated and thus undergo controlled crystallization to the lower energy, crystalline state. It is important to emphasize a number of points in this statement on glass ceramics. Technavio’s market research analyst predicts that the glass ceramics market will grow at a modest CAGR of just over 6% during the forecast period. www.entrepreneurindia.co

3. www.entrepreneurindia.co Glass ceramics has helped the electronics industry build much smaller and highly efficient transistors, leading to advances in all types of devices. Ceramic devices and implants are also very much in demand by the medical industry. A number of surgeons prefer to use ceramic implants as they are very strong, resistant to corrosion and also bio- compatible. Ceramic materials are widely used in building projects in commercial and industrial sectors as these materials effectively help reduce sound and are cost-effective compared to other materials. The glass ceramics of the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 system show promise as construction materials. They are used for abrasion and chemically resistant parts or floor and wall tile in the chemical, mechanical, construction as well as heavy industries.

4. www.entrepreneurindia.co The technology of glass ceramics are now a day wide field involving a great variety of raw materials, manufacturing processes, as well as products, and of considerable diversity in theoretical background. The manufacture of traditional glasses and ceramics is based on the utilization of the most widely occurring natural raw materials. Glass is an inorganic product that is typically produced by melting a mixture of silica, soda and calcium compound with the desired metallic oxides that serve as colouring agents. The glass industry covers products such as silicate glasses, phosphate glasses, germanate glasses, halide glasses, nitrate glasses etc.

5. www.entrepreneurindia.co Glass products are used widely in households, construction, laboratories and consumer items such as bangles, beads, pearls, etc. A ceramic is an inorganic, nonmetallic solid prepared by the action of heat and subsequent cooling. Ceramic materials may have a crystalline or partly crystalline structure, or may be amorphous (e.g., a glass). Because most common ceramics are crystalline, the definition of ceramic is often restricted to inorganic crystalline materials, as opposed to the noncrystalline glasses. Commercial application of glass ceramics are dinnerware, fine mesh screens, cookware, burner covers, semiconductor doping sources etc. The domestic glass industry is facing increasing competition in the global, as well as domestic markets. State of the art technology in manufacturing is becoming increasingly important in the industry.

6. www.entrepreneurindia.co Modern technology and operations are replacing traditional methodologies in fibre glass composites. The demand for ceramic and glass products is growing globally with over 90 percent of the total demand for advanced ceramic materials coming from electronic goods and allied industries, thanks to the product ability to withstand extreme environmental conditions. This book majorly deals with types of glasses, silicate glasses, boric oxide and borate glasses, phosphorus pentoxide and phosphate glasses, germanium dioxide and germanate glasses, titanate glasses, nitrate glasses, glasses based on water, halide glasses, modern glass working, monax and pyrex glass, electric welding, photo electric cells, glassy metals, analysis of glass, glass ceramics, ceramics as electrical materials, analysis of ceramics etc.

7. www.entrepreneurindia.co The technology of glass ceramics are now a day wide field involving a great variety of raw materials, manufacturing processes, as well as products, and of considerable diversity in theoretical background. The manufacture of traditional glasses and ceramics is based on the utilization of the most widely occurring natural raw materials. The efforts have been made to provide maximum and latest information about processing of glass and ceramics and their products in this book. This book is an invaluable resource for entrepreneurs, technocrats, manufacturers of glass and ceramic products, research scholars, technical institutions etc.

8. www.entrepreneurindia.co Table of Contents 1. GLASS Structure Composition Single-Phase Glasses Glass-Ceramics and Phase-Separated Glasses Properties Manufacture and Processing 2. TYPES OF GLASSES A. Chemical Composition B. Devitrification of Fused Silica 1.The Phases of Silica 2. Crystalline Phases Produced by the Devitrification of Fused Silica 3. Effect of Impurities on the Rate of Devitrification of Vitreous Silica 4. Effect of Atmosphere on the Rate of Devitrification 5. Detailed Studies of Devitrification Kinetics 6. Comparison of Calculated and Measured Growth Rates

9. www.entrepreneurindia.co C. The Kinetics Of Melting Of Quartz And Cristobalite 1. Superheating of Quartz and Cristobalite Melting 2.Evidence for Residual Crystalline Structures in Fused Silica D. Viscosity of Fused Silica 3. SILICATE GLASSES A. Binary Systems 1. Alkali Silicate Systems a. Structural considerations b.Glass formation in the alkali silicate systems c.Phase diagrams of the alkali silicate systems d. The kinetics of devitrification 2. Binary Systems Containing Alkaline Earth Oxides B. THE NA2O-CAO-SIO2 SYSTEM 1. Structural Considerations 2. The Glass-forming Region 3. The Phase Diagram 4. Devitrification Kinetics

10. www.entrepreneurindia.co C. SOME SPECIAL SILICATE GLASSES 1. Alkali Aluminosilicates 2. Invert Glasses 4. BORIC OXIDE AND BORATE GLASSES A. The Preparation and Properties of Boric Oxide Glass B. Glass Formation in Binary Borate Systems 1. Ranges of Glass Formation 2. Phase Diagrams 3. Chemical Bonding in Systems Containing Highly Polarizable Cations C. Ternary Systems 1. The Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 System 2. Aluminoborate Systems D. The Structure of Vitreous Boric Oxide and Borate Glasses 1. Vitreous Boric Oxide 2. Alkali Borate Glasses

11. www.entrepreneurindia.co 5. PHOSPHORUS PENTOXIDE AND PHOSPHATE GLASSES` A. Phosphorus Pentoxide 1. Structure and Polymorphism 2. Polymorphic Transformations and Melting 3. Viscosity and Melt Allotropy B. Glass Formation in Binary Phosphate Systems 1. Regions of Glass Formation 2. The Structure of Phosphate Glasses 3. Paper Chromatography of Phosphate Glasses 4. Devitrification Kinetics of Sodium Metaphosphate Glass 5. The Role of B2O3 and Al2O3 in Phosphate Glasses 6. GERMANIUM DIOXIDE AND GERMANATE GLASSES A. Germanium Dioxide 1. Structure and Allotropy 2. GeO2 Glass : Viscosity

12. www.entrepreneurindia.co B. Glass Formation in GeO2 systems 1. Experimental Results 2. Phase Diagrams 3. The Structure of Alkali Germanate Glasses and Mels Tellurite and Vanadate Glasses A. Tellurite Glasses 1. Glass Formation 2. The Structure of TeO2 and Tellurite Glasses 3. Viscosity of Tellurite Melts: Liquidus Temperatures B. Vanadate Glasses 1. Glass Formation 2. Liquidus Temperature in Vanadate Systems 3. The Structure of V2O5 and Vanadate Melts Miscellaneous Oxide Glasses A. Aluminate Glasses 1. Glass-forming Compositions 2. Liquidus Temperatures; Structure B. Glasses Base Ga2O3

13. www.entrepreneurindia.co C. Carbonate Glasses D. Titanate Glasses E. Glasses Based on As2O3, Sb2O3 AND Bi2O3 1. Glass-Forming Behaviour of the Oxides 2. Binary Systems F. Glasses Based on MoO3 AND WO3 G. Sulphate and Selenite Glasses 7. NITRATE GLASSES A. Glass-Forming Systems B. The System KNO3-Ca(NO3)2 C. Theories of Glass Formation 1. Structural Considerations 2. Kinetic Considerations D. The Mechanism of Melting 8. GLASSES BASED ON WATER A. Vitreous Water

14. www.entrepreneurindia.co B. The System H2O-H2O C. Other Aqueous Solutions D. Structure of Water E. Hydrogen Bonding in KHSO4 9. HALIDE GLASSES A. BeF2 Glasses 1. BeF2 2. Model Relationships between Fluorides and Oxides 3. Binary Fluorberyllate Systems 4. Microphase Separation B. Other Fluoride Glasses C. ZnCl2 Glasses 10. CHALCOGENIDE GLASSES A. Comparison with Other Systems B. Structure and Melting Behaviour of Elements in Groups IV, V and VI

15. www.entrepreneurindia.co C. Sulphur, Selenium and Tellurium 1. Sulphur 2. Selenium 3. Tellurium D. Binary Glasses 1. Chalcogenides with Group V Elements 2. Chalcogenides with Group IV Elements E. Ternary Glasses 1. Glasses Based on Arsenic Chalcogenides 2. Glasses Containing Both Group IV and Group V elements F. Halogen-Containing Glasses G. Viscosity of Binary Glasses H. Phase Diagrams of Binary Chalcogenide Systems I. Structures of Chalcogenide Compounds and Glasses 1. Chalcogenides of Group IV Elements 2. Chalcogenides of Group V Elements 3. Structures of the Chalcogenide Glasses

16. www.entrepreneurindia.co 11. MODERN GLASS WORKING General Considerations and Equipment Physical Properties of Glass General Considerations and Equipment Physical Properties of Glass Kinds of Laboratory Glass Soda-Glass The Glass Working Flame. The Blowpipe Other Types of Blowpipe The Hand Blowpipe The Compressed Air The Glass Working Bench Bloom and Devitrification Annealing Storing and Cleaning Glass 12. FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS Skill Cutting Glass Tubing

17. www.entrepreneurindia.co Instruments in use for Starting the Crack (1) The Glass Knife. (2) Steel Files. (3) Specially hardened Steel Wheels. (4) Diamond. Methods of Propagating the Crack (a) Mechanical. (1) Manual Pressure. (2) Impact. (b) The Application of Heat. (1) The Electrically Heated Hot Wire. (2) Hot Glass Rod. (3) The Blowpipe Flame. (4) Hot Iron Wires. The Importance of good Glass Cutting Rotating the Tube in the Flame Bending Glass Tubing Bending Wide Tubing Drawing Out and Constructing A Tube

18. www.entrepreneurindia.co Bordering Sealing a Tube Blowing Bulbs (a) At the end of a Tube. (b) In the middle of the Tube. Joining Two Tubes of the Same Diameter Method I. Method II. To Blow a Hole in the Side of a Tube Composite Operations Joining Two Tubes of Unequal Diameters Blowing Larger Bulbs (a) From a Bulb in the Middle of a Tube. (b) From a Larger Tube Sealed On. T-Joints Internal Seals (a) Inner tuber unsupported. (b) Inner tube supported. Closed Circuits of Tubing

19. www.entrepreneurindia.co 13. MONAX AND PYREX GLASS General Monax Glass Physical Properties Cutting Bending Blowing Small Joints Large Joints Annealing Pyrex Glass Physical Properties Cutting Bending Blowing Joints Annealing

20. www.entrepreneurindia.co 14. SEALING METALS INTO GLASS Platinum Copper-Clad Wire Tungsten Copper to Glass 15. ELECTRIC WELDING General Resistance Welding Strength of Welded Wires ARC Welding 16. VACCUM TUBES The Conduction of Gases The Electrodes Positive Rays X-ray Fluorescence The Fleming Valve The De Forest Valve

21. www.entrepreneurindia.co 17. PHOTO-ELECTRIC CELLS General Photo-Emissive Cells Cell Construction Working the Cell Photo-Voltaic Cells Cuprous-oxide-copper Other Semi-Conductors 18. VACUUM TECHNIQUE Diffusion Pumps Theory Jet Design Working Substance Jets in Series Cleaning Insulation

22. www.entrepreneurindia.co Heating Joints The Importance of Wide Tubing Use of a Reservoir Connections and Taps Precautions 19. LEAKS, OUT-GASSING AND SEALING OFF Leaks Out-Gassing The Electric Furnace Sealing Off 'Clean-up' and 'Getters' 20. MEASUREMENT OF LOW PRESSURES The McLEOD Gauge Construction Other Indications of Pressure

23. www.entrepreneurindia.co 21. GLASSY METALS Structure Properties Thermal Behaviour Formation Preparation Applications 22. ANALYSIS OF GLASS Methods of Anylysis Composition Analysis Chemical Methods for Individual Constituents Procedure Procedure Procedures Procedure Procedures Procedures

24. www.entrepreneurindia.co Calculate the zirconium content as zirconium dioxide, ZrO2. Procedures Calculate the antimony as antimony trioxide, Sb2O3. Calculate the antimony content of the sample as antimonous oxide, Sb2O3. Procedures Procedures Redox State Determinations Chelometry Procedures Flame Spectroscopy Method for Alkali Metals in Glass by Flame Emission Spectrometry. Procedure Emission Spectroscopy X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy Spark Source Spectrometry Electroanalytical Methods

25. www.entrepreneurindia.co Coulometry Determination of Properties Spectrophotometry Procedure Procedure Microscopy Electron Microprobe Analysis 23. GLASS-CERAMICS The Glass-Ceramic Process Properties Commercial Applications 24. Ceramics SCOPE

26. www.entrepreneurindia.co 25. RAW MATERIALS Clays Nonclay Minerals Special Materials 26. FORMING PROCESS Material Preparation Forming Process Thermal Treatment Methods of Thermal Treatment Physical and Chemical Changes During Thermal Treatment 27. CERAMICS POTTERY The Indian Industry Raw Materials Manufacture Production and Trade

27. www.entrepreneurindia.co 28. PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS Composition and Microstructure Chemical Properties of Ceramic Materia's Optical Properties Thermal Properties Elastic Properties Electrical and Magnetic Properties Composites and Cermets Uses of Ceramics 29. CERAMICS AS ELECTRICAL MATERIALS Electrical Conduction Phenomena Ionic Conduction in Ceramics Electronic conduction in Ceramics Nonstoichiometric and Solute-Controlled Electronic Ceramics. Ceramics With High Electronic Conductivity or With Nonlinear Behaviour Mixed Conduction in Ceramics

28. www.entrepreneurindia.co 30. ANALYSIS OF CERAMICS Abrasives Cements, Lime, and Gypsum Clay Products, Whitewares, and Porcelains Enamels and Glazes Glass and Glass Ceramics Refractories Newer Ceramics Methods of Analysis Determination of The Chemical Composition Sampling Sample Dissolution Procedure Analysis Emission Spectroscopy X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

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44. Sectors We Cover Cont… o Infrastructure Projects o Jute & Jute Based Products o Leather And Leather Based Projects o Leisure & Entertainment Based Projects o Livestock Farming Of Birds & Animals o Minerals And Minerals o Maize Processing(Wet Milling) & Maize Based Projects o Medical Plastics, Disposables Plastic Syringe, Blood Bags o Organic Farming, Neem Products Etc. www.entrepreneurindia.co

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48. Contact us Niir Project Consultancy Services 106-E, Kamla Nagar, New Delhi-110007, India. Email: [email protected] , [email protected] Tel: +91-11-23843955, 23845654, 23845886 Mobile: +91-9811043595 Fax: +91-11-23841561 Website : www.niir.org www.entrepreneurindia.co Take a look at NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES on #StreetView https://goo.gl/VstWkd www.niir.org www.entrepreneurindia.co

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