Published on December 31, 2007
Toward the Pacific Century: Toward the Pacific Century 29 Modern South Asia: Modern South Asia The End of the British Raj: The End of the British Raj Problems between Hindus and Muslims Calls for a separate state Independence of India and Pakistan, August 15, 1947 Rulers had to choose which state they would join Problems Gandhi assassinated January 30, 1948 Independent India: Independent India Indian National Congress would be the Congress Party Jawaharlal Nehru, Prime Minister Initial problems An Experiment in Democratic Socialism: An Experiment in Democratic Socialism Political system reflective of Britain’s parliamentary system with a figurehead president Moderate socialism State controls major industries and resources, transportation, and utilities Neutral and independent position Continued friction with Pakistan War between India and Pakistan, 1965 Supports East Pakistan in confrontation with Pakistan, 1971 Post-Nehru Era: Post-Nehru Era Daughter of Nehru, Indira Gandhi (1917-1984), 1966-1984 Endorses democratic socialism Neutrality in foreign affairs Concern over poverty Problem of population growth Rise of ethnic and religious strife Assassinated by Sikh bodyguard Rajiv Gandhi (1944-1991) Problems on Sri Lanka The militant Hindu Bharata Janata Party (BJP) Prime Minister A.B. Vajpayee took control Pakistan since Independence: Pakistan since Independence Independence in August, 1947 Made up of two parts: West Pakistan: The Indus River basin and West Punjab East Pakistan made up of marshy deltas Democratic state opposed by those who wished state based on Islamic principles Dangerous situation of divided Pakistan Military ruled from 1958, but civilian government under Zulfikar Ali Bhutto restored in 1971 General Zia Ul Ha’q, 1977, seized power Benazir Bhutto elected president Supporter of secularism Removed by the military in 1990 Reelected in 1993 but later removed by the military General Pervaiz Musharraf seized power in 1999 Terrorism Kashmir and relations with India Poverty and Pluralism in South Asia: Poverty and Pluralism in South Asia The politics of communalism Attempt at democracy India less than democratic state Became a one-party state Charges of corruption Communalism a problem Ethnic, linguistic, and religious divisions Sikh separatism Hindu and Muslim antagonism Economy: Economy Nehru sought socialist ownership through five-year plans Industrial growth slowed by 1970s Agricultural problems Overpopulation Privatization and foreign investment Environmental damage Rich and poor in Bombay: Slum housing, with upscale apartments in background Rich and poor in Bombay Caste, Class, and Gender: Caste, Class, and Gender Constitution of 1950 guarantees equal treatment and opportunity for all Untouchability persists Harijans, or dalits, perform menial tasks Equal treatment of sexes Ends child marriage, sati, dowry Greater opportunities among middle-class women Modern role at work and submissive at home In rural areas: Purdah Equality laws generally ignored South Asian Art and Literature Since Independence: South Asian Art and Literature Since Independence Indo-Anglican literature Anita Desai (b. 1937) Focuses on struggle for independence for women Salman Rushdie (b. 1947) Achievements and frustrations of independent India Uses magical realism Attacks religious intolerance, political tyranny, social injustice, and greed and corruption The Satanic Verses provoked criticism Art affected by the colonial experience Gandhi’s Vision: Gandhi’s Vision Westernization and the resilience of tradition The challenge of reconciling the new and the old Challenges to the emergence of true democracy in India Southeast Asia: Southeast Asia Philippines granted independence from U.S., July 1946 Britain gave independence to Burma in 1948 and after subduing communist guerrillas, Malaya in 1957 Dutch resist Indonesian independence until 1950 France withdraws from Vietnam in 1954 The Search for a New Political Culture: The Search for a New Political Culture Burma’s government gives way to a military government In Thailand the military ruled Philippines fell under the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos Authoritarian rule of Ngo Dinh Diem in South Vietnam Independence had not brought material prosperity or ended economic inequality Widespread ethnic, linguistic, cultural, and economic differences made transition to democracy difficult Indonesia Fell under the control of Sukarno (1901-1970) and “Guided Democracy” when the constitution was dissolved Nationalized foreign enterprises Sought economic aid from China and the Soviet Union Military government under General Suharto installed in 1967 Muslim demands for an Islamic state Post-War Conflicts in East Asia: Post-War Conflicts in East Asia Modern Southeast Asia: Modern Southeast Asia Recent Trends Toward Democracy: Recent Trends Toward Democracy Marcos regime overthrown in 1986 and a democratically elected government put in place with President Corazon Aquino Economic problems Muslims in the southern island of Mindanao seeking autonomy or independence Malaysia Tensions between Malays and Chinese Muslims want to create an Islamic state Indonesia Suharto overthrown in 1998 Replaced by B. J. Habibie Charges of corruption Replaced with Megawati Sukarnoputri Vietnam more open Myanmar (Burma) controlled by the military since 1960s Increasing Prosperity and Financial Crisis: Increasing Prosperity and Financial Crisis Rapid economic development in Malaysia and Thailand Impact of the financial crisis of 1997 Regional Conflict and Cooperation: The Rise of ASEAN: Regional Conflict and Cooperation: The Rise of ASEAN Border disputes After Vietnam, sought political and military cohesion to resist further communist encroachment in the region Cambodia and the Khmer Rouge Association for the Southeast Asian Nations sought cooperation on social and economic endeavors A cohesive voice Daily Life: Town and Country in Contemporary Southeast Asia: Daily Life: Town and Country in Contemporary Southeast Asia Rural areas almost unchanged Urban areas resemble the West New urban workers change attitudes and values Developing secular attitudes A blend of traditional and new Women Have always enjoyed a higher status than elsewhere in Asia Do have full legal and political rights Not equal to men A Region in Flux The Japanese Miracle: The Transformation of Modern Japan: The Japanese Miracle: The Transformation of Modern Japan General Douglas MacArthur Demilitarize Japan, destroy the war machine, try war crimes, and lay the foundation for postwar Japanese society Policy designed to break up the business cartels, known as zaibatsu Constitution, land reform, and changes in the educational system Effects of the Cold War Politics and Government: Politics and Government Two major parties In 1993, new parties emerged leading to coalition governments Political corruption Active government involvement in the economy Textbooks do not adequately deal with atrocities committed by the Japanese government during the war Modern Japan: Modern Japan The Economy: The Economy “Japanese miracle” Meiji reforms Keiretsu Zaibatsu Land Reforms Economy in difficulty today High value of the yen hurt exports Tradition of lifetime work; downsizing difficult Large portion of burden fell on women Closed markets beginning to open up A Society in Transition: A Society in Transition Allies sought to change social characteristics that contributed to Japanese aggressiveness Individualistic values of the West Women’s rights enlarged Traditional values continue Education/antisocial behavior Sexual inequality Religion and Culture: Religion and Culture Christianity, Shinto, and Buddhism Soka Gakkai Zen Buddhism Literature Western ideas have had major impact Yukio Mishima (1925-1970) Kenzaburo Oe (b. 1935) Impact of Western music The Little Tigers: The Little Tigers South Korea: A Peninsula Divided Cease-fire signed at Panmunjon, July 1953 North Korea: People’s Republic of Korea South Korea: Republic of Korea President Syngman Rhee (1875-1965), autocratic Corruption leads to Rhee’s retirement General Chung Hee Park (1917-1979) New constitution and elected president in 1963 Chaebol (Korean zaibatsu) conglomerates created Slow to develop democratic principles Park assassinated, 1979 Military coup in 1980, General Chun Doo Hwan seized power Elections, 1989 Corruption and declining growth rate have caused serious economic problems Threat of North Korea as a nuclear power Taiwan: The Other China: Taiwan: The Other China Chiang Kai-shek and his followers fled to Taiwan after their defeat by Mao Named the Republic of China Security treaty with the United States signed in 1954 Agricultural base based upon land redistribution Local manufacturing and commerce strongly encouraged Maintenance of Chinese tradition and promoting respect for Confucius Standard of living has increased More representative government after Chiang Kai-shek died in 1975 Mainland China wants unification Modern Taiwan: Modern Taiwan Singapore and Hong Kong: The Littlest Tigers: Singapore and Hong Kong: The Littlest Tigers Once a British colony and briefly part of Malaysia, became independent in 1965 Prime Minister, Lee Kuan-yew (b. 1923) Cultivated an active business climate Public works projects to feed, house, and educate its 2 million citizens Shipbuilding, oil refineries, tourism, electronics, and finance Authoritarian political system under Lee Kuan-yew Goh Chok Tong Hong Kong was a British colony until returned to China in 1997 Cheap labor inundated with refugees from the mainland in 1950s and 1960s Free market On the Margins of Asia: Postwar Australia and New Zealand: On the Margins of Asia: Postwar Australia and New Zealand Not part of Asia More than half of current immigrants come from East Asia In New Zealand only about 3 percent of the population are Asian, 12 percent are Maoris who are native to the area Trade relations with Asia are increasing Explaining the East Asian Miracle: Explaining the East Asian Miracle The role of tradition The role of government action The emergence of a political elite dedicated to the maximization of productivity Support from the West Discussion Questions: Discussion Questions Is India a true democracy? Why or why not? What were Pakistan’s post-independence problems and how have the rulers dealt with them? What success have they had? What is ASEAN and how has it helped the nations of Southeast Asia? What has changed about Japan’s society since the Allied occupation after World War II? How would you explain the East Asian economic miracle?