Published on January 17, 2008
Chapter 7:Consumer Belief, Attitude, & Behavior Formation and Change: Consumer Behavior: A Framework John C. Mowen & Michael Minor Chapter 7: Consumer Belief, Attitude, & Behavior Formation and Change Key Concepts: Key Concepts Beliefs, attitudes, & behavioral intentions Attributes Direct formation of beliefs, etc. Hierarchies of effects The attitude-toward-the-object model The behavioral intentions model The elaboration likelihood model Balance theory Attitude toward ads Behavioral influence techniques of persuasion Consumer Beliefs About Product Attributes: Consumer Beliefs About Product Attributes Beliefs result from cognitive learning. Beliefs are the knowledge and inferences that a consumer has about objects, their attributes, and their benefits provided. Objects are the products, people, companies, and things about which people hold beliefs and attitudes. Benefits are the positive outcomes that attributes provide to the consumer. Attributes are the characteristics of an object Additional Info on Attributes: Additional Info on Attributes A halo effect occurs when consumers assume that because a product is good or bad on one product characteristic it is also good or bad on another product characteristic. Attribute importance A person’s assessment of the significance of an attribute. Influenced by amount of attention directed to the feature. A person’s self-concept, advertising, and the salience of the attribute can influence the attention focused on the feature. Consumer Attitudes: Consumer Attitudes Attitude is the amount of affect or feeling for or against a stimulus Attitudes are stored in long-term memory Beliefs are the cognitive knowledge about an object In high involvement situations, beliefs predict attitudes. The Functions of Attitudes: The Functions of Attitudes Utilitarian Function: use to obtain rewards and avoid punishments. Ego-Defensive Function: self-protection, e.g., smokers Knowledge Function: simplifies decisions, e.g., brand loyalty Value-Expressive Function: express identify to others. e.g., t-shirts. Behaviors & Intentions to Behave : Behaviors & Intentions to Behave Consumer behaviors consist of all the actions taken by consumers related to acquiring, disposing, and using products and services Behavioral intentions may be defined as the intentions of consumers to behave. Usually measured on 7 or 9 point scale: low likelihood of performing behavior to high likelihood. Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behaviors May Be Formed in Two Ways:: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behaviors May Be Formed in Two Ways: Direct formation is when a belief, attitude, or behavior is created without either of the other states occurring first. Hierarchy of effects occurs after a belief, attitude, or behavior is formed directly, there is a tendency for the states to build upon each other to create hierarchies Direct Formation of Beliefs, Attitudes, & Behaviors : Direct Formation of Beliefs, Attitudes, & Behaviors Direct belief formation corresponds to the decision-making perspective and cognitive learning. The direct formation of attitudes is linked to the experiential perspective. The direct formation of behavior is linked to the behavioral influence perspective. Operant conditioning and modeling. Forming Attitudes Directly: Forming Attitudes Directly Classical conditioning/associative learning--positive affect is attached to object Mere exposure--frequent exposure to stimulus increases liking for it. Derived from Butterfly effect. Moods--mood at the time of exposure to object influences feelings about object. Directly Forming Behavior: Directly Forming Behavior Strong environmental forces can directly influence behavior, such as from the design of the physical environment. Operant conditioning can influence behavior without the formation of beliefs or attitudes. Hierarchies of Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behaviors: Hierarchies of Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behaviors Decision-Making Hierarchies Experiential Hierarchy Behavioral Influence Hierarchy Slide13: Decision making hierarchies High involvement: beliefs attitudes behavior Low involvement: beliefs behavior attitudes Experiential Affect behavior beliefs Behavioral influence hierarchy Behavior beliefs affect Predicting Consumer Attitudes: Predicting Consumer Attitudes Multiattribute models identify how consumers in high-involvement situations (i.e. standard hierarchy of effects) combine their beliefs about product attributes to form attitudes about various brand alternatives, corporations, or other objects. Attitude-Toward-The-Object Model: Attitude-Toward-The-Object Model Identifies three major factors that are predictive of attitudes: Salient Beliefs Strength of the Belief Evaluation Slide16: Measurement issues bi: 1 = low probability that object possesses attribute. 9=high likelihood. ei: -3 = negative evaluation of attribute. +3 = positive evaluation of attribute. Slide17: Fishbein Attitude Toward Object Model: which college will be chosen by Student Y? Ao = Sum (Bi x Ei) Attribute Ivy State U Local U Ei Bi Bi Bi High Price -2 9 -18 2 -4 5 -10 Good Job 3 8 24 6 18 3 9 Easy entry -1 1 -3 4 -4 8 -1 Learn a lot 2 9 18 7 14 4 8 21 24 -1 University/College Global Attitude Measure:Direct measure of overall affect and feelings regarding object.: Global Attitude Measure: Direct measure of overall affect and feelings regarding object. Use multiple scales to measure Bad 1 2 3 4 5 Good Negative 1 2 3 4 5 Positive Dislike 1 2 3 4 5 Like Compare results of global measure to results of Attitude-toward-the-object measure. The Behavioral Intentions Model . . . : The Behavioral Intentions Model . . . . . . was developed by Fishbein and his colleagues to improve on the ability of the attitude-toward-the-object model to predict consumer behavior Included subjective norms: how other people feel about the behavior. Assesses the consumer’s attitude toward the overt behavior of purchasing the product rather than toward the object itself. Use consequences of the behavior rather than attributes of object. When Do Attitudes Predict Behavior?: When Do Attitudes Predict Behavior? When consumer involvement is high. measurement must at proper level of abstraction. Cannot predict whether someone will go to church on Sunday by asking them about overall attitude toward church. Must consider subjective norms Situational factors Other brands/objects Attitude strength Mere measurement effect: just asking intention to buy increases likelihood of buying. When measured close in hierarchy to behavior. Surface traits are much like global attitude measures. Persuasion . . .: Persuasion . . . Persuasion is the explicit attempt to influence beliefs, attitudes, and/or behaviors. Communication is defined broadly to include all aspects of the message, including the source of the message, the type of message given, and through what channel it moved (e.g., television, radio, or print media) The Elaboration Likelihood Model: a decision making approach to persuasion: The Elaboration Likelihood Model: a decision making approach to persuasion . . . is an approach to understanding the persuasion process which illustrates the decision-making path to belief, attitude, and behavior change Central Peripheral Routes to Persuasion Belief and Attitude Change May Take One of Two Routes: Belief and Attitude Change May Take One of Two Routes The Central Route to persuasion is when the consumer has high-involvement information processing The Peripheral Route to persuasion is when the consumer has low-involvement information processing The Central Route to Persuasion : The Central Route to Persuasion Moves through the high involvement hierarchy. The consumer attends more carefully to the message being received and compares it to his or her own attitudinal position. Likely to generate a number of cognitive responses to the communication Central Cues refer to ideas and supporting data that bear directly upon the quality of the arguments developed in the message The Peripheral Route to Persuasion: The Peripheral Route to Persuasion Consumer moves through the low involvement hierarchy. Cognitive responses are much less likely to occur, because the consumer is not carefully considering the pros and cons of the issue. Peripheral persuasion cues include such factors as the attractiveness and expertise of the source, the mere number of the arguments presented, and the positive or negative stimuli that form the context within which the message was presented (e.g., pleasant music, source attractiveness, source trustworthiness, etc.) Truth effect. Repeat something often enough, people will come to believe it. Individual Differences in Route to Persuasion: the Need for Cognition: Individual Differences in Route to Persuasion: the Need for Cognition High Low Low High Need for cognition Strong arguments Weak arguments Attitude Toward Ad Multiattribute Models and the Decision-Making Path: Multiattribute Models and the Decision-Making Path A-T-O model: Change the perceived evaluation of an attribute Change the belief that an object has a particular attribute add an attribute Behavioral Intentions Model: Influence consumer perceptions of the consequences of a behavior. Influence perceptions of normative influence Experiential Path to Attitude Change: Experiential Path to Attitude Change Balance Theory Attitudes Toward the Advertisement Slide29: Balance Theory . . . . . . proposes that people have a preference to maintain a balanced state among the cognitive elements if these elements are perceived as forming a system ….basic rule: multiplication of the signs of the relations must come out with a positive sign. Slide30: Person Endorser Product + + Unit connection ?? to + Sentiment Connection Sentiment Connection Sentiment connection: feeling toward evaluative objects Unit connection: psychological linkage between two evaluative objects. Enhance by increasing the association via attribution and Gestalt principles. Attitudes Toward the Advertisement . . .: Attitudes Toward the Advertisement . . . . . . are a consumer’s general liking or disliking for a particular advertising stimulus during a particular advertising exposure. Will influence attitude toward brand. Measurement: like a global attitude. The Behavioral Influence Route to Behavior Change : The Behavioral Influence Route to Behavior Change The ecological design of buildings and spaces can strongly affect the behavior of people without them being aware of the influence Strong reinforcers or punishers in the environment can induce people to take actions that they would prefer to avoid. Behavioral influence techniques employ strong norms to influence behavior directly. Behavioral Influence Techniques:: Behavioral Influence Techniques: Ingratiation. . . refers to self-serving tactics engaged in by one person to make himself or herself more attractive to another. *Similarity *conforming to wishes *offering gifts *express liking *ask advice Slide34: Additional Behavioral Influence Tactics Foot in the door: small request and then large request. Uses self-perception and self-consistency. Door in the face: large request and then small request. Uses the norm of reciprocity. even a penny will help. Based upon desire to present self positively to others. Ethical issues?? Never, ever lie to consumers. Some Managerial Implications: Some Managerial Implications Positioning/differentiation: position brands based upon key attributes. Environmental analysis: assess and manipulate environment to implement behavioral influence approach. Market research: employ to identify salient attributes and key benefits, measure attitudes, and predict behavioral intentions Marketing mix: identify benefits sought by consumers and develop products to provide them. Develop promotions to communicate to consumers key attributes, to influence beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Segmentation: Employ benefit segmentation by identifying target markets desiring specific product benefits.