Published on January 7, 2008
Slide1: Rick Cheel Mackenzie Chown D414 Phone: 905-688-5550 ext. 3512 E-mail: [email protected] Sedimentology ERSC/GEOG 2P16 Slide2: All course material, including the course outline, lecture notes and PowerPoint presentations are available from: http://www.brocku.ca/sedimentology Slide3: Grade Distribution Assignments 25% Final Exam 40% Friday, March 2 is the last date for withdrawal without academic penalty and last day to change from credit to audit status for duration 3 courses. Slide4: Textbook: Introduction to Clastic Sedimentology Downloadable from: http://spartan.ac.brocku.ca/~rcheel/teaching/sedimentology/SedNotes/ Slide5: Topics to be covered: 1. Grain Texture (fundamental descriptors of granular material) Grain size Grain shape Porosity and permeability Grain orientation 2. Classification of terrigenous clastic rocks. Arenite Rudite Lutite Slide6: 3. Unidirectional fluid flow and sediment transport Characteristics of unidirectional flows Simple fluid flow Fluid gravity flows Sediment transport Modes of transport Initiation of transport Slide7: 4. Bed forms and stratification under unidirectional flows Bed forms Terminology The sequence of bed forms Bed form stability fields Cross-stratification formed by bed forms. Terminology Origin of cross-stratification Cross-stratification and bed forms. Slide8: Flow, bed forms and stratification under oscillatory and combined flows Characteristics of gravity waves Bed forms and stratification under symmetrically oscillating currents Bed forms and stratification under combined flows The enigma of Hummocky Cross-stratification Slide9: Assignment Schedule (Winter, 2007) January 11 No assignment January 18 No assignment January 25 1. Analysis of Grain Size Data February 1 Assignment 1 continued February 8 2. Analysis of Grain Shape February 15 3. Classification of clastic rocks February 22 Reading Week March 1 4. Analysis of paleocurrent data March 8 5. Paleohydraulic problems March 15 6a. Flume demonstration (Group 1) March 22 6b. Flume demonstration (Group 2) March 29 Assignment Test April 5 No Assignment Slide10: Clastic Sedimentology: The study of sediment and sedimentary rocks that are made up of particles that are the solid products of weathering at or near the Earth’s surface. Gravel Sand Mud (silt and clay) Conglomerate Sandstone Siltstone and Shale Purpose of the course: To introduce terminology and fundamental concepts for the description and interpretation of clastic sediment and sedimentary rocks. Slide11: Why study clastic sediment? Slide12: Most of the surface of the Earth is covered by sediment or sedimentary rocks. Humans interact with the Earth largely at or near its surface. Slide13: They….. Slide14: At the same time they….. Modify its physical and chemical properties so that it is no longer useable by them. It is important to understand the various properties of the sedimentary cover and have systematic methods for describing these properties. Slide15: Based on the recognition of the signature of changing environments over time, as preserved in the rock record. Environmental interpretation of rocks + Age of rocks = Earth History Sedimentary rocks record the history of changing environments on Earth. Slide17: By examining the characteristics of various environments on Earth today we can interpret the environments in which ancient sediments were deposited. The present is the key to the past. Environmental interpretation: Slide18: Age of rocks: Based on relative age (relative to associated rocks) or absolute age (radiometric dating). Earth History: The history of changing environments on Earth. Slide19: ERSC/GEOG 2P16 focuses on: The description and classification of clastic sediment. Processes and their products in the sedimentary record that aid in interpreting ancient sedimentary environments.