Published on February 19, 2008
Using These Slides: These PowerPoint slides have been designed for use by students and instructors using the Anthropology: The Exploration of Human Diversity textbook by Conrad Kottak. These files contain short outlines of the content of the chapters, as well as selected photographs, maps, and tables. Students may find these outlines useful as a study guide or a tool for review. Instructors may find these files useful as a basis for building their own lecture slides or as handouts. Both audiences will notice that many of the slides contain more text than one would use in a typical oral presentation, but it was felt that it would be better to err on the side of a more complete outline in order to accomplish the goals above. Both audiences should feel free to edit, delete, rearrange, and rework these files to build the best personalized outline, review, lecture, or handout for their needs. Using These Slides Contents of Student CD-ROM: Student CD-ROM—this fully interactive student CD-ROM is packaged free of charge with every new textbook and features the following unique tools: How To Ace This Course: Animated book walk-through Expert advice on how to succeed in the course (provided on video by the University of Michigan) Learning styles assessment program Study skills primer Internet primer Guide to electronic research Chapter-by-Chapter Electronic Study Guide: Video clip from a University of Michigan lecture on the text chapter Interactive map exercise Chapter objectives and outline Key terms with an audio pronunciation guide Self-quizzes (multiple choice, true/false, and short-answer questions with feedback indicating why your answer is correct or incorrect) Critical thinking essay questions Internet exercises Vocabulary flashcards Chapter-related web links Cool Stuff: Interactive globe Study break links Contents of Student CD-ROM Contents of Online Learning Center: Student’s Online Learning Center—this free web-based student supplement features many of the same tools as the Student CD-ROM (so students can access these materials either online or on CD, whichever is convenient), but also includes: An entirely new self-quiz for each chapter (with feedback, so students can take two pre-tests prior to exams) Career opportunities Additional chapter-related readings Anthropology FAQs PowerPoint lecture notes Monthly updates Contents of Online Learning Center Families, Kinship, and Descent: C h a p t e r 15 This chapter introduces students to the anthropological study of kinship. It discusses the different classifications that anthropologists use for kin groups, descent and residence, and kinship terminology systems. Families, Kinship, and Descent Nuclear and Extended Families: Nuclear and Extended Families The nuclear family consists of a married couple and their children. The nuclear family is ego-centered, and impermanent, while descent groups are permanent (lasting beyond the lifespans of individual constituents) and reckoned according to a single ancestor. One’s family of orientation is the family in which one is born and grows up, while one’s family of procreation is formed when one marries and has children. Claims made for the universality of the nuclear family, based upon the universality of marriage, do not hold up—the nuclear family is widespread, but not universal. Nuclear and Extended Families: Nuclear and Extended Families In societies where the nuclear family is important, this structure acts as a primary arena for sexual, reproductive, economic, and enculturative functions, but it is not the only structure used by societies for these (e.g., the Etoro, Nayar, Betsileo, etc.). In many societies, the extended families are the primary unit of social organization. Among the Muslims of western Bosnia, nuclear families are embedded within large extended families called zadrugas headed by a male household head and his wife. The Nayars are a matrilineal society in which extended families live in compounds called tarawads headed by a senior woman. Nuclear and Extended Families: Nuclear and Extended Families Map showing the Kerala state in India, where the Nayars live. Industrialism & Family Organization: Industrialism & Family Organization The most prevalent residence pattern in the United States is families of procreation living neolocally. In the US, as in other large, industrialized societies, patterns of residence and family types may change from class to class, in response to the conditions of these different contexts (e.g., extended families as a response to poverty). Changes in North American Kinship: Changes in North American Kinship In 1995, 25 percent of American households were inhabited by nuclear families. Increasing representation of women in the work force is associated with a rise in marriage age. The divorce rate rose steeply between 1970 and 1994. The media is reflecting and intensifying these changes. Comparatively, Americans (especially middle class) identify a smaller range of kindred than members of nonindustrial societies. A comparison between American and Brazilian kinship is made. The Family Among Foragers: The Family Among Foragers The two basic units of social organization among foragers are the nuclear family and the band. Typically, the band exists only seasonally, breaking up into nuclear families when subsistence means require it. Descent Groups: Descent Groups A descent group is a permanent social unit whose members claim common ancestry. With matrilineal descent individuals automatically join the mother’s descent group when they are born. With patrilineal descent individuals automatically join the father’s descent group when they are born. Matrilineal and patrilineal descent are types of unilineal descent in which individuals only recognize one line of descent. Descent Groups: Descent Groups A lineage is a descent group who can demonstrate their common descent from an apical ancestor. A clan is a descent group who claims common descent from an apical ancestor but cannot demonstrate it (stipulated descent). When a clan’s apical ancestor is nonhuman, it is called a totem. Descent Groups: Descent Groups A matrilineage five generations deep. Descent Groups: Descent Groups A patrilineage five generations deep. Lineages, Clans, and Residence Rules: Lineages, Clans, and Residence Rules In tribal societies, the descent group, not the nuclear family, is the fundamental unit. In many societies, descent groups are corporate, sharing resources and property. Unilocal Residence Patrilocality—married couple lives with husband's family; associated with patrilineal descent and is more common than matrilocality. Matrilocality—married couple lives with wife's family; associated with matrilineal descent and is less than patrilocaility. Ambilineal Descent: Ambilineal Descent People can choose the descent group that they want to belong to. Membership is fluid as people can change their descent group membership. With unilineal descent, membership is ascribed, but for ambilineal descent, membership is achieved. Kinship Calculation: Kinship Calculation Kinship calculation is any systemic method for reckoning kin relations. Genealogical Kin Types and Kin Terms. Kin terms are the labels given in a particular culture to different kinds of relatives. Biological kin type refers to the degree of actual genealogical relatedness. Kinship Calculation: Kinship Calculation Kinship symbols and genealogical kin type notation. Bilateral Kinship: Bilateral Kinship Bilateral kinship is used by most Americans and Canadians. Kinship is traced through both male and female lines. Kin links through males and females are perceived as being similar or equivalent. In North American bilateral kinship there is often matrilineal skewing, a preference for relatives on the mother's side. Kinship Terminology: Kinship Terminology Kinship terminologies are native taxonomies (emic), not developed by anthropologists. Lineal terminology: most Americans and Canadians use lineal terminology, which distinguishes lineal, collateral, and affinal relatives. Bifurcate merging terminology: this is the most common, associated with unilineal descent and unilocal residence. Generational terminology: typical of ambilineal societies, this calls ascending, same sex relatives by the same names. Bifurcate collateral terminology: common to North Africa and the Middle East, this is the most particular system. Kinship Terminology: Kinship Terminology Four systems of kinship terminology. Kinship Terminology: Kinship Terminology The distinctions among Lineals, Collaterals, and Affinals as perceived by Ego. Lineal Kinship Terminology: Lineal Kinship Terminology A lineal kinship terminology system. Bifurcate Merging Kinship: Bifurcate Merging Kinship Bifurcate Merging kinship terminology. Generational Kinship Terminology: Generational Kinship Terminology Generational kinship terminology system. Bifurcate Collateral Kinship: Bifurcate Collateral Kinship Bifurcate Collateral kinship terminology system.