Published on January 29, 2008
Chapter 14: Chapter 14 Attitude Measurement Attitude Measurement: Attitude Measurement Definition -- predisposition to act Cognitive -- knowledge / beliefs Affective -- feelings / emotions Behavioral (conative) -- predisposition to act Difficulty of measuring attitudes Can’t be directly observed Measured indirectly Observe behaviors Ask questions Slide3: Affective component (emotion) Physiological measures (form of observation) Behavioral component (conative) Direct questions Observation Cognitive Direct questions Attitude Measurement Ranking Scales: Ranking Scales Rank Order Scales Rank in order of importance Produces ordinal scale Paired Comparisons Choose between two objects (preference) Factorial formula -- number of comparisons needed Sorting Scales: Sorting Scales Organize based on some characteristic Characteristics printed on cards Sorting scheme (and number of piles) up to respondent Sort similar cards/characteristics in a pile Rating Scales: Rating Scales Dichotomous scale (nominal scale) Two choices Likert Scale Respondent indicates level of agreement with statements Ratings along a continuum (numbers / words) Single statement -- ordinal scale Several statements -- interval scale Rating Scales : Rating Scales Top-Box Syndrome Semantic Differential Bipolar adjectives / phrases on continuum Separate with numbers / dashes / blanks Several pairs of adjectives -- interval scale Image profile Rating Scales: Rating Scales Comparative scale (v. monadic scale) Compare to benchmark Stapel Scale Direction and intensity -3 -2 -1 Adjective +1 +2 +3 Constant Sum Scale (100 points) Thurston Interval Scale Judges assign value, respondent rates statements Rating Scales: Rating Scales Behavioral Differential Similar to attitude scales Semantic differential Likert scale Graphic Rating Scale Ladder Smiley Face Rating Scales: Rating Scales Randomized Response Scale Pairs of meaningless/meaningful questions For sensitive, embarrassing questions Scale Selection: Scale Selection Ranking v. sorting v. rating Ordinal v. interval data (data analysis) Category labels (words v. numbers) Words -- ordinal scale Numbers -- interval Number of responses along continuum Odd number Forced choice v. Choice Scale Selection: Scale Selection Balanced v. unbalanced scales Include categories above / below most common selection Monadic v. comparative scales Single item v. subscale of items Balanced Scale: Balanced Scale A balanced scale has a neutral or indifferent point at the center of the scale. I shop a lot for specials. Strongly Moderately Moderately Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Disagree 5 4 3 2 1 Unbalanced Scale: Unbalanced Scale An unbalanced scale has more responses distributed at one end of the scale. How satisfied are you with the bookstore in the student union? Satisfied Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied Quite dissatisfied Very dissatisfied Rating Scales: Rating Scales The President should Run For Re-election ____Agree ____Disagree Example of Category Scale How important were the following in your decision to visit San Diego (Check one for each Item) Very Somewhat Not Too Important Important Important Climate _____ _____ _____ Cost of Travel _____ _____ _____ Family Oriented _____ _____ _____ Educational/Historical Aspects _____ _____ _____ Familiarity w/Area _____ _____ _____ Advertising _____ _____ _____ Likert Scale - attitude toward tennis: Likert Scale - attitude toward tennis It is more fun to play a tough, competitive tennis match than to play a easy one ___ Strongly Agree ___Agree ___Not Sure ___Disagree ___Strongly Disagree There is really no such thing as a tennis stroke that cannot be mastered. ___Strongly Agree ___Agree ___Not Sure ___Disagree ___Strongly Disagree Playing tennis enables me to get a suntan. ___Strongly Agree ___Agree ___Not Sure ___Disagree ___Strongly Disagree Semantic Differential Scale -- Attitudes Toward Tennis: Semantic Differential Scale -- Attitudes Toward Tennis Exciting _____: _____: _____: _____: _____: _____: ____ Calm Interesting _____: _____: _____: _____: _____: _____: ____ Dull Simple _____: _____: _____: _____: _____: _____: ____ Complicated Passive _____: _____: _____: _____: _____: _____: ____ Active Stapel Scale -- Measuring Store Image: Stapel Scale -- Measuring Store Image Bloomingdale’s -3 -2 -1 Wide Selection +1 +2 +3 Select a plus number for words that you think describe the store accurately. The more accurately you think the word describes the store, the larger the positive number you should choose. Select a negative number for words you think do not describe the store accurately. The less accurately you think the word describes the store, the larger the negative number you should choose. You can select any number from +3 for words that you think are very accurate all the way to –3 for words that you think are very inaccurate.