Published on November 26, 2007
US History: US History Chapter 14 Notes Conflict with Mexico: Conflict with Mexico In 1911 there was a political revolution in Mexico that resulted in Francisco Madero, a believer in democracy, coming to power. Shortly into Madero’s rule, however, he was assassinated by the Mexican Army led by General Victoriano Huerta. Believing the murder of Madero to be an attack on the principle of democracy, President Wilson refused to recognize Huerta as the leader of Mexico and offered weapons to Mexicans who were organizing a revolt against Huerta. Then in 1914 American sailors were arrested in the Mexican city of Tampico for trespassing. When the Wilson complained about the arrest, the sailors were released, but the Mexican government refused to apologize for their actions and Wilson used the failure to apologize as rationale for taking over the Mexican port of Veracruz. In taking over Veracruz, Wilson expected the Mexican people to support the invasion, but instead many protested US actions leading to a civil war between US supporters and opponents. When the Mexican Civil War ended, Huerta was replaced by Venustiano Carranza, a friend of the US, but the conflict did not end as opponents of the US still existed. Pancho Villa vs. John J. Pershing: Pancho Villa vs. John J. Pershing The most notable of US opponents in Mexico was Pancho Villa who showed his displeasure with Wilson by invading the US and murdering several Americans in Columbus, New Mexico. After the attack, Wilson ordered General John J. Pershing to find Villa and bring him back dead or alive. After several weeks of pursuing Villa (including invading Mexico once again), Pershing could not capture him and with US involvement in WWI just around the corner Wilson ordered him to call off the mission. John J. Pershing Pancho Villa WWI Breaks Out: WWI Breaks Out The Assassination of Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand by Serb nationalist Gavrilo Princip. WWI Breaks Out: WWI Breaks Out Triple Alliance (Allies) Germany Austria / Hungary Triple Entente (Central Powers) France Great Britain Russia WWI breaks out in 1914 when a Serb patriot named Gavrilo Princip murders Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne. As a result of coalitions, treaties, and back door agreements, all of Europe is brought into what might have been a regional conflict. Fighting in WWI: Fighting in WWI Fighting in WWI: Fighting in WWI WWI is a two front war which involves fighting on the; Eastern Front: Germany and Austria-Hungary vs. Russia Western Front : Germany and Austria-Hungary vs. Great Britain and France WWI Weaponry: WWI Weaponry Grenades Advanced Machine Guns Tanks Poison Gas Torpedoes Airplanes Trench Warfare: Trench Warfare Two trenches separated are by “No Man’s Land” full of obstacles, mines, and machine gun fire. Trench warfare creates a stalemate where neither side is able to overtake the other. Therefore, WWI becomes a battle of attrition the side with the most resources IE weapons, men, and supplies will eventually defeat the other when they run out. Initial US Response to WWI: Initial US Response to WWI US makes the initial decision to stay out of the war (1914-1917) US does however agree to sell arms to the British. Why? British controlled the sea, and prevented shipping of any contraband, or prohibited materials, to German ports Cultural Ties to Britain and British Use of Propaganda – As a former British colony, the US shared a common culture (IE Speak English, Christianity, Democracy) with the British and as a result were effectively swayed by British propaganda, information designed to influence opinion, that portrayed the British as butchers who were willing to use any tactic to win the war. Germans, hoping to slow down American – British trade, resorted to submarine warfare with U-boats, or submarines. Wilson warns that the Germans will hold “strict accountability” for any attacks on US vessels, or injury to US citizens. 1915 German U-Boat torpedoed the Lusitania, a British passenger liner, killing 1198 (128 Americans) Wilson Makes the Decision to Enter the War (April 1917): Wilson Makes the Decision to Enter the War (April 1917) Why did the US Enter WWI?: Why did the US Enter WWI? 1917 Germans announce unrestricted submarine warfare and begin sinking any non-German ship in the Atlantic US had had a sizable supply trade with the British and French, enabling an even closer relationship to be established form 1914 to 1917. As much of the sales of goods to Britain and France had come via credit, the US faced the risk of not being paid if those countries were to lose the war. Zimmerman Note – The German Foreign Secretary, Arthur Zimmerman, sends messages to the Mexicans, attempting to make a deal with them. In the plan, Zimmerman was trying to persuade the Mexicans to send troops into Texas so that the US would be preoccupied with maintaining order at home. US Yellow journalists jump all over it, creating a public frenzy to join the war. US Leadership in WWI: US Leadership in WWI After the US enters the war, Wilson chooses John J. Pershing to lead the US Army called the American Expeditionary Force. Pershing disagrees with Allied Commander Marshall Ferdinand Foch who wanted to divide American troops (also called Doughboys) and put them under the command of non- American Allied Generals. John J. Pershing The Bolshevik Revolution and Russia’s Withdrawal from the War: The Bolshevik Revolution and Russia’s Withdrawal from the War The US entry in the war was especially important due to the withdrawal of Russia in 1918. When WWI broke out, Russia was led by a czar (king) named Nicolas II. As the war lingered, Russia began to pile up war casualties and the Russian people began to endure food shortages. In an effort to end the war quickly, Czar Nicolas II made the decision to go to the front to lead troops. Despite Nicolas’s efforts, however, the war did not end and in 1917 a group of communists called the Bolsheviks were able to takeover the country. Led by Vladimir Lenin, who had been imprisoned in Switzerland at the beginning of the war, the Bolsheviks pulled out of the war in 1918 by signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. With Russia out of the war, the Germans were able to move all of their troops to the Western front versus Great Britain and France. Without US assistance, these two nations might not have been able to hold off the Germans. Mobilyzing American Society of WWI: Mobilyzing American Society of WWI Wilson creates several national agencies to help America with our war effort examples include; War Industries Board – In charge of the allocation of supplies so that more went to the military, than to consumers Food Administration – (Led by future President Herbert Hoover) Looked for ways to save on consumer consumption IE Meatless Mondays, Wheatless Wednesdays, Victory Gardens Fuel Administration – Looked for ways to decrease domestic consumption, so that there would be more fuel available for the war effort IE Heatless Mondays, and Lightless Nights, Labor Administration – (Led by former President William Taft) Negotiated disagreements between labor and management in order to avoid possible strikes. Women and Blacks replace enlisted men This will assist women in gaining suffrage in 1916. Committee on Public Information – Led by George Creel, this organization’s job was to create propaganda IE Posters, Movies, and Radio broadcasts so as to sway public opinion and convince Americans that this war was worth fighting. One negative consequence is prejudice against German –Americans and leftist political action leaders (IE Socialist Eugene V. Debs is imprisoned, Frankfurters become Hot dogs). WWI Propaganda – Committee on Public Information: WWI Propaganda – Committee on Public Information WWI Ends: WWI Ends World War I Ends (Nov 11, 1918 AKA Armistice Day – Later Becomes Veterans Day) United States biggest contribution had been in terms of supplies – helps win the battle of attrition. They have gotten into the war late, and had participated in only 2 major battles. WWI Casualties: WWI Casualties The Treaty of Versailles / Big Four: The Treaty of Versailles / Big Four At the Versailles Conference, only the “Big Four” negotiate the Treaty (Germany was left out of the conference.) They include; George Clemenceau from France David Lloyd George from Great Britain Victorio Orlando from Italy Woodrow Wilson from the United States Goals of the Big Four and Wilson’s 14 Points Peace Plan: Goals of the Big Four and Wilson’s 14 Points Peace Plan British want to punish the Germans, while France wants to weaken Germany so that it would not have the power to attack ever again. Wilson presents his plan called the Fourteen Points. In the fourteen points; Wilson discusses eliminating traditional causes of war by adopting free trade, disarmament (getting rid of armies), freedom of the seas, impartial adjustment of colonial claims, and open diplomacy (rather than use of secret agreements). Wilson discusses self-determination, allowing countries created after WWI to determine for themselves the type of government that they prefer. Wilson required the Central Powers to evacuate all of the countries that they had invaded during the war. Wilson proposes formation of the League of Nations, an organization that would allow nations to work together and discuss conflicts before they erupted into warfare. Treaty of Versailles: Treaty of Versailles As the other members of the Big Four saw Wilson’s fourteen points plan as too soft, they reject most of it (Only self determination and the League of Nations survive.) What the Treaty Does; - In large degree it punishes Germany Creates the League of Nations Demobilizes the German Army Germans have to admit that they had started the war Forced Germans to pay reparations ($) Forces Germany to give back Alsace and Lorraine (which had been French provinces before the war). American Response to the Treaty of Versailles: American Response to the Treaty of Versailles US Constitution says that the Senate must ratify all foreign treaties, but the Senate, led by Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge (Mass), refuses to ratify it because he: Was upset that Wilson had not consulted with the Senate prior to negotiating Was an isolationist, a person concerned with American affairs only, and believed that US entry into the League of Nations could take away some of America’s authority to govern itself. Other Reasons for the Failure of the US to Sign the Treaty Opposition of two major ethnic groups Irish-Americans – Believed that the agreement favored the hated British German Americans – Believed that the treaty unfairly punished their homeland 2. Wilson wanted all of nothing and is not willing to negotiate a compromise Wilson vs. Henry Cabot Lodge: Wilson vs. Henry Cabot Lodge In order to overcome Lodge’s opposition to the Treaty of Versailles, Wilson goes on a speechmaking tour in an attempt to gather support. In the Midwest, he is met with hatred because the Midwest was home to a large number of immigrant groups including Irish Americans and German Americans. In the Mountains and West, however, he gains support for his ideas. Despite his work, Wilson cannot foster support for the treaty and the pressure of trying to convince people to support him begins to wear on him physically leading to a stroke. Woodrow Wilson Henry Cabot Lodge The Treaty of Versailles’s Long-Term Effect: The Treaty of Versailles’s Long-Term Effect The Treaty of Versailles (passed by nearly all countries but the US) will directly lead to WWII, only 20 years later. When the US failed to sign it, US General Tasker Bliss had warned that, “We have not signed a peace agreement, but instead taken a 20 year recess.” WWII Begins in 1939 Tasker Bliss Post WWI America: Post WWI America When the war ended, the US disarmed (got rid of much of its military.) As military production declined, the economy suffered as well as unemployment and inflation became common. The economic problems led to three notable labor strikes; Seattle General Strike – When 35,000 Seattle ship workers went on strike, other labor unions in the city also went on strike leading to a general strike, a strike that involves all workers living in a certain location (rather than workers in a particular industry). Boston Police Strike – In 1919 75% of the Boston Police force went on strike. Republican Governor (and future President) Calvin Coolidge condemned the strike and fired all strikers claiming that they had no right strike because doing so put public safety in question. The Steel Strike – In 1919 steelworkers went on strike demanding higher pay, shorter hours, and recognition of their union. US Steel President Elbert Gray fought back by blaming the strike on immigrants and foreign radicals and hired African Americans and Mexicans as scabs, temporary workers. As the scabs were able to keep steel production going, the strikers were eventually forced to give up their struggle. Racial Unrest After WWI: Racial Unrest After WWI During WWI many African Americans had moved North to take factory jobs. When the soldiers return home and seek their old jobs back, it often leads to conflict with the African Americans who were reluctant to comply. The Red Scare: The Red Scare The Red Scare: The Red Scare Due to the formation of the USSR’s Communist International, an organization designed to spread communism throughout the world, and all of the labor strikes that were occurring in the US, many feared that the US might be on the horizon of a communist overthrow. To fight back, US Presidents ordered Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer to seek out Reds (communists), socialists, and anarchists. Following orders, Palmer formed the General Intelligence Division (Later known as the FBI) and appoints J. Edgar Hoover as its head. J. Edgar Hoover A. Mitchell Palmer Palmer Raids: Palmer Raids Palmer Raids: Palmer Raids During the Palmer Raids, Palmer and Hoover’s men raided the headquarters of various radical organizations (without search warrants), looking for evidence that the group might be planning to overthrow the US. If they found any evidence, Palmer and Hoover were given the authority to indefinitely throw prison or deport them, many members of these organizations were immigrants. Many criticized the Palmer Raids as both unconstitutional and prejudiced against immigrants. The Election of Warren Harding: The Election of Warren Harding In 1920 Ohio Republican Warren Harding is elected President promising a “Return to Normalcy,” As part of this plan, Progressive policy and reform are out the door and pro-business laissez faire policy returns.