Published on January 28, 2008
Exploring American HistoryUnit X – Modern America: Exploring American History Unit X – Modern America Chapter 30– Searching for Order Section 3 – The Reagan Presidency The Reagan Presidency: The Reagan Presidency The Big Idea President Reagan enacted conservative policies at home and took a strong anti-Communist stance in the Cold War. Main Ideas President Reagan based his policies on conservative ideas. Reagan took a tough stand against communism in his foreign policy. Iran Hostage crisis: Iran Hostage crisis The overthrow of Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlevi of Iran by an Islamic revolutionary government earlier in the year had led to a steady deterioration in Iran-U.S. relations. In response to the exiled shah’s admission (Sept., 1979) to the United States for medical treatment, a crowd of about 500 seized the embassy. Of the approximately 90 people inside the embassy, 52 remained in captivity until the end of the crisis. On Jan. 20, 1981, the day of President Reagan’s inauguration, the United States released almost $8 billion in Iranian assets and the 52 hostages were freed after 444 days in Iranian detention; the agreement gave Iran immunity from lawsuits arising from the incident. Main Idea 1: President Reagan based his policies on conservative ideas.: Main Idea 1: President Reagan based his policies on conservative ideas. Republican candidate Ronald Reagan won an easy victory over President Carter in the 1980 election. Asked voters, “Are you better off than when you were four years ago?” On the day of his inauguration, January 20, 1981, Iran finally released the American hostages after 444 days of captivity. Reagan’s approach to government based on conservative ideas Wanted to cut taxes Promised to scale back the size of government Encouraged expansion in key industries by reducing government regulations Appointed conservative justices to the Supreme Court, including Sandra Day O’Connor, the first woman to serve as a Supreme Court justice “Reaganomics”: “Reaganomics” Reagan’s economic policies were based on a theory called supply-side economics. Called for sharp tax cuts, with goal of increasing amount of money people and businesses have to invest Investment would lead to economic growth and creation of new jobs Over time, increased economic activity would produce increased tax revenues for government. Became known as “Reaganomics” Spending on defense increased. New spending outpaced the new tax revenues. Resulted in a deficit– the amount by which a government’s spending exceeds its revenues. Election of 1984: Election of 1984 President Reagan ran for reelection in 1984 against Democratic candidate Walter Mondale. Mondale chose Geraldine Ferraro as his running mate, the first woman to run for vice president on a major ticket. Reagan won a landslide victory with 59 percent of the popular vote. Economy was booming. Main Idea 2:Reagan took a hard stand against communism in his foreign policy.: Central America Reagan supported anti-Communist governments in Central America and sent aid to them as they fought civil wars. Congress passed Boland Amendment in 1984, banning U.S. aid to Contras, rebels in Nicaragua. Iran-Contra affair broke when it was exposed that some U.S. officials had continued to send aid to the Contras via illegal sale of arms to Iran. Main Idea 2: Reagan took a hard stand against communism in his foreign policy. The Soviet Union Reagan took a tough stand against the Soviet Union by halting arms negotiations and expanding U.S. military. When Mikhail Gorbachev became the new Soviet leader, he began a process of economic and political reforms called perestroika. Reagan saw Gorbachev’s desire for change and signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, eliminating all medium-range nuclear weapons in Europe. Nicaragua – 1980’s: Nicaragua – 1980’s 1st Boland Amendment 1982 Can not use government funds to overthrow the Sandanistas. Only send non-military aid- food, clothing and medicine. April 1984 CIA and Contras plant mines in Nicaraguan Harbors. CIA war manual given to Contras- blackmail and assassination. 2nd Boland Amendment- 1984 bars CIA and other government agencies from giving military aid to the Contras. 1:10 min. Nicaragua – 1980’s Marxist Sandanistas have taken control- tied to Cuba.U.S. to stop the Communist influence pressured Nicaragua to become Democratic.CIA armed rebels to oppose the Sandanistas- “The Contras” 4:24 min: Nicaragua – 1980’s Marxist Sandanistas have taken control- tied to Cuba. U.S. to stop the Communist influence pressured Nicaragua to become Democratic. CIA armed rebels to oppose the Sandanistas- “The Contras” 4:24 min . Iran-Contra Affair: Iran-Contra Affair Also known as "Irangate” a mid-1980s political scandal in the United States. President Ronald Reagan's administration sold arms to Iran, an avowed enemy. At the time, Americans were being held hostage in Lebanon, and it was hoped that Iran would influence the release Iran was in the midst of the Iran-Iraq War, and could find few nations willing to supply it with weapons. The U.S. diverted proceeds from the sale to the Contras, anti-Communist guerrillas fighting the elected socialist Sandinista government of Nicaragua. Both the sale of weapons and the funding of the Contras violated the Boland Amendments of Congress. Slide12: The Reagan administration had been helping the Contras since November 1981 Boland Amendment blocked military aid to the Contras- no covert military assistance. The Reagan administration went around the amendments by using the National Security Council to supervise covert support. The NSC proceeded to raise private and foreign funds for the Contras. In addition, proceeds from the arms sales to Iran were used to purchase arms for the Contras in an arrangement instituted by Colonel Oliver North and aide to National Security Advisor John Poindexter. The Enterprise. Eugene H. Hasenfus was an unemployed construction worker from Wisconsin who got secured work as a cargo handler for the CIA. He was aboard the cargo plane shot down over Nicaragua on October 5, 1986 while delivering illegal weapons to the Nicaraguan Contras. Iran-Contra Affair: Iran-Contra Affair July 1985 the Israeli government approached the Reagan administration with a proposal to get hostages held by Hezbollah in Lebanon released. Israel would act as an intermediary and sell arms (missiles) to Iran for the U.S. in exchange for Iran’s help in getting hostages released. In December 1985, President Reagan signed a secret presidential "finding" describing the deal as "arms-for-hostages." The arms were eventually sold However, Hezbollah proceeded to take more hostages after they had released old ones, and failing to produce any meaningful results, the arms-for-hostages program was finally cancelled. Iran-Contra Affair: Iran-Contra Affair U.S. Attorney General Edwin Meese on Nov. 25, 1986 admitted that profits from weapons sales to Iran were made available to assist the Contra rebels in Nicaragua. Senate Committee- “The Tower Committee” would be looking into the matter. President Reagan said he had not been informed of the operation. The U.S. Congress issued its final report onNov. 18, 1987, which stated that the President bore "ultimate responsibility" for wrongdoing by his aides and his administration exhibited "secrecy, deception and disdain for the law." Oliver North and John Poindexter were indicted on multiple charges on March 16, 1988 Reagan survived the scandal, and would see his approval ratings return to previous levels Iran-Contra Affair- 1:23 min: Iran-Contra Affair- 1:23 min . Reagan and the Russians: Reagan and the Russians U.S.S.R.- the “Evil Empire”- world problems could be blamed on Russia. US and NATO allies put intermediate range missiles in Western Europe. (Cruise for ex) Russia refuses to deal and remove its missiles and the arms talks are threatened. Demonstrations in Europe and US for a freeze. Sept. 1, 1983- Soviet shoot down an unarmed South Korean airliner killing 269 Soviet change leaders- Andropov and Chernenko. Reducing Nuclear Arms- INF: Reducing Nuclear Arms- INF February 1987- Gorbachev offered to sign an agreement eliminating both Soviet and U.S medium range missiles. Tough Verification procedures would allow each country to station representatives outside the other countries plants. December 1987- Gorbachev and Reagan signed the new Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty removed all missiles with ranges of 300-3400 miles from Eastern and Western Europe. All 2611 missiles would be destroyed- 859 US and 1752 Soviet. Did not insure peace, both nations still had enough long range and nuclear missile to destroy each other. Some believed the world was less safe and perhaps a step away from self-destruction. Reducing Nuclear Arms- INF - 3:18 min.: Reducing Nuclear Arms- INF - 3:18 min. Strategic Defense Initiative: Strategic Defense Initiative “Star Wars” Throughout its history, the program developed new technology and demonstrated a vast array of the science and engineering required to field a system capable of destroying enemy missiles Lasers that will shoot down enemy missiles within five minutes of launch. The lasers would attack their targets from battle stations in space, a few hundred miles above the Earth. A total of about 100 stations would really be needed Mirrors would have to keep the chemical lasers locked onto the missile for several seconds before it would be destroyed The 1980s US Strategic Defense Initiative program (better known as 'Star Wars') included several projects which looked at the possibility of using antimatter as rocket fuel or to drive space-borne weapons platforms. Slide21: Nuclear Weapons Chart This chart shows the world's current firepower. The center dot represents the firepower of the World War II: 3 megatons. The other dots represent the world's present nuclear weaponry which equals 6,000 World War II's or 18,000 megatons. The USA and the USSR share this firepower with approximately equal destructive capability. Just two squares on this chart (300 megatons) represent enough firepower to destroy all the large- and medium-size cities in the entire world. Fewer than 3 squares (400 megatons) represent the warheads removed from missiles in the INF treaty. Although missiles were destroyed the warheads were preserved and are being deployed on other delivery vehicles. There was no decrease in destructive power. IT IS A LONG LONG WAY TO NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT. WE ARE SURROUNDED BY FORESTS OF NUCLEAR DESTRUCTION. WE MUST GO ON. The top left-hand circle enclosing 9 megatons represents the weapons on just one Poseidon submarine. This is equal to the firepower of three World War II's and enough to destroy over 200 of the Soviet's largest cities. The circle in the lower left-hand square enclosing 24 megatons represents just one Trident sub with the firepower of eight World War II's - enough to destroy every city in the northern hemisphere. 1980’s Culture: 1980’s Culture The 1980s became the Me! Me! Me! generation of status seekers. During the 1980s, hostile takeovers, leveraged buyouts, and mega-mergers spawned a new breed of billionaire. Donald Trump, Leona Helmsley, and Ivan Boesky iconed the meteoric rise and fall of the rich and famous. If you've got it, flaunt it ; You can have it all! Binge buying and credit became a way of life and 'Shop Til you Drop' were all watchwords. FACTS about this decade: FACTS about this decade Population: 226,546,000 Unemployed in 1980: National Debt: 1980 - $914,000,000,000 National Debt: 1986 - $2,000,000,000,000 Average salary: $15,757 Life Expectancy: Male 69.9 Female 77.6 Minimum Wage: $3.10 BMW was $12,000; Mercedes 280 E was $14,800 Attendance: Movies 20 million/week Interesting events : Interesting events Toxic Shock Toxic shock syndrome is a rare, life-threatening bacterial infection that has been most often associated with the use of superabsorbent tampons and occasionally with the use of contraceptive sponges. In 1980, an outbreak of toxic shock syndrome occurred that mostly involved young women who had been using a particular brand of superabsorbent tampons. The cause of the outbreak seemed to be toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria Medicare-our country’s health insurance program for people age 65 or older. Certain people younger than age 65 can qualify for Medicare, too, including those who have disabilities and those who have permanent kidney failure. The program helps with the cost of health care, but it does not cover all medical expenses or the cost of most long-term care. Medicare is financed by a portion of the payroll taxes paid by workers and their employers. It also is financed in part by monthly premiums deducted from Social Security checks. “Just Say No!” Nancy Reagan’s active campaign against drug and alcohol abuse. Vietnam Veterans Memorial-The official name of the Memorial is the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. It is sometimes referred to as VVM or "the Wall". The figures are called "The Three Servicemen". This is not a war Memorial but a Memorial to those who served in the war, both living and dead. Interesting people : Interesting people Wayne Williams- From October 1979 to May 1981, Wayne Williams killed twenty-seven young black boys in Atlanta. At trial Williams was found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment. Sandra Day O’Conner- first woman supreme court justice. Geraldine Ferraro-first woman vice-presidential candidate. Jesse Jackson- first black presidential candidate. Rock Hudson- famous actor who died of AIDs Jim Bakker-televangelist who was sentenced to 45 years for selling bogus lifetime vacations. Nancy Reagan- President Reagan’s wife and first lady who started the “Just Say No” to drugs program Wayne Williams Jim Bakker Nancy Reagan Geraldine Ferraro Sandra Day O’Conner Jesse Jackson Education: Education 1980 study by UCLA and American Council on Education indicated that college freshmen were more interested in status, power, and money than at any time during the past 15 years. Business Management was the most popular major. American education came under fire during the 1980s. Liberals cried out against budget cuts and rising student costs. School districts offered teachers exams and exit exams became a part of graduating for Education majors. Conservatives like E.D.Hirsch, Jr. and William Bennett advocated a return to the classics for college students and back to the basic skills for public school students. An attempt was made to improve the teacher quality by raising salaries slightly. Efforts to censor books tripled in the eighties. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , The Grapes of Wrath, and Catcher in the Rye were among books banned in New York State. Roget's Thesaurus banned sexist categories: mankind becamehumankind; countryman became country dweller. Columbia University, the last all male Ivy League school, began accepting women in 1983. President Reagan endorsed a constitutional amendment to permit school prayer. It was defeated. Medical Advances: Medical Advances Research money allowed for studies and new treatments for heart, cancer, and other diseases. Major advances in genetics research led to the 1988 funding of the Human Genome Project. This project will locate the estimated 80,000 genes contained in human DNA. Sports: Sports Team sports for kids were really popular beginning in the seventies and going through the present. Eighties' mothers ran carpool after work, kids had after school and week end cheerleading, baseball, football, soccer, gym, dance, jazz, you name it! Fashions: Fashions 80's Flops Ra ra and bubble skirts ; Fluorescent socks and t-shirts: Drop waisted dresses : Lace gloves : Fergie bows - in the hair White leather fringed cowboy boots - Not unless you're Dolly Parton and you're boot scooting! 80's Fabulous Tie sleeve and Batwing tops - Drop earrings - Micro minis - Big gold earrings - Multiple belts - Coloured tights - and This time round, pair coloured or camel toned fishnet tights with a knee length skirt, knee high leather boots and a turtleneck for a subtly funky effect. Leg warmers. Fads: Fads Big Hair Skater hair and flat tops and Punk Painter hats and pierced ears. Michael Jackson Thriller coat OP, Izod, Argyle- Hawaiian and Rugby Shirts. Parachute pants. Converse Hightops Pegged jeans Jelly shoes Zubaz and spandex Valley Girl Michael Jackson glove and Miami Vice look Swatch watches Rubiks cube Pacman, Nintendo, and Gameboy Smurf, ET, and Cabbage Patch Dolls Sneakers Music : Music Cable TV and MTV Slam dancing and break dancing Vogueing (posing) Pop, rock, new wave, punk, country, and especially rap or hip hop Milli Vanilli, M. C. Hammer , Vanilla Ice, and L.L. Cool J. Movies: Movies Nerds- Revenge of the Nerds, Lucas, Stand by Me, and Peggy Sue Got Married. TV joined the nerd ranks with ABC's hit series Head of the Class In 1981, VCR sales rose 72% in 12 months. By 1989, 60 percent of American households with televisions received cable service. Huge or memorable movies of the decade included On Golden Pond, Tootsie, Arthur, Stephen Spielberg Movies like E.T. THE EXTRA-TERRESTRIAL, The Big Chill, Flashdance, Beverly Hills Cop, Out of Africa, Back to the Future, Cocoon, The Breakfast Club,Platoon,Star Trek, Good Morning Vietnam, Fatal Attraction, Rain Man, and Driving Miss Daisy. Television: Television Anti-family sitcoms like Roseanne and Married...with Children; Tabloid tv with Geraldo, Phil, Sally, and Oprah Stand up comics included Gary Shandling, Jane Curtin, George Carlin, Jackie Mason, Bill Cosby, Jerry Seinfeld, and Tracy Ullman; Info-tainment includedNightline with Ted Koppel, CNN Cable News,and 20/20 with Hugh Downs and Barbara Walters. 60 Minutes which had first aired in 1968 was bigger than ever. Foods: Foods Food of the 80s included the popular fast food places like Taco Bell and McDonald's McDLT and McRib. Kids loved Sweetarts, Skittles, Nerds, Runts, Hubba Bubba Chewing Gum, and Five Alive. Soviets Invade Afghanistan: Soviets Invade Afghanistan The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was a 10-year war fought between the Soviet Red Army, Afghan, and foreign fighters in Afghanistan. The 'shooting' war is generally held to have started December 24, 1979. Soviet troops ultimately withdrew from the area between May 15, 1988 and February 2, 1989. The Soviet Union officially announced that all of its troops had left Afghanistan on February 15. The CIA invested US$2.1 billion over a 10-year period to create an anti-Soviet resistance. USSR- 15,000 Killed,53,000 Wounded Afghanistan- 90,000 Killed, 90,000 Wounded, Roughly 1.3 Million Civilian deaths. One of these benefactors of the war was Osama bin Laden Resistance fighters, called mujahidin, saw the Christian or atheist Soviets controlling Afghanistan as a defilement of Islam as well as of their traditional culture. Proclaiming a "jihad"(holy war), they gained the support of the Islamic world. The US gave them weapons and money. The mujahidin employed guerrilla tactics against the Soviets. U.S stops grain sales to USSR and boycotts Moscow Olympics. John Lennon shot and killed: John Lennon shot and killed John Lennon was shot and killed in New York. The gunman, Mark Chapman, apparently shouted 'I am the Catcher in the Rye' just before dropping to the ground and firing the weapon.