Chem 110 Acid and Base Equilibria

Information about Chem 110 Acid and Base Equilibria

Published on October 1, 2008

Author: cpesison

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Slide 1: Chapter 07 Acids and Bases Slide 2: Bronsted Acids Donate Protons Bronsted Bases Accept Protons Acids and Bases Bronsted Acids and Bases Slide 3: Practice on Identification of Bronsted Acids and Bases Amphoteric Substances can act both as an acid and as a base. Slide 4: An Acid and its Conjugate Base A Base and its Conjugate Acid Acids and Bases Bronsted Acids and Bases Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs Slide 5:  Practice on Identification of Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs Slide 6: Autoionization of Water Acids and Bases Bronsted Acids and Bases Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs The Acid-Base Properties of Water Slide 7: Ion Product Constant of Water At 25oC, the value of Kw has been determined to be 1 x 10-14 Acids and Bases Bronsted Acids and Bases Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs The Acid-Base Properties of Water The Ion-Product of water Slide 8: Practice on Ion Product Constant of Water Slide 9: Practice on Ion Product Constant of Water Slide 10: Practice on Ion Product Constant of Water Slide 11: pH Power of Hydrogen Measures the Acidity and Alkalinity of a Solution Acids and Bases Bronsted Acids and Bases Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs The Acid-Base Properties of Water The Ion-Product of water pH-A Measure of Acidity Slide 12: pH Equations Slide 13: pH Box Slide 14: Practice on pH Calculations Slide 15: Practice on pH Calculations Slide 16: Practice on pH Calculations Slide 17: Practice on pH Calculations Slide 18: Practice on pH Calculations Slide 19: Strong Acids and Bases ionize completely in water Weak Acids and Bases ionize only to a limited extent Acids and Bases Bronsted Acids and Bases Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs The Acid-Base Properties of Water The Ion-Product of water pH-A Measure of Acidity Strength of Acids and Bases Slide 20: Common Strong Acids Slide 21: Common Strong Bases Slide 22: Relative Strengths of Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs Slide 23: Chemical Equilibrium happens when the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal and the concentrations of the reactants and products no longer change Acids and Bases Bronsted Acids and Bases Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs The Acid-Base Properties of Water The Ion-Product of water pH-A Measure of Acidity Strength of Acids and Bases Weak Acids and Bases Chemical Equilibrium The Concepts of Chemical Equilibrium Slide 24: The Law of Mass Action represents the concentrations of reactants and products at equilibrium with the Equilibrium Constant Slide 26: This is how we write Equilibrium constant expressions We can also reverse the expression (Kc’) And thus can call it the reciprocal of Kc If the amount of moles is doubled then the Kc will be squared Slide 27: Homogenous equilibria applies to reaction in which all reacting species are in the same phase Acids and Bases Bronsted Acids and Bases Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs The Acid-Base Properties of Water The Ion-Product of water pH-A Measure of Acidity Strength of Acids and Bases Weak Acids and Bases Chemical Equilibrium The Concepts of Chemical Equilibrium Ways of Expressing Equilibrium Constants Homogenous Equilibria Slide 28: In gaseous homogenous equilibrium, Kc can also be expressed in terms of Kp P is the partial pressure of that component Slide 29: Kp can be related to Kc by this expression R is the universal gas constant T is the temperature in kelvin Δn is the number of moles of gaseous products minus the number of moles of gaseous reactants Slide 30: Heterogenous equilibria applies to reactions in which reacting species are in different phases Pure Solids are not included in the expression Acids and Bases Bronsted Acids and Bases Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs The Acid-Base Properties of Water The Ion-Product of water pH-A Measure of Acidity Strength of Acids and Bases Weak Acids and Bases Chemical Equilibrium The Concepts of Chemical Equilibrium Ways of Expressing Equilibrium Constants Homogenous Equilibria Heterogeneous Equilibria Slide 31: The larger the value of the equilirbrium constant Kc, the farther the reaction proceeds to the right before reaching equilibrium state Acids and Bases Bronsted Acids and Bases Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs The Acid-Base Properties of Water The Ion-Product of water pH-A Measure of Acidity Strength of Acids and Bases Weak Acids and Bases Chemical Equilibrium The Concepts of Chemical Equilibrium Ways of Expressing Equilibrium Constants Homogenous Equilibria Heterogeneous Equilibria What does the Equilibrium Constant Tell Us? Slide 32: Reaction Quotient (Qc) is a quantitative measure of the extent of reaction, the relative proportion of products and reactants present in the reaction mixture at some instant of time. Slide 33: We can use the relationship of the reaction quotient (Qc) to the equilibrium constant (Kc) to predict where the reaction would proceed. Slide 34: Practice on Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations Consider the reaction above, starting with a concentration of 0.040 M for HI, calculate the concentrations of HI, H2, and I2 at equilibrium [HI] = 0.0314 [H2] = 4.28 x 10-3 [I2]= 4.28 x 10-3 Slide 35: Acids and Bases Bronsted Acids and Bases Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs The Acid-Base Properties of Water The Ion-Product of water pH-A Measure of Acidity Strength of Acids and Bases Weak Acids and Bases Chemical Equilibrium The Concepts of Chemical Equilibrium Ways of Expressing Equilibrium Constants Homogenous Equilibria Heterogeneous Equilibria What does the Equilibrium Constant Tell Us? Factors that Affect Chemical Equilibrium Slide 36: What would happen If we change the concentration of any of the reactants? Slide 37: Practice on Effect of Changing Concentrations At 430°C, the equilibrium constant (KP) for the reaction above is 1.5 x 105. In one experiment, the initial pressures of NO, O2, and NO2 are 2.1 x 10-3 atm, 1.1 x 10-2 atm, and 0.14 atm, respectively. Calculate QP and dpredict the direction that the net reaction will shift to reach equilibrium. QP = 4.04 x 105 KP < QP The reaction will proceed from right to left Slide 38: What would happen If we add or subtract pressure of a system? Slide 39: What would happen If we increase the temperature of a system? Slide 40: Acids and Bases Bronsted Acids and Bases Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs The Acid-Base Properties of Water The Ion-Product of water pH-A Measure of Acidity Strength of Acids and Bases Weak Acids and Bases Chemical Equilibrium The Concepts of Chemical Equilibrium Ways of Expressing Equilibrium Constants Homogenous Equilibria Heterogeneous Equilibria What does the Equilibrium Constant Tell Us? Factors that Affect Chemical Equilibrium Weak Acids and Acid Ionization constants Slide 41: Practice on Equilibrium Concentrations of Weak Acids What is the pH of a 0.122 M monoprotic acid whose Ka is 5.7 x 10-4? X = 8.06 x 10-3 pH = 2.09 Slide 42: Practice on Equilibrium Concentrations of Weak Acids The pH of a 0.060 M weak monoprotic acid is 3.44. Calculate the Ka of the acid. Ka = 2.21 x 10-6 Slide 43: Acids and Bases Bronsted Acids and Bases Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs The Acid-Base Properties of Water The Ion-Product of water pH-A Measure of Acidity Strength of Acids and Bases Weak Acids and Bases Chemical Equilibrium The Concepts of Chemical Equilibrium Ways of Expressing Equilibrium Constants Homogenous Equilibria Heterogeneous Equilibria What does the Equilibrium Constant Tell Us? Factors that Affect Chemical Equilibrium Weak Acids and Acid Ionization constants Percent Ionization Slide 44: Acids and Bases Bronsted Acids and Bases Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs The Acid-Base Properties of Water The Ion-Product of water pH-A Measure of Acidity Strength of Acids and Bases Weak Acids and Bases Chemical Equilibrium The Concepts of Chemical Equilibrium Ways of Expressing Equilibrium Constants Homogenous Equilibria Heterogeneous Equilibria What does the Equilibrium Constant Tell Us? Factors that Affect Chemical Equilibrium Weak Acids and Acid Ionization constants Percent Ionization Diprotic and Polyprotic Acids Slide 46: Practice on Equilibrium Concentrations of Polyprotic Weak Acids Calculate the concentrations of H2C2O4, HC2O4-, C2O42-, and H+ ions in a 0.20 M oxalic acid solution. [H2C2O4 ]=0.114 M [HC2O4- ]= 0.0860 M [C2O42- ]= 6.1 x 10-5 M [H+ ]= 0.0862 M Slide 47: Acids and Bases The Acid-Base Properties of Water The Ion-Product of water pH-A Measure of Acidity Strength of Acids and Bases Weak Acids and Bases Chemical Equilibrium The Concepts of Chemical Equilibrium Ways of Expressing Equilibrium Constants Homogenous Equilibria Heterogeneous Equilibria What does the Equilibrium Constant Tell Us? Factors that Affect Chemical Equilibrium Weak Acids and Acid Ionization constants Percent Ionization Diprotic and Polyprotic Acids Weak bases and Base Ionization Constants Slide 48: Practice on Equilibrium Concentrations of Weak Bases Calculate the pH of a 0.26 M methylamine solution. (Kb = 4.4 x 10-4) pH = 12.03 Slide 49: Acids and Bases pH-A Measure of Acidity Strength of Acids and Bases Weak Acids and Bases Chemical Equilibrium The Concepts of Chemical Equilibrium Ways of Expressing Equilibrium Constants Homogenous Equilibria Heterogeneous Equilibria What does the Equilibrium Constant Tell Us? Factors that Affect Chemical Equilibrium Weak Acids and Acid Ionization constants Percent Ionization Diprotic and Polyprotic Acids Weak bases and Base Ionization Constants Relationship Between Conjugate Acid-Base Ionization Constants

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