Published on March 11, 2014
Chinese Religions and Philosophies: Chinese Religions and Philosophies Origins of Buddhism: Origins of Buddhism Based on the teachings of the Buddha , a prince who attained enlightenment . Taught about reincarnation , the cycle of death and rebirth. Buddhists seek Nirvana , release from the cycle of reincarnation. Practiced meditation and followed religious texts known as sutras . ©http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/ff/Buddha_in_Sarnath_Museum_%28Dhammajak_Mutra%29.jpg The Four Noble Truths: The Four Noble Truths Life is Suffering Suffering comes from desire To stop suffering, one must stop desiring To stop desiring, one must follow the ‘ Eightfold Path ’ of right views, aspirations, speech, conduct, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, and meditation Buddhism in China: Buddhism in China Buddhism came to China in the late Han Dynasty. Grew in popularity between the Han and Sui Dynasties. The Diamond Sutra (on the right) is believed to be the oldest surviving book. Although initially allowed by Tang officials, Buddhism later became distrusted in China. Eventually spread from China to Korea and then to Japan. ©http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/07/Diamond_sutra.jpg Quick Question: Quick Question Given what you know about China between the Han and Sui Dynasties, what would have made Buddhism favorable to the Chinese people? Discuss this with a partner. Who Was Confucius?: Who Was Confucius? Lived during a time of political struggle and disunity . Worked as a government official. Believed that benevolent and wise government was key to peace and happiness. ©http://www.philosophers.co.uk/confucius.html Confucian Values: Confucian Values Placed great emphasis on social Hierarchies . Drew comparisons between government structure and family structure. Ruler is seen as father to national family. Confucius’ writings later influenced the Scholar-Officials of later Chinese governments. Quick Question: Quick Question Given the time period he lived in, why would Confucius favor an organized government? Discuss this with a partner. Yin and Yang: Yin and Yang ©http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7c/Yin_and_Yang.svg Major concept in many Chinese religions. Represents complementary and balancing factors Yin is associated with dark, feminine, passive qualities, while Yang is associated with light, masculine, and active qualities. While deemed equal at first, in time Yang was seen as superior. Laozi and the Tao: Laozi and the Tao Very little is known about Laozi . Some believe he may not have existed. Taoism places emphasis on the Tao (pronounced “ dao ”), or path. Accepted the world as it is and revered nature. © http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c7/DaodeTianzun.jpg M: M The highest goodness is like water. Water easily benefits all things without struggle. Yet it abides in places that men hate. Therefore it is like the Tao. -Lao Tzu, Tao Te Ching Chapter 8 © http://s212.photobucket.com/user/sui_darou/media/water.gif.html Taoist Beliefs: Taoist Beliefs Believed the world was always changing and that one must go with the flow. Focus on individuals finding their own path. Belief in Wu Wei , or non-action. The idea of action being purely natural and not the result of planning. © http://www.wuwei.name/wupub/images/wuwei.jpg Quick Question: Quick Question What are some key ways that Confucianism differed from Taoism? Discuss this with a partner.