Published on January 3, 2008
Biology Objective 3 : Biology Objective 3 Demonstrate an understanding of the interdependence of organisms and the environment. Biomes Identified by biotic and abiotic factors: Biomes Identified by biotic and abiotic factors Biotic – what kinds of plants and animals live in it. Abiotic – Nonliving characteristics such as soil type, rainfall amounts, and average temperature cycles. A scientist has hypothesized that theexistence of life on Mars is likely becauseMars’s atmosphere is 95% carbon dioxide.: 36 Which question is valid in testing this hypothesis? F Do most other scientists agree with the hypothesis? G Could abiotic processes account for the carbon dioxide? H What is the percent of argon compared to carbon dioxide in the Martian atmosphere? J Have the scientist’s other predictions about Mars been validated? A scientist has hypothesized that the existence of life on Mars is likely because Mars’s atmosphere is 95% carbon dioxide. 36 Which question is valid in testing this hypothesis? : 36 Which question is valid in testing this hypothesis? F Do most other scientists agree with the hypothesis? G Could abiotic processes account for the carbon dioxide? H What is the percent of argon compared to carbon dioxide in the Martian atmosphere? J Have the scientist’s other predictions about Mars been validated? When testing an hypothesis, there should be only one variable changed at a time. If this is not possible, then all possible reasons for an outcome need to be considered. In this case, carbon dioxide can be produced by chemical reactions other than cellular respiration, which is a biotic process. That is why answer G is the best answer. Name the Biome: Name the Biome Desert Temperate Forest Tundra Tiaga Tropical Rainforest Grasslands What are they referring to? : What are they referring to? Biosphere – The entire area of the planet that supports life. Biome – An area defined by specific abiotic and biotic factors. Community – The groups of living things in an area and how they relate. Ecology – The study of the relationships among living things: Ecology – The study of the relationships among living things Symbiosis is a close relationship between two living things. When both are helped it is called mutualism When one is helped and there is no effect on the other it is called commensulism When one is helped and the other is harmed it is called parasitism Mutualism . . . : Mutualism . . . Sharks are cleaned by a little fish known as a Remora. The shark never eats them since they clean bacteria off of the shark. Since both species are helped, this is mutualism. Commensulism . . .: Commensulism . . . Orchids live high in tree-tops on the branches of large trees. They do not harm the tree, but they are helped by being raised up into the sunshine and receiving water. Parasites . . .: Parasites . . . Parasites harm or kill the host. A good example is a tape worm. It intercepts all of the hosts food, causing the host to starve to death. Slide11: 35 Clown fish are small reef fish that seek protection from predators by sheltering themselves among the stinging tentacles of sea anemones. Clown fish are very territorial and can potentially scare off predators of sea anemones. This relationship is an example of -- A neutralism B mutualism C parasitism D commensalism This is not a type of symbiosis Incorrect Neither is harmed so this is incorrect Means only one is being helped and the relationship has no effect on the other – also incorrect Since both are helped, it is of mutual benefit or Slide12: What is helped? Both the ants and the tree. This is the definition of: All energy on the earth comes from the sun.: All energy on the earth comes from the sun. 18 Energy used by producers in a grassland food web is provided by- : 18 Energy used by producers in a grassland food web is provided by- F sunlight G photosynthesis H oxygen J carbon dioxide Used by producers This is a process, not an energy source. H and J are elements which are types of matter, not energy. So our answer should be: F Energy Diagrams: Energy Diagrams At one end of the diagram are plants. They are called producers since they are capable of turning sunlight into food by photosynthesis. They pass 10% of the energy they absorb to animals that eat them. Consumers: Consumers 1st Order Consumers eat only plants and are also called herbivores. 2nd Order Consumers eat only animals and are called carnivores. 3rd Order Consumers animals that eat other animals, they are also known as carnivores Slide17: 39 Wolves and hawks are at the same trophic level because they — A both live on land B are both large mammals C both eat primary consumers D have similar hunting patterns Trophic level Means 1st , 2nd or 3rd Order Consumer 10% Energy Rule –Only 10% of the energy moves up to the next trophic level. : 10% Energy Rule – Only 10% of the energy moves up to the next trophic level. Decomposers Slide19: 43 Approximately how much of the energy available in the tissues of the producer is eventually incorporated into the tissues of a secondary consumer? A Less than 1% B Between 20% and 30% C Approximately 50% D More than 50% If we apply the 10% rule, 10% of the 1000 kcal of the plant is consumed or 100 kcal, and 10% of that is 10 kcal which is 1% of the original 1000kcal, but only 3 kcal is available to the tissues so it is A. Food Chain – One of many feeding relationships in a community: Food Chain – One of many feeding relationships in a community Arrows in a food chain show the direction of energy flow. This is not the only feeding relationship for these organisms. When several or all of the food relationships are shown it’s a . . . Food Web : Food Web Food Webs: Food Webs Food webs attempt to show all the feeding relationships in a community. The direction of the arrows shows the direction of energy flow. At the bottom of every web and every chain is a plant. These are the only things that can turn sunshine into food. Slide23: Since the Gulls are at the top of the food web, they would have the highest accumulation of everything but energy. Predator and Prey: Predator and Prey Prey are the animals that are eaten as a food source for the . . . Predator This is the hunter animal. The population of the predator must be less than the prey or they do not have enough food. To increase the predator population you could do what? : To increase the predator population you could do what? 24 Which of the following is most likely to cause increases in a predator population? F Fewer prey G A reduction in competition H More parasites J A period of drought Reduces available food – Nope! Less predators, they would be sick or dying! Less predators and prey, they’d be gone looking for water! Carrying Capacity : Carrying Capacity This is the maximum number of a specific population that an area can support with enough food and living requirements. It is shown by a line on population graphs for a specific species. 2 Because of this animal’s adaptations, it would be most successful at —: 2 Because of this animal’s adaptations, it would be most successful at — F competing with birds G making its own food H hiding from predators J running very rapidly And the answer is? : And the answer is? H hiding from predators. Its not a plant, so it can’t make food. It has no wings, so it can not compete with birds. Although it has long legs, it doesn’t seem balanced for running. Water Cycle: Water Cycle Precipitation (rain and snow) fall on plants and ground. Plants respire and evaporate water back into clouds. The ground filters the water run-off into the lakes where it evaporates again. Slide30: 21 The diagram shows physical changes that occur in the water cycle. Which of these shows condensation? A Q B R C S D T Precipitation Run Off of ground water Evaporation Carbon Cycle: Carbon Cycle Glucose C6H12O6 is produced by plants, eaten by animals. Photosynthesis Animals and plants exhale CO2 which is taken in by plants to make glucose Cellular Respiration Nitrogen Cycle : Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen Cycle : Nitrogen Cycle Lightening and bacteria in the ground “fix” Nitrogen into a form usable by plants. It is absorbed by plants, through their roots as nitrates, so they can be used to build amino acids essential for building proteins, enzymes and the nitrogen bases of DNA. Rock Cycle: Rock Cycle Man’s Effects on the Environment: Man’s Effects on the Environment Ozone O3 is a protective layer at the top of the atmosphere. However, when it occurs near the ground, it is very harmful to all living things, it is SMOG Man’s Effects on the Environment: Man’s Effects on the Environment More than 90% of fresh water is locked in ice at the polar caps and in glaciers. Much of the fresh water is polluted by land run-off, dumping of wastes and excess heat directly into lakes, oceans and rivers. Man’s Effects on the Environment: Man’s Effects on the Environment Global warming, also called the Greenhouse Effect is caused by excess burning of fossil fuels and destruction of our oxygen producing protista in the oceans, and deforestation on land. Less plants means less oxygen and more CO2. 54 Which of these activities can help conserve natural resources?: 54 Which of these activities can help conserve natural resources? F Recycling cardboard boxes G Washing small loads of laundry H Driving large cars J Building wooden fences What is the phrase for ecology? Yes! Recycle! Not saving water! Wasting fuel! Cutting down trees that give oxygen and clean air! Evolution: The process of change over time. : Evolution: The process of change over time. There are natural variations in all populations. As climate changes occur, and as pressures in terms of food, space, shelter and predation occur, some variations allow a species to survive. The members who survive, reproduce causing the change to become a characteristic of the species. Speciation: Separation into new species. : Speciation: Separation into new species. Geographic isolation can cause two different natural variations to become prominent causing 2 separate species. Reproductive isolation can have the same effect. What is extinction and what causes it?: What is extinction and what causes it? A population is extinct when the last of that species is dead. Example: There are no more dinosaurs. What happened? Their habitat was destroyed. When they no longer have what they need to live, they die. Fossils : Fossils These are imprints or remains of living things. In undisturbed layers of sedimentary rock, the deeper it is, the older it is. Give us information about extinct species. Homologous vs. Analogous Structures: Homologous vs. Analogous Structures Homologous means they have the same origin, but may be different now. Example, the upper arm bones in dogs, cows, cats and monkeys. Analogous means they have the same function but come from different origins. Example, bird wings and wings of bats. Viruses: Viruses Viruses are not alive because they can not reproduce on their own, and They do not grow and develop and They do not exchange with their environment Viral Illnesses : Viral Illnesses Measles, mumps, colds, influenza, Cold Sores, mononucleosis, Epstein-Barr virus are all illnesses that are caused by a virus. A Virus is has a coat, a strand inside of DNA or RNA, and some type of attachment appendage. Bacteria : Bacteria Bacteria can cause illnesses too, however 90% of all bacteria is helpful, NOT harmful. Without bacteria, you would not be able to make or eat cheese or ice cream. Without them, you would be ill most of the time. Strep Throat and Staph infections are examples of bacterial infections.