Class24ImlicatureExp

Information about Class24ImlicatureExp

Published on February 19, 2008

Author: WoodRock

Source: authorstream.com

Content

LCS121: Psycholinguistics Class 24 – 3/24/05 Pomona College, Spring'05:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Class 24 – 3/24/05 Pomona College, Spring'05 http://www.linguistics.pomona.edu/LGCS121Spring2005/index.html Asst. Prof. Martin Hackl Mason Hall 110B *18927 [email protected] Slide2:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Processing Studies of Scalar Implicatures Storto&Tanenhaus(2004): “Are Scalar Implicatures Computed Online?” Scalar implicatures with OR. (1) a. John is sick or out partying. b. John is sick. c. John is not out partying. 2) a. Anybody who is an American citizen or has already checked their bags can go to the front of the line. b. Mary is American who has checked her bags. c. Mary can go the front of the line. Scalar Implicatures with OR:  Scalar Implicatures with OR Truth-table for “inclusive or” Truth-table for “exclusive or” p q p v q p q (p v q) & ¬ (p & q) 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 A Gricean Analysis: - And and or are scalar alternatives with & > v because p & q asymmetrically entails p v q. - Maxim of Quantity - The fact that the speaker uses a weaker expression in place of a stronger one implicates that the speaker was not in the position to assert the stronger statement. LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Slide4:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Scalar Implicatures with OR Where and when do scalar implicatures of this sort arise? (1) a. Every guest who had fish or chicken got sick. b.≈/≈ Every guest who had fish or chicken but not both fish and chicken got sick. (2) a. If John had fish or chicken he will get sick. b.≈/≈ If John had fish or chicken but not both he will get sick. (3) a. It is not the case that John was talking to Mary or Sue. b.≈/≈ It is not the case that John was talking to Mary or Sue not to both. (4) a. If John was talking to Mary or Sue his wife will be angry. b.≈/≈ If John was talking Mary or Sue but not to both Mary and Sue his wife will be angry. Slide5:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Scalar Implicatures with OR “Intrusive Implicatures:” Levinson (2000) (1) a. AIDS vaccination will cause significant mortality.: but losing some of the people is better than losing at least some and perhaps all of it. (2) a. Any mother with three children is happier than any mother with four. b. # Any mother with at least three children is happier than any mother with at least four. c. (?) Any mother with a boy or a girl is happier than any mother with a boy and a girl. (MH) (3) a. A nuclear family with three children is smaller than a nuclear family with four. b. A student who cheats on some exams is better than one who cheats on all. c. A family with a grandmother or a grandfather is smaller than a family with a grandmother and a grandfather. (MH) Slide6:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Scalar Implicatures with OR (4) If you ate some of the cookies and no one else ate any, then there must still be some left. (5) # If you ate the cookies or the cake and no one else ate any of the cookies or the cake, then there must still be either the cookies or the cake left. (6) a. A nuclear family with three children is smaller than a nuclear family with four. b. A student who cheats on some exams is better than one who cheats on all. Slide7:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Eye-Tracking in the Language Processing Reading: generally self-paced reading is believed to be as sensitive to real time processing effects of grammatical phenomena as eye-tracking. Caveat: slow-down in self paced reading does not indicate back-tracking (regression of eye-movements) Visual Search Paradigms: - To what extent does linguistic form determine how you look for information in the world? - To what extent does information about the world effect your (real time) processing - What is the time course of integrating linguistic and non- linguistic information. Slide8:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Bezuidenhout&Morris(2004): Cancellation of Scalar Implicatures Cancellation of Implicatures: Evidence from Eye-movements in Reading (1) a Some books had color pictures. In fact all of them did, which is why the teachers liked them. a’ Some books had color pictures. In fact all of them did, which is why the teachers liked them. b Many books had color pictures. In fact all of them did, which is why the teachers liked them. c. The books had color pictures. In fact all of them did, which is why the teachers liked them. Filler items: (2) Some books had color pictures. In fact all of the pictures were highly colored, which is why the children liked them Slide9:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Bezuidenhout&Morris(2004): Cancellation of Scalar Implicatures No significant difference in how much back-tracking to some/many/the or at the end of the sentence. Slide10:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Tanenhaus et al. (1995) Modularity in sentence processing: First pass parsing was/is believed to be informationally encapsulated similar (hence modular). a # The horse raced past the barn fell. b. John and Mary like to race their horses. The horse raced past the barn fell. (2) (#) Put the apple on the towel in the box. Head-mounted eye-tracking:  Head-mounted eye-tracking From Sedivy(1999) LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Slide12:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Tanenhaus et al. (1995) Put the apple on the towel in the box. More vs. Fewer:  More vs. Fewer Ann Bill More vs. Fewer:  More vs. Fewer More vs. Fewer:  More vs. Fewer Ann Bill Ann has more diamonds than Bill.:  Ann has more diamonds than Bill. Ann + Bill 1 2 Bill has fewer diamonds than Ann.:  Bill has fewer diamonds than Ann. Ann + Bill 1 2 3 In the next picture you will see a cow, a camel and a pig who has some apples and a pumpkin to give away.:  In the next picture you will see a cow, a camel and a pig who has some apples and a pumpkin to give away. In the next picture you will see a cow, a camel and a pig who has some apples and a pumpkin to give away.:  In the next picture you will see a cow, a camel and a pig who has some apples and a pumpkin to give away. The pig gave more apples to the camel than to the cow.:  The pig gave more apples to the camel than to the cow. The pig gave more apples to the camel than to the cow.:  The pig gave more apples to the camel than to the cow. The witch gave more oranges to the boy than to the girl.:  The witch gave more oranges to the boy than to the girl. The pig gave more apples to the camel than to the cow.:  The pig gave more apples to the camel than to the cow. Fewer Apples:  Fewer Apples The pig gave fewer apples to the cow than to the camel.:  The pig gave fewer apples to the cow than to the camel. It’s almost as if a fewer than b triggers …:  It’s almost as if a fewer than b triggers … Ann + Bill Does A have more than B? No! Does B have more than A? Yes. Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MoreT MoreF FewerT FewerF A B + Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MoreT A>B MoreF FewerT FewerF A B + + + Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MoreT A>B A>B MoreF FewerT FewerF A B + + + Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MoreT A>B A>B MoreF (A>B) FewerT FewerF A B + + Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MoreT A>B A>B MoreF (A>B) A>B FewerT FewerF A B + + Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MoreT A>B A>B MoreF (A>B) A>B FewerT (A>B) & B>A FewerF A B + Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MoreT A>B A>B MoreF (A>B) A>B FewerT (A>B) & B>A B>A FewerF A B + Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MoreT A>B A>B MoreF (A>B) A>B FewerT (A>B) & B>A B>A FewerF A>B  (B>A) A B Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MoreT A>B A>B MoreF (A>B) A>B FewerT (A>B) & B>A B>A FewerF A>B  B>A (B>A) A B “False Start” Pattern:  “False Start” Pattern MoreT (B>A) & A>B A>B MoreF FewerT FewerF A B + + + “False Start” Pattern:  “False Start” Pattern MoreT (B>A) & A>B A>B MoreF B>A  A>B (B>A) FewerT FewerF A B + + “False Start” Pattern:  “False Start” Pattern MoreT (B>A) & A>B A>B MoreF B>A  A>B (B>A) FewerT B>A B>A FewerF A B + + + “False Start” Pattern:  “False Start” Pattern MoreT (B>A) & A>B A>B MoreF B>A  A>B (B>A) FewerT B>A B>A FewerF (B>A) B>A A B + + + Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MT A>B A>B MF (A>B) A>B FT (A>B) & B>A B>A FF A>B  B>A (B>A) A B MT (B>A) & A>B A>B MF B>A  A>B (A>B) FT B>A B>A FF (B>A) B>A A B Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MT A>B A>B MF (A>B) A>B FT (A>B) & B>A B>A FF A>B  B>A (B>A) A B MT (B>A) & A>B A>B MF B>A  A>B (A>B) FT B>A B>A FF (B>A) B>A A B The witch gave fewer oranges to the girl than to the boy. False Start.:  The witch gave fewer oranges to the girl than to the boy. False Start. Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MT A>B A>B MF (A>B) A>B FT (A>B) & B>A B>A FF A>B  B>A (B>A) A B MT (B>A) & A>B A>B MF B>A  A>B (A>B) FT B>A B>A FF (B>A) B>A A B Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MT A>B A>B MF (A>B) A>B FT (A>B) & B>A B>A FF A>B  B>A (B>A) A B MT (B>A) & A>B A>B MF B>A  A>B (A>B) FT B>A B>A FF (B>A) B>A A B The owl gave fewer coins to the weasel than to the turtle.:  The owl gave fewer coins to the weasel than to the turtle. Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MT A>B A>B MF (A>B) A>B FT (A>B) & B>A B>A FF A>B  B>A (B>A) A B MT (B>A) & A>B A>B MF B>A  A>B (A>B) FT B>A B>A FF (B>A) B>A A B The owl gave more coins to the weasel than to the turtle.:  The owl gave more coins to the weasel than to the turtle. Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MT A>B A>B MF (A>B) A>B FT (A>B) & B>A B>A FF A>B  B>A (B>A) A B MT (B>A) & A>B A>B MF B>A  A>B (A>B) FT B>A B>A FF (B>A) B>A A B Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MT A>B A>B MF (A>B) A>B FT (A>B) & B>A B>A FF A>B  B>A (B>A) A B MT (B>A) & A>B A>B MF B>A  A>B (A>B) FT B>A B>A FF (B>A) B>A A B The pig gave more apples to the camel than to the cow.:  The pig gave more apples to the camel than to the cow. Expected Pattern:  Expected Pattern MT A>B A>B MF (A>B) A>B FT (A>B) & B>A B>A FF A>B  B>A (B>A) A B MT (B>A) & A>B A>B MF B>A  A>B (A>B) FT B>A B>A FF (B>A) B>A A B Slide52:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Storto&Tanenhaus (2004) How early do speakers compute the scalar implicature “but not both” triggered by (un-embedded) or? Method: Head mounted eye-tracking allows you to monitor how fast speakers identify the target object of an action. How early do speakers compute scalar implicatures to speed up the search? “The grapes or the oranges are next to some locks. Please click on those locks.” Slide53:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Storto&Tanenhaus (2004) Baseline: AND Procedure: subjects see the scene for 3 seconds. Then an instruction as the one below played over speakers “The bananas and the grapes are next to some locks. Please click on those locks.” Slide54:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Storto&Tanenhaus (2004) Baseline: AND “The bananas and the grapes are next to some locks. Please click on those locks.” Slide55:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Storto&Tanenhaus (2004) Baseline: AND “The bananas and the grapes are next to some locks. Please click on those locks.” Slide56:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Storto&Tanenhaus (2004) OR “The the grapes or the oranges are next to some locks. Please click on those locks.” Slide57:  LCS121: Psycholinguistics Spring 2005 Prof. Hackl TR: 9:35 – 10:50 Storto&Tanenhaus (2004) Baseline: AND “The bananas and the grapes are next to some locks. Please click on those locks.” End:  End

Related presentations


Other presentations created by WoodRock

VoIP endfassung
18. 06. 2007
0 views

VoIP endfassung

Lone Wolf Presentation
22. 04. 2008
0 views

Lone Wolf Presentation

Guersenfinal
17. 04. 2008
0 views

Guersenfinal

10 bridge
16. 04. 2008
0 views

10 bridge

Reveiwfinal spring
14. 04. 2008
0 views

Reveiwfinal spring

ch03 edit
13. 04. 2008
0 views

ch03 edit

Howcroft CME
10. 04. 2008
0 views

Howcroft CME

ARPA07distribute
09. 04. 2008
0 views

ARPA07distribute

PowerPoint Presentation 2007
07. 04. 2008
0 views

PowerPoint Presentation 2007

Central Asia short
30. 03. 2008
0 views

Central Asia short

APALSAGeneralMeeting
27. 03. 2008
0 views

APALSAGeneralMeeting

elements compounds mixtures
04. 01. 2008
0 views

elements compounds mixtures

Moodle for english teachers
27. 06. 2007
0 views

Moodle for english teachers

YagerDOE2005
17. 09. 2007
0 views

YagerDOE2005

JESSICA2 HKJU Dec 18 2002
17. 09. 2007
0 views

JESSICA2 HKJU Dec 18 2002

wipo smes del 07 www 76775
24. 09. 2007
0 views

wipo smes del 07 www 76775

LDAP Integration
24. 09. 2007
0 views

LDAP Integration

SAR presentation Final
24. 09. 2007
0 views

SAR presentation Final

Politics ml Z
02. 10. 2007
0 views

Politics ml Z

sparkles
04. 10. 2007
0 views

sparkles

Extreme Makeover
17. 09. 2007
0 views

Extreme Makeover

current status ebxml cppa tc
29. 10. 2007
0 views

current status ebxml cppa tc

ast201 2007 lect11
28. 11. 2007
0 views

ast201 2007 lect11

judicial
28. 08. 2007
0 views

judicial

Laptop Security
28. 08. 2007
0 views

Laptop Security

hammer fatriv
28. 08. 2007
0 views

hammer fatriv

Air Monitoring
23. 10. 2007
0 views

Air Monitoring

CONFINED
07. 11. 2007
0 views

CONFINED

Kansas GRB 5
15. 11. 2007
0 views

Kansas GRB 5

ATS
16. 11. 2007
0 views

ATS

Lecture 4 Bioterrorism Dunne
17. 11. 2007
0 views

Lecture 4 Bioterrorism Dunne

wieser sybase
20. 11. 2007
0 views

wieser sybase

rushdie
21. 11. 2007
0 views

rushdie

Napoleon I
26. 11. 2007
0 views

Napoleon I

SonnetOL
11. 08. 2007
0 views

SonnetOL

Steve Lafferty optimized
11. 08. 2007
0 views

Steve Lafferty optimized

Tibetian test 2
11. 08. 2007
0 views

Tibetian test 2

Plumbing an Information Space
02. 01. 2008
0 views

Plumbing an Information Space

Tree of Life 3 11 03
11. 08. 2007
0 views

Tree of Life 3 11 03

savas dangerous offenders
11. 08. 2007
0 views

savas dangerous offenders

Memory Revisited
12. 10. 2007
0 views

Memory Revisited

Dermatology Revision
05. 01. 2008
0 views

Dermatology Revision

FROM THE DISCOVERY OF HELIX
16. 10. 2007
0 views

FROM THE DISCOVERY OF HELIX

504d AACR poster 2005 cfg
30. 10. 2007
0 views

504d AACR poster 2005 cfg

Zeeberg
17. 09. 2007
0 views

Zeeberg

sweep
11. 08. 2007
0 views

sweep

Industrialization Ideology
26. 10. 2007
0 views

Industrialization Ideology

CS438 08 Bridges
28. 12. 2007
0 views

CS438 08 Bridges

sa advocacy
24. 09. 2007
0 views

sa advocacy

CausalArguments
26. 11. 2007
0 views

CausalArguments

JostDeutschAwards
07. 01. 2008
0 views

JostDeutschAwards

Lars Nord Presentation at HA2005
08. 10. 2007
0 views

Lars Nord Presentation at HA2005

ConEvals
27. 02. 2008
0 views

ConEvals

moodle themes
27. 06. 2007
0 views

moodle themes

Moodle lokalp
27. 06. 2007
0 views

Moodle lokalp

Moodle na UE final
27. 06. 2007
0 views

Moodle na UE final

SIRESENAC06
06. 03. 2008
0 views

SIRESENAC06

Seance 4 Alissa fr
24. 10. 2007
0 views

Seance 4 Alissa fr

SKita gesture
11. 08. 2007
0 views

SKita gesture

8 lessons learnt from nms
18. 03. 2008
0 views

8 lessons learnt from nms

WORKING IN THE EU INSTITUTIONS
20. 03. 2008
0 views

WORKING IN THE EU INSTITUTIONS

semantic web applications
25. 03. 2008
0 views

semantic web applications

FutureofNews
05. 10. 2007
0 views

FutureofNews

sxu 1 05 06
11. 08. 2007
0 views

sxu 1 05 06

canarias
23. 10. 2007
0 views

canarias

Reintegration ProgramFinal
28. 12. 2007
0 views

Reintegration ProgramFinal

G Abaee
22. 11. 2007
0 views

G Abaee

tromsoe
11. 08. 2007
0 views

tromsoe

glazerbusan
12. 10. 2007
0 views

glazerbusan

Stockholm Tutorial June 2001
12. 03. 2008
0 views

Stockholm Tutorial June 2001

TF Rschede
18. 06. 2007
0 views

TF Rschede

telwisa 5
18. 06. 2007
0 views

telwisa 5

Teitler Framework
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Teitler Framework

STRUMENTI tris DI ATTUAZIONE
18. 06. 2007
0 views

STRUMENTI tris DI ATTUAZIONE

strategic plan
18. 06. 2007
0 views

strategic plan

STEROIDS
18. 06. 2007
0 views

STEROIDS

Slide musso taranto
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Slide musso taranto

V 005 Gierke
18. 06. 2007
0 views

V 005 Gierke

Vorlesung BGB AT 1
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Vorlesung BGB AT 1

violenza
18. 06. 2007
0 views

violenza

Varma
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Varma

usenix
18. 06. 2007
0 views

usenix

unter Mitglieder wenn das geht
18. 06. 2007
0 views

unter Mitglieder wenn das geht

Unterrichtsbeobachtu ng
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Unterrichtsbeobachtu ng

Traechtigkeit
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Traechtigkeit

todoslossantosanual
02. 11. 2007
0 views

todoslossantosanual

vortrag we mu 220602
18. 06. 2007
0 views

vortrag we mu 220602

SOR Legal Updates 2006 141962 7
11. 08. 2007
0 views

SOR Legal Updates 2006 141962 7

Bigwood 1
13. 03. 2008
0 views

Bigwood 1

lrec metadata
14. 11. 2007
0 views

lrec metadata

termininfo D2D Konferenz2006
18. 06. 2007
0 views

termininfo D2D Konferenz2006

3320 l09
17. 09. 2007
0 views

3320 l09

typologie
18. 06. 2007
0 views

typologie

antalya
03. 09. 2007
0 views

antalya

sermonpp thy will be done
11. 08. 2007
0 views

sermonpp thy will be done

gabriel
24. 09. 2007
0 views

gabriel

tack2
24. 09. 2007
0 views

tack2

VORTRAG BW
18. 06. 2007
0 views

VORTRAG BW

The Perils of Childhood Obesity
11. 08. 2007
0 views

The Perils of Childhood Obesity

GT TurkeyCountryPresent ation
23. 10. 2007
0 views

GT TurkeyCountryPresent ation

Open Everything 3 9
01. 10. 2007
0 views

Open Everything 3 9

arnaud
28. 09. 2007
0 views

arnaud

file1180026507
22. 10. 2007
0 views

file1180026507

yasinsky
24. 09. 2007
0 views

yasinsky

healthy body esteem
03. 10. 2007
0 views

healthy body esteem

moodle presentation epfl final
27. 06. 2007
0 views

moodle presentation epfl final

37 Yale SA Program Overview 07
24. 09. 2007
0 views

37 Yale SA Program Overview 07

song slides
11. 08. 2007
0 views

song slides

Stuttgart
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Stuttgart

site wsa
29. 02. 2008
0 views

site wsa

pearson
24. 09. 2007
0 views

pearson

09 s4 fr
11. 03. 2008
0 views

09 s4 fr

EPS
17. 10. 2007
0 views

EPS

OARS CRJ 2006
24. 09. 2007
0 views

OARS CRJ 2006

7Paul Hopkin
11. 12. 2007
0 views

7Paul Hopkin

Sofia 29 09 30 02
23. 11. 2007
0 views

Sofia 29 09 30 02

CSI NetSec2004
29. 10. 2007
0 views

CSI NetSec2004

santTOPch11
11. 08. 2007
0 views

santTOPch11

HumanCapitalFINAL
24. 09. 2007
0 views

HumanCapitalFINAL

Carmelo Polino
22. 10. 2007
0 views

Carmelo Polino

Poeplau ECLOUD07
03. 01. 2008
0 views

Poeplau ECLOUD07

peytonap
17. 09. 2007
0 views

peytonap

BUTE 2005feb Milano COST291
16. 10. 2007
0 views

BUTE 2005feb Milano COST291