Published on February 25, 2008
Hellenistic Greece 4: Hellenistic Greece 4 CNE/ART 354 4/20/06 Hellenistic Sculpture: Hellenistic Sculpture Closed pose popular at this time. Owes much to the style of Lysippos: Uses contrasting axes, torsion, projecting arms and knees to create a sense of spatial freedom. Hellenistic Sculpture: Hellenistic Sculpture The crossing of the legs creates thrusts and major surfaces to the left and right of the figure; the movement on the left is counteracted by the movement of the river god. Hellenistic Sculpture: Hellenistic Sculpture The strong diagonal created by the stretching of drapery from the left hand to the right shoulder is counteracted by the turn of the head to the viewer’s right. These internal forces seem to make the energy of the goddess radiate in many directions and invite the viewer to study the statue from many angles. Lysippos Mini-Review: Lysippos Mini-Review Single most creative and influential artist of the Hellenistic period. Contemporary of Praxiteles in late Classical period, one of the creators of Hellenistic art. During the first 75 years of the period, he and his school created new types of monuments and made stylistic innovations that would be used in Hellenistic art for centuries. Lysippos’ Innovations: Lysippos’ Innovations Modified Polykleitos’ canons: his heads were smaller, bodies leaner (example: Apoxyomenos from 340/330). His innovations were concentrated in 3 areas: Continuing theatricality (manipulation of scale for effect; brought colossal sculpture back into vogue, made a bronze Zeus statue 18 meters (54 feet) high. Exploration of emotional expressionism (started in his portraits of Alexander). Expanded interest in symbolism and allegory. Tanagra Figurines: Tanagra Figurines New class of miniature terracottas arise in Boiotia c. 330-200 BCE, a town 12 miles east of Thebes. Figurines discovered through grave robbing in the late 1800s, from late 4th-3rd c. graves. 8,000-10,000 graves were robbed. Tanagra Figurines: Tanagra Figurines Victorians fell in love with these sculptures and competed to collect them. Many forgeries were created. Mold-made and painted figurines. Used chiefly as grave goods, so many survive with paint relatively intact. “Woman in Blue”: “Woman in Blue” High artistic quality Artists used 2 molds to make them, one for the front, 1 for the back. Sectional molding was also used in the best pieces so that heads, arms, legs could be attached at slightly different angles, giving each piece individuality. Tanagra Figurines: Tanagra Figurines Standing woman pose was most popular. Chitons and cloaks were tightly wrapped around the body and brightly colored. Blue and purplish pink were popular colors. Some wear a broad conical hat (sun?), likely worn in everyday life, if seldom seen in art. A Large Miniature: A Large Miniature This is a very tall Tanagra figurine, standing at 33 centimeters. Other Poses: Other Poses Veiled dancer Compare: Veiled Dancer from Alexandria: Compare: Veiled Dancer from Alexandria In the 5th c., artists represented the body through drapery. Hellenistic artists represented drapery through drapery. Miniature bronze statuette c. 250-150, double twist pose. Tanagra Aphrodite and Eros: Tanagra Aphrodite and Eros Open Pose: Dancing Faun: Open Pose: Dancing Faun Roman copy of 3rd c. Greek original. Found in Pompeii. 71 cm height Extraordinary example of open composition. Fills all 3 dimensions. Wild abandon of limbs, arms flung out. Natural representation of anatomy. Dancing Faun: Dancing Faun Dramatically twisted pose. Leads the eye, motivates the viewer to walk around the statue to take in the different angles. Other Types of Sculpture: Other Types of Sculpture Aphrodite of Melos (Venus de Milo). Head very classical: small mouth, smooth brow, marked nose ridge (5th-4th c. precedents); stuck on a characteristically open style pose of Hellenistic baroque. Carving and finish emphasize the softness of the skin. Venus de Milo: Venus de Milo Discovered in 1820 in bits by a local peasant. Turks and French tussled over it; French won. Claims: A broken inscription naming the artist (“[Ages?]andros son of Menides, from Antioch on the river Maeander”) had been found, then “lost” [artist too obscure]. Another inscription said that it had been the gift of a local benefactor to a civic gymnasium (it stood in a niche [unfinished back]). One of its arms did survive, with an apple in its hand. Reactions: Reactions Rodin: “Behold, the marvel of marvels . . . The work is the expression of the greatest antique inspiration; it is voluptuousness regulated by restraint, ti is the joy of life cadenced, moderated by reason.” Now thought to be of the 2nd of 1st c. BCE. Art Historical Puzzle: Art Historical Puzzle What were her arms doing? Lots of reconstructions. Capitoline Venus, Copy of 3rd c. Greek Original: Capitoline Venus, Copy of 3rd c. Greek Original From the early 19th c: theory that such sculptures became progressively more nude from the “Knidian” Aphrodite on. Here we see her having dropped the robe entirely. Pose covers (draws attention to?) her breasts and pubic area. Aphrodite and Pan: Aphrodite and Pan Delos, c. 100 BCE Found in a club house of a group of merchants from Beirut - Beard and Henderson speculate: ‘motel art’ for businessmen? They also claim it is one of the most disliked statues in scholarship. Seen by some scholars as an allusion to prostitution via display of her sandal. Prostitutes had the word ‘follow’ picked out on the sole of one of their sandals, Thus she is welcoming, not resisting, Pan’s advances. Orestes and Electra: Orestes and Electra 1st c. CE based on 1st c. BCE prototypes. Deliberately archaizing. Susan Woodford: “unimaginative adaptation . . . A dry work, an unattractive pasting together of two unrelated older statues . . . The side views are worthless . . .” Romans displayed such statues against walls, designed for one view only. Laocoon: Laocoon Roman statue, altering Hellenistic Greek original. Found in 1509 in Rome, now in Vatican. Details of suffering, depiction of dramatic moment - typical of Hellenistic baroque style. But: scholars now think it is not from this period, but rather a revival of it in the 1st c. CE. Laocoon: Laocoon Pliny preserves the names of its sculptors: Hagesandros, Polydoros & Athenodoros of Rhodes Has strong connections in both style and conception with the Gigantomachy on the Pergamene Altar: moment of maximal agony and violence chosen to sum up the story. Serpents twine around the humans, just as they do on Altar. Laokoon screams, struggles; contorted face, open mouth, massive wreath of hair all call to mind the giants on the Altar. Comparison: Comparison Similar: tilt of head, anguished expression, arm angle But: Laokoon is carved using different drill techniques. Laokoon Restorations: Laokoon Restorations The Fascination of the Piece: The Fascination of the Piece 1510: competition to see which of 4 famous artists could make the best copy. Judge: Raphael. Winning copy immortalized in bronze. Spin-off copies proliferated. Vatican acquired it for its new sculpture gallery; Napoleon carted it off 300 years later for the Louvre; later returned to the Vatican. Sperlonga: Sperlonga Sculptures in the cave discovered in 1957. The grotto here held many sculptures made by the same sculptors of the Laokoon (?), bought by the Roman emperor Tiberius. Highlight of a sea-side dining room attached to a luxury villa. Caveat: Caveat The Sperlonga sculptures were found in tiny pieces, having been smashed up and dumped into the central pool (by early Christians?). Came to light during the construction of a coastal road. Chief engineer explored the cave. Jigsaw puzzle of reconstruction. Lots of other sculptures (small and large) have been found there; carved prow of ship in rock with glass mosaic - Argo. Odysseus with Statue of Athena: Odysseus with Statue of Athena Blinding Polyphemos: Blinding Polyphemos Another Light: Another Light Skylla: Skylla Skylla Group Reconstruction: Skylla Group Reconstruction Sailor Caught by Skylla: Sailor Caught by Skylla Comparison: Comparison Skopas of Paros: Skopas of Paros Meleager, c. 340 “Exponent of the pathos idiom.” Exploration of personal experience. Active in the mid 4th century; sculptor and architect. Used facial expressions to generate psychological tension/excitement. Deeply cut eyes (concentrated gaze), head and neck turned to one side (attention suddenly called to something); head tilted, lips slightly parted. Bronze Portrait Head, early 1st c. BCE: Bronze Portrait Head, early 1st c. BCE Found in the palaistra at Delos, probably part of a statue of a standing male figure wearing a himation. His glance “reflects an interior world full of anxiety & uncertainty.” Another View: Another View Horse and Jockey, Bronze, c. 200 BCE: Horse and Jockey, Bronze, c. 200 BCE Recovered from a shipwreck off the coast of Artemision. Athlete shown in throes of competition rather than victorious, after (Charioteer at Delphi, etc.). Extreme tension depicted in both boy and horse. Tremendous speed of horse mirrored in the blowing folds of the boy’s chiton. Comparison: Stele with Horse and Boy, late 4th c.: Comparison: Stele with Horse and Boy, late 4th c. Found in Athens in 1948. Carved in deep relief; probably from the last Attic stelai before the law forbidding them in 317. Consists of 2 blocks, but at least one more is missing. Ethiopian groom attempts to control a large horse, offering it some kind of food. Head of horse projects away from the block, while the body remains attached to it. Drunken Old Woman: Hellenistic realism: Drunken Old Woman: Hellenistic realism Pergamon, c. 200 BCE Original reputedly by Myron, but not likely. One proposed context: Votive in Temple of Dionysos, for the Lagynophoria, a cult occasion when even respectable people could get drink, from huge jars (lagynoi) of wine? Reception: Reception Found sometime before 1700; given as a gift to Germany in early 18th c. 1830: not put in the new Sculpture Gallery in Munich 1895: finally displayed publically, but segregated from the Greek masterpieces, put into the Roman section. Now: has ‘star rating’ Farnese Heracles: Farnese Heracles Marble version of a Lysippean type of c. 320 BCE, by sculptor Glykon of Athens; c. 3rc c. CE (?). 10 ft. 5 in; for baths of Caracella. Found in the 16th century there. Pollitt: “Lysippos seems to have been the instigator of . . . Hellenistic ‘shock tactics’ in the use of scale. There is something intrinsically astounding about either extreme bigness or smallness, and L. in his Herakles figures seems to have exploited both.” Weary Herakles: Weary Herakles Lysippos sparked the renewed interest in colossal statues: Popular in the archaic period Rejected in the classical period except for a few cult statues Popular in Hellenistic period Here: contrast between heavily muscled body and the tired pose (barely able to stand). Holds Apples of the Hes. When discovered: lacked a left hand & both legs below the knee. Michelangelo asked a pupil to make replacement legs; “these were so good that, when the originals were found not long afterwards, no one could bear to make the substitution.” Originals put back in 1787. Terme Boxer (c. 100–50 BCE): Terme Boxer (c. 100–50 BCE) Realistic representation: broken nose, cauliflower ears, bleeding wounds, swelling muscles. Breaks “idealism” of classical athletes Bronze Dwarves (c. 150-100): Bronze Dwarves (c. 150-100) Part of what is called “Alexandrian grotesquerie”; interest in the unusual, whether mythological (Cyclops) or real (dwarves, hunchbacks, handicapped people, etc.). Such representations were thought to avert the evil eye. Pottery Developments: Gnathian Ware: Pottery Developments: Gnathian Ware Review: by the 4th century on the mainland, figured decoration of pottery disappears. Black Glaze ware. Gnathian Ware is in use until c. 200 BCE: black slip with gold and white painted on. Pots are textured with scallops molded in the clay. Centuripe Ware: Centuripe Ware Good for dating a site, since it was only in use for 25 years, from 300-275 BCE. Named after an inland town in Sicily. Lots of decorations in 3 dimensions; polychrome painted decoration done after firing. Depicted elegant women in quiet domestic settings. Contained cremations. How Rome Became Involved in Greece: How Rome Became Involved in Greece Begins in the early 2nd c. BCE. In 168, evidence of 1st Roman conquests in Greece. First symbol of Roman supremacy on Greek soil. Aemilius Paulus erected a monument in Delphi to celebrate his victory at the battle of Pydna and the ensuing Roman domination of northern Greece. Pillar with a horseman on top, 30 feet high. Frieze at top depicts battles between the Macedonians and the Romans, style borrowed from Greeks vs. Barbarians. Who is the barbarian? How Rome Became Involved in Greece: How Rome Became Involved in Greece 146 BCE: Rome decided to teach Greece a lesson. Destroyed Corinth. 88 BCE: Roman general Sulla attacked and sacked Athens, removing all the city’s art to Rome. 69 BCE: Crete was taken over by the Romans. 44 BCE: Caesar rebuilt Corinth, established it as the capital of the Roman province of Achaea. Athenian Agora: Athenian Agora 2nd c. CE West side pretty much unchanged. Basilica built by Hadrian (117-138): a large 3 aisled hall used for markets, administration, lawcourts. Here: administrative. Athenian Agora: Athenian Agora 15 BCE Agrippa, son-in-law of Augustus, built an Odeion right in the middle of the agora. Had a huge span of 25 m with no internal supports over the auditorium, which seated 1,000. Stood several storeys high, dominated the agora. Odeion: Odeion Market of Caesar & Augustus: Market of Caesar & Augustus Formal marketplace to the east of the Agora, behind the Stoa of Attalos. Started in the 50s, finished c. 11-9 BCE. Series of shops all around a peristyle court. This was now the open center; the Romans filled the old agora with the Odeion and temple of Ares.