Published on March 18, 2008
Chapter 37: The Cold War Begins1945-1952: Chapter 37: The Cold War Begins 1945-1952 Slide2: The Cold War [1945-1991]: An Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”] US & the Western Democracies GOAL spread world-wide Communism GOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan] METHODOLOGIES: Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] Arms Race [nuclear escalation] Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact] Nuclear Weapons/Ideas: Nuclear Weapons/Ideas Nuclear weapons. Hydrogen bomb developed first by the United States. Rosenbergs Nuclear Testing-showing off what you have. Largest thermonuclear weapon ever created (left). Soviet Union. Tsar Bomba. Tested in 1961 in the Arctic of the Soviet Union. Size of explosion of Hiroshima: 15 kilotons of TNT Size of explosion of Tsar Bomba: 57,000 kilotons of TNT Post-World War II Societal Changes: Post-World War II Societal Changes Returning soldiers (15 million/11.3% of the pop.) and the American public were tired after the Great Depression and 4 years of war and sought stability Social Programs enacted: Serviceman's Readjustment Act of 1944 (GI Bill). 8 million veterans used the GI Bill in the 10 years following the war. Societal changes continued: Societal changes continued Under the GI Bill, the Veterans Administration guaranteed loans: homes, farms, small businesses. Allowed for the mass settlement of the suburbs. Women had entered the workplace at great rates during the war. Many returned to the home after soldiers returned, some stayed working. African American, Native American migration to the north and west. Rural to Urban migration. The Sun Belt experienced heavy growth after WWII. Couple looking at house: Couple looking at house In postwar America, millions of families shopped for new houses in the country's burgeoning suburbs. In the first decade after the Second World War, 4.3 million veterans used GI Bill loan provisions to purchase single-family residences. Many of these men and women were members of what Tom Brokaw, NBC's news anchor, has called "the greatest generation." They survived the Great Depression, served in the war, and became parents of America's baby boomers. (H. Armstrong Roberts) Couple looking at house Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Girl in front of dome atomic bomb shelter: Girl in front of dome atomic bomb shelter As the Cold War intensified and the Soviets became a nuclear power, the government began to consider methods to survive a nuclear war. One "solution" was to encourage people to build backyard bomb shelters. Pictured here is one family's atomic bomb shelter that slept six. The cost was $1,250 in 1951. (Corbis-Bettmann) Girl in front of dome atomic bomb shelter Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Societal changes continued: Societal changes continued Rise of racial tensions as African American, Mexican American and Native American soldiers returned from the war and experienced discrimination even though they had fought for their country. Jim Crow laws in the south become more cruel. Unionism peaked during the 1950's. Serious blow to unions in 1947's Taft-Hartley Act that outlawed a “closed shop”. Manufacturing and cheap sources of energy (Middle East oil) caused huge increase in national income. Doubled in the 1950's and almost doubled again in the 1960's. Growing middle class. Defense spending increased dramatically during the 1950's/1960's. NSC-68 Car culture allowed for easier travel to and from suburbs. Mass exodus of white middle class from urban to suburban areas. Inner city decay began. Minorities and the poor stayed in the inner cities. Mobility-interstate highway system made better shipping via truck possible. Trucking began to supplant train travel/shipping. New West: Wing production on the Boeing B-52 assembly line, Seattle, 1950s: New West: Wing production on the Boeing B-52 assembly line, Seattle, 1950s Symbolic of the defense spending and investment that helped the West's economy flourish, Seattle's Boeing plant in 1951 began production of the first of the B-52 Stratofortress heavy bombers. They would continue rolling off the Boeing assembly line until the end of the decade. (Courtesy Boeing Defense & Space Group) New West: Wing production on the Boeing B-52 assembly line, Seattle, 1950s Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Societal changes continued : Societal changes continued Baby Boom:1946-1960. Returning soldiers started to have children. This population increase caused growth in the service and manufacturing sectors. Many schools were built to educate this enormous influx in children. The country began to grow more conservative. Fatigue from so much change in the first half of the century. Life began to center on the nuclear family and the home. Domestic and Foreign Policy: Domestic and Foreign Policy Truman Doctrine (military and monetary): “It must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressure.” Greece and Turkey. Britain could no longer afford to protect them. Marshall Plan (monetary)-rebuild the economies of Europe and Asia. Reasons: to prevent another war. Trade with the countries would help U.S. Business. American Food for Hungry Europe: American Food for Hungry Europe Grateful English mothers line up for orange juice sent by the United States to assist Europeans devastated by the Second World War. (National Archives) American Food for Hungry Europe Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Domestic and Foreign Policy continued: Domestic and Foreign Policy continued The United States and the Soviets started to struggle for dominance. Stalin wanted Spheres of Influence where power would be shared. Truman and western countries wanted self-determination. Germany: Divided after the war. Eastern Europe occupied by Soviet troops. Soviet Union wanted buffer states to: spread communism and protect against another invasion. Berlin airlift-1948. Soviet Union had tried to choke off West Berlin. Split into two countries-1949. East becoming Communist, West-Democratic. Reunited 1990. Map: Cold War Germany: Map: Cold War Germany Cold War Germany This map shows how Germany and Berlin were divided into occupation zones. Meant as temporary divisions, they became permanent, transformed by the Cold War into East and West Germany. In 1948, with the Berlin airlift, and again in 1961, with the erection of the Berlin Wall, Berlin became the flash point of the Cold War. With the end of the Cold War, the division of Germany also ended. In 1989, the Berlin Wall was torn down, and in 1990 the two Germanies were re-unified. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Berlin Air Lift--German children watching American planes bring food, 1948: Berlin Air Lift--German children watching American planes bring food, 1948 German children watching an American plane in "Operation Vittles" bring food and supplies to their beleaguered city. The airlift kept a city of 2 million people alive for nearly a year and made West Berlin a symbol of the West's resolve to contain the spread of Soviet communism. ((c) Bettmann/Corbis) Berlin Air Lift--German children watching American planes bring food, 1948 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Domestic and Foreign Policy continued: Domestic and Foreign Policy continued NATO-North Atlantic Treaty Organization-first peace time alliance in American history. Containment Policy-The United States and allies would contain the spread of Communism. Fear of Communists was both internal and external-McCarthy, Nixon (Red Hunters) were seen as strong national security politicians. Israel-Division of Palestine after WW2 Communist hysteria in the media: Red Menace poster: Communist hysteria in the media: Red Menace poster Although Hollywood generally avoided overtly political films, it released a few dozen explicitly anticommunist films in the postwar era. Depicting American communists as vicious hypocrites, if not hardened criminals, Hollywood's Cold War movies, like its blacklist, were an effort to protect its imperiled public image after HUAC's widely publicized investigation of the movie industry. (The Michael Barson Collection/Past Perfect) Communist hysteria in the media: Red Menace poster Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Korean War: Korean War Korea occupied by after the war. North: Communist Led by Kim Il Sung (father of Kim Jung Il). South: western powers. North Koreans invaded 1950. United Nations “police action”-3 years. 50,000+ United States soldiers died. MacArthur-firing/civilian control of the military is strengthened. NSC-68 4x defense spending to support the containment policy and Truman Doctrine. Korean War: Korean War The Korean War was one of ebb and flow, advances and retreats--the movement of troops up and down the rugged Korean peninsula. Here, American troops advance while Korean women and children march in the opposite direction hoping to avoid the destruction of war. Over 33,000 Americans lost their lives in Korea during the conflict. (Corbis-Bettmann) Korean War Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.