Published on April 7, 2008
Itai-Itai:Doctors, Women and Cadmium : Itai-Itai: Doctors, Women and Cadmium Yi-Ping Lin, PhD College of Public Health, National Taiwan University Background and Significance: Background and Significance Environmental Movement 1960s-1970s In the name of “health” Lawsuit, compensation, clean-ups, Pollution Control Agreement Public Health Policies Cadmium in soil and rice STS East Asian case study A Perfect Story: A Perfect Story Environmental epidemiological evidence Cadmium concentration and Itai-Itai prevalence were highly correlated Responsible Mitsui Mining & Smelting Co. Compensation, pollution control, environmental clean-ups Disappearing of Itai-Itai disease No more cases reported No major environmental pollution reported in the mining industry Environmental Epidemiological Evidence: Environmental Epidemiological Evidence Cadmium Pollution Prevalence of Itai-Itai of women over 50 Doctors, Women and Cadmium: Doctors, Women and Cadmium Why didn’t the medical community recognize the disease earlier? Why did old women get sick? Where have all the cadmium gone? Country Doctors and City Doctors: Country Doctors and City Doctors Shigejiro Hagino (1935) Researchers in a local medical college (after WWII) Rheumatic disease Doctors form a rheumatology institute in Tokyo (1955) Osteomalacia (vitamin D deficiency) Noboru Hagino (1957) Kin-ichi Yoshioka & Noboru Hagino (1961) Lay, Lay Experts, and Experts: Lay, Lay Experts, and Experts London choleras John Snow and the Broad Street Pump (1854) Coal-miners’ pneumoconiosis Smith BE. Black lung: the social production of disease. Inter J Health Services 1981;11:343-59. Itai-Itai: Old Women in Severe Pain: Itai-Itai: Old Women in Severe Pain World War II Increased zinc production Poverty Malnutrition, food shortage More women in the villages Gender differences Biological: hormone Osteoporosis, breast cancer Behavioral: women and water Women’s Environmental Health: Women’s Environmental Health Women in Environmental Movement: Women in Environmental Movement USA Love Canal, NY; Woburn, MA Mothers of sick children Taiwan Female RCA workers Japan Adult children of sick elderly mothers? Cadmium: A Co-product of Zinc Smelting : Cadmium: A Co-product of Zinc Smelting Cadmium Markets and Trends: Cadmium Markets and Trends Cadmium Production: Cadmium Production Cadmium Consumption: Cadmium Consumption The Application of Cadmium: The Application of Cadmium Nickel Cadmium Batteries: Nickel Cadmium Batteries Mitsui Kinzoku: Mitsui Kinzoku Ray of Hope in the Land of the Rising Sun: Ray of Hope in the Land of the Rising Sun Japanese Women:World’s Longest Life Expectancy: Japanese Women: World’s Longest Life Expectancy Cadmium Rice in Taiwan (1984): Cadmium Rice in Taiwan (1984) Irrigation System, Rice Paddy, & Electric Plating Factories: Irrigation System, Rice Paddy, & Electric Plating Factories 污染農地（和美鎮嘉安段地號1166）旁的排水溝。 Cadmium and Health: New Challenges: Cadmium and Health: New Challenges Sources of pollution Multiple sources: factories Consumer products: batteries Pathways Food: rice (from the supermarket) Inhalation: factories Exposed population Workers and residents Men and women Diseases Cancers Lung, prostate, breast Osteoporosis Thank you for your attention!: Thank you for your attention!