con space

Information about con space

Published on January 18, 2008

Author: Miranda

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Confined Space Hazards & Procedures:  Confined Space Hazards & Procedures What you will Learn:  What you will Learn What is a Confined Space Hazards of Confined Spaces Basic Entry Requirements General Requirements:  General Requirements All employees required to enter confined or enclosed spaces must be instructed in: nature of the hazards necessary precautions to be taken use of protective and emergency equipment The employer must comply with any specific regulations that apply to work in dangerous or potentially dangerous areas. What is a Permit Required Confined Space?:  What is a Permit Required Confined Space? A Permit-required confined space is confined space that has one or more of the following characteristics: Typical Confined Spaces:  Typical Confined Spaces Boilers & Furnaces Pipelines Pits Process Vessel Silo & Storage Tanks Sewer & Manholes Trenches & Excavations Hazards of Confined Spaces:  Hazards of Confined Spaces Atmospheric Physical Configuration Mechanical Electrical Thermal Noise Vibration Engulfment or Entrapment Controlling Confined Space Hazards:  Controlling Confined Space Hazards Each Confined Space has different hazards.  Hazards can also change with time and usage. Post signs to warn of the dangers. Use barriers to prevent uncontrolled access Develop and use a written space entry program. Conduct air monitoring and tests to identify and evaluate hazards. Define acceptable entry conditions. Monitor entry conditions Eliminate or control the space's atmospheric hazards before entry Lockout all internal hazards prior to entry Entry Point Hazards:  Entry Point Hazards Small Openings make entry and rescue difficult Sharp edges can tear protective clothing or air lines Temporary ladders and vent gear can make even large openings difficult to transit Vertical entry points are fall hazards Ventilation Needed:  Ventilation Needed Deadly gases can be trapped inside Rotting Organic materials create hazardous gases Pipe leaks, welding, system material can create hazardous atmospheres. Rust consumes the oxygen you need. Atmospheric Hazards:  Atmospheric Hazards Oxygen Deficient Atmospheres Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres Flammable Atmospheres Toxic Atmospheres Corrosive Atmospheres Asphyxiating Atmospheres   Oxygen Deficient:  Oxygen Deficient 19.5 % is the minimum acceptable oxygen level for work with out an air supplied respirator. 12-14% Respiration increases. Poor judgment. 10-12% Lips blue Mental Confusion 8-10% Fainting & Nausea 6-8% Causes Death Asphyxiating Atmospheres:  Asphyxiating Atmospheres Reduction of oxygen in a confined space may be the result of either consumption or displacement. Consumption of oxygen takes place during Combustion of flammable substances, as in welding, heating, cutting, and brazing Bacterial action, as in the fermentation process Chemical reactions as in the formation of rust   Oxygen Enriched:  Oxygen Enriched Oxygen level above 21%. Causes flammable and combustible materials to burn violently when ignited. Such as: Hair, clothing, oil soaked materials Never use pure oxygen to ventilate. Never store or place compressed gas tanks in a confined space. Flammable Atmospheres:  Flammable Atmospheres Required Factors: Oxygen Flammable Gas, Vapor or Dust Ignition Source Welding Electric Tools Sparks Smoking Flammable Atmospheres:  Flammable Atmospheres Caused by… enriched oxygen atmospheres vaporization of flammable liquids byproducts of work chemical reactions concentrations of combustible dusts fumes from chemicals on inner surfaces Toxic Atmospheres:  Toxic Atmospheres Material in space Absorbed materials can “gas off”. Decomposition of materials Work being performed Welding, cutting, brazing, soldering. Painting, scraping, sanding, degreasing. Sealing, bonding, melting. Cleaning, descaling Physical Configuration Hazards:  Physical Configuration Hazards The use and shape of a space can create hazardous conditions Use of Ladders & Scaffolding Wet or slippery surfaces Uneven bottoms Bends in tunnels Narrow areas that can entrap workers Poor lighting Use retrieval & fall protection when possible Mechanical Hazards:  Mechanical Hazards Some confined spaces have unguarded mechanical equipment such as: Paddles Blades Shafts Chain or belt drives All equipment must be Locked and Tagged before entry Electrical Hazards:  Electrical Hazards Electric Shock is a possible hazard in Confined Spaces Hazard Sources include: Broken lighting Electrical sensing devices Limit switches Level indicating devices Hazards from equipment taken inside Temperature Hazards:  Temperature Hazards High and Low Temperatures are Hazards Burns Frosbite Heat Stress Wearing Protective clothing can increase the heat stress on a worker Worker Comfort:  Worker Comfort Factors affecting worker comfort: Air temperature Air velocity though the space Humidity Radiant heat  Engulfment Hazards:  Engulfment Hazards Engulfment is the entrapment of a person by the contents of a space Liquids Small granular product such as grain Crusting or Bridging of material Flooding Water Flow Completely empty the contents before entry Use retrieval and fall arrest equipment to prevent sinking into contents of a space. Noise Hazards:  Noise Hazards Noise creates a hazard by Causing hearing loss Preventing communication Lowering worker's effectiveness Eliminate noise sources prior to entry Use proper hearing protection Surface Hazards:  Surface Hazards Slippery, Wet or Damp Surfaces Slips & Falls Chemical Exposure Possible increased possibility of electric shock Vibration Hazards:  Vibration Hazards Vibration of the body can cause damage to the body Using Vibrating tools can cause damage to fingers & hand Eliminate equipment vibrations prior to entry Use Vibration dampening tools & gloves Basic Confined Space Entry Procedure:  Basic Confined Space Entry Procedure All entrants, supervisors and entry attendants must be fully qualified 1. Conduct Pre-Entry Briefing 2. Assemble and check equipment 3. Establish Acceptable Entry Conditions 4. Conduct initial air sampling 5. Execute & Complete Entry Permit 6. Station Entry Attendant Entry (continued):  Entry (continued) 7. Establish Monitoring of Atmosphere 8. Establish Communication 9. Execute Hot Work Permit if applicable 10.Post Confined Space Entry Permit 11. Enter Space 12. Post–entry debrief if problems were encountered Testing The Atmosphere:  Testing The Atmosphere Verify presence of safe work atmosphere. Calibrate Air Monitoring Equipment before use Test all areas of a confined space Top, Middle, Bottom Check for Explosive & Toxic Gases Check Oxygen level Record all readings Ventilation:  Ventilation Consider best of exhaust or supply or both Provide workzone exhaust if welding Plan ventilation supply and exhaust paths Ensure no “re-circulation” of air supply Use continuous ventilation Retest the confined space before and during entry LOCKOUT!:  LOCKOUT! Lock & tagging ALL electrical sources. Blank & bleeding fluid lines Disconnect mechanical drives &shafts. Secure mechanical parts Lock & Tag all valves Rescue Team:  Rescue Team A Qualified Rescue Team and rescue equipment must be available for entry into all Permit Required Confined Spaces Qualified Entry Attendant must be in constant communication with workers in the space Entry Attendant must have source of communication with the Rescue Team Summery:  Summery All persons involved in Permit Required Confined Space Entry must be qualified: Supervisor Attendants Entrants Rescue Team Confined Spaces are Dangerous Places – Know how to control or eliminate hazards

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