Concepts in Organic Fruit and Vegetable Production

Information about Concepts in Organic Fruit and Vegetable Production

Published on March 6, 2008

Author: yilmar

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Concepts in Organic Fruit and Vegetable Production:  Concepts in Organic Fruit and Vegetable Production By Robert Tomesh UW-Extension Three Primary Concepts:  Three Primary Concepts 1. Build and maintain the soil’s organic content 2. Use nature materials as a source of mineral nutrients 3. Use cultural and biological pest control methods. 1. Use soil building techniques which maintain or increase the organic content in the soil.:  1. Use soil building techniques which maintain or increase the organic content in the soil. Use organic and natural materials as a source of mineral nutrients to feed plants. (Use natural occurring and organic fertilizers.):  Use organic and natural materials as a source of mineral nutrients to feed plants. (Use natural occurring and organic fertilizers.) Utilize cultural practices, biological methods, and resistant varieties to control plant pests. (Do not use chemical pesticides to control insects, disease, and weeds.):  Utilize cultural practices, biological methods, and resistant varieties to control plant pests. (Do not use chemical pesticides to control insects, disease, and weeds.) Early History of Organic Culture -Chinese composted over 2000 years ago -Romans used organic soil management and cultural pest control :  Early History of Organic Culture -Chinese composted over 2000 years ago -Romans used organic soil management and cultural pest control Recent History of Organic Culture:  Recent History of Organic Culture Sir Albert Howard – 1931 Rodale’s: Organic gardening Detail Concept #1 Use soil building techniques which maintain or increase the organic content in the soil.:  Detail Concept #1 Use soil building techniques which maintain or increase the organic content in the soil. Organic matter content of soils is part of a routine soil test report. Given in percent: 3% = 30 Ton/A 6% = 60 Ton/A:  Organic matter content of soils is part of a routine soil test report. Given in percent: 3% = 30 Ton/A 6% = 60 Ton/A A Volume of Soil -25% Water -25% Air -42% plus minerals (sand) -0 to 8% O. M. :  A Volume of Soil -25% Water -25% Air -42% plus minerals (sand) -0 to 8% O. M. Organic Soil Building:  Organic Soil Building O.M. is in the upper 6 inches of soil O.M. is difficult to maintain O.M. is transient Picture from Rodale Loss of Organic Matter -Cultivation increases aeration and increases the loss of O.M. -About 90% of the humus added to the soil is lost the first year -Lost as carbon dioxide, oxygen and water:  Loss of Organic Matter -Cultivation increases aeration and increases the loss of O.M. -About 90% of the humus added to the soil is lost the first year -Lost as carbon dioxide, oxygen and water Factors Contributing to the Loss of Organic Matter -Cultivation -High temperatures -Moisture:  Factors Contributing to the Loss of Organic Matter -Cultivation -High temperatures -Moisture Value of O.M. in Soil 1. Improve physical condition 2. Increase moisture holding capacity of sandy soils 3. Increase pore-space of clay soil and aides in dry-down:  Value of O.M. in Soil 1. Improve physical condition 2. Increase moisture holding capacity of sandy soils 3. Increase pore-space of clay soil and aides in dry-down Value of O.M. in Soil 4. Increases soil fertility 5. Increases the ability of soil to release nutrient chemicals 6. Improves conditions for beneficial soil micro-organisms:  Value of O.M. in Soil 4. Increases soil fertility 5. Increases the ability of soil to release nutrient chemicals 6. Improves conditions for beneficial soil micro-organisms Value of O.M. in Soil 7. Enhances the pH buffering capacity 8. Helps reduce soil crusting 9. Lends soils to be less drought resistant :  Value of O.M. in Soil 7. Enhances the pH buffering capacity 8. Helps reduce soil crusting 9. Lends soils to be less drought resistant Value of O.M. in Soil 10. Increases spring soil warming 11. Enhances root development in the warm, porous soil:  Value of O.M. in Soil 10. Increases spring soil warming 11. Enhances root development in the warm, porous soil When selecting an O.M. source, avoid high carbon/nitrogen ratio materials as sawdust, woodchips, newspapers and cardboard. :  When selecting an O.M. source, avoid high carbon/nitrogen ratio materials as sawdust, woodchips, newspapers and cardboard. Goal of Organic Soil Building Continually add O.M. which influences the physical and chemical properties of the soil.:  Goal of Organic Soil Building Continually add O.M. which influences the physical and chemical properties of the soil. Sources of O.M. for the Soil:  Sources of O.M. for the Soil Compost Utilization of Mulch Green Manure Crops Crop Residues Animal Manure (Safety) Grass Clippings Yard Waste Picture from Rodale Develop a Plan for Soil Building:  Develop a Plan for Soil Building Read collected resources Accumulate soil amendments I.D. source of O.M. Prepare a management plan using O.M. sources Picture from Rodale Compost vs.Mulch Mulch is any material placed on top of soil to benefit plants. Compost is decomposed plant and animal materials. Compost can be used as a mulch material.:  Compost vs.Mulch Mulch is any material placed on top of soil to benefit plants. Compost is decomposed plant and animal materials. Compost can be used as a mulch material. Concept #2 Use organic and natural materials as a source of mineral nutrients to feed plants. (Use natural occurring and organic fertilizers.) :  Concept #2 Use organic and natural materials as a source of mineral nutrients to feed plants. (Use natural occurring and organic fertilizers.) Organic Matter as a Fertilizer:  Organic Matter as a Fertilizer Many Choices of Organic Fertilizer Composted high N/P/K/ ratio materials Applied and a 2 to 4 inch compost layer in fall and tilled Spring and Fall green manure crops tilled into soil Picture from Rodale Organic Matter as a Fertilizer:  Organic Matter as a Fertilizer Beginning the deep soil improvement with compost and deep digging. Consider doing this every 3 to 5 years. Use a combination of a fallow area with a season of green manure crops tilled-in. Picture from Rodale Wood Ashes Monitor soil pH Wood ashes have a liming affect If pH is below 6, add 10 to 30 # per 1000 sq. feet If pH is above 6, add 10 # or less per 1000 sq. feet Apply dry weight, in fall and till into the soil.:  Wood Ashes Monitor soil pH Wood ashes have a liming affect If pH is below 6, add 10 to 30 # per 1000 sq. feet If pH is above 6, add 10 # or less per 1000 sq. feet Apply dry weight, in fall and till into the soil. Concept #3 Utilize cultural practices, biological methods, and resistant varieties to control plant pests. (Do not use chemical pesticides to control insects, disease, and weeds.) :  Concept #3 Utilize cultural practices, biological methods, and resistant varieties to control plant pests. (Do not use chemical pesticides to control insects, disease, and weeds.) Weed Management Strategies:  Weed Management Strategies Avoidance Tillage (Aerate/Till) Hand pulling Hoeing Mulch (Soil temp.) Inorganic, plastics, etc. Organic Mowing/weed wacker Digging Hot water Burning Green mulch Rye, clover, Brassica’s Disease and Insect Protection :  Disease and Insect Protection Exclude pests before they get there Establish a barrier Plan ahead Picture from Rodale Insect Management Strategies:  Insect Management Strategies Remay products Paper Bags Hand Picking Vacuuming Shaking Sticky Traps Light Traps (benefical insects) Sanitation Picture from Rodale Insect Prevention (P) and Therapeutic (T) Products:  Insect Prevention (P) and Therapeutic (T) Products Barriers (P) Wood Ashes (P) Chitin/Diatoms (P/T) BT (T) Insecticidal Soaps (P/T) Water Spray (rain) (P/T) Alcohol (T) Superior oils (P/T) Disease Management Strategies:  Disease Management Strategies Crop Rotation Select Disease Resistant Plants Space Plants Watering Program Trellis Plants Avoid Shade Weed Control Manage Borders End of Season Clean-up Disease Protection Products Protection vs. Theropeutic:  Disease Protection Products Protection vs. Theropeutic Bordeaus mix Lime-sulfur Copper Sulfur Compost tea Horticultural oils Sodium bicarbonate/oils Antitranspirants Bagging Summary of Organic Management Strategies 1. Identify problem areas 2. Gather information on management strategies 3. Develop a list of resources and suppliers 4. Practice IPM for pest management:  Summary of Organic Management Strategies 1. Identify problem areas 2. Gather information on management strategies 3. Develop a list of resources and suppliers 4. Practice IPM for pest management Finally Plan ahead, be prepared Keep and almanac Practice daily scouting Take immediate action Consider all prevention opportunities:  Finally Plan ahead, be prepared Keep and almanac Practice daily scouting Take immediate action Consider all prevention opportunities Thank You:  Thank You

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