Published on December 17, 2007
Cooperative Learning: Cooperative Learning Trudie Hughes Definition of Cooperative Learning: Definition of Cooperative Learning An instructional arrangement in which small groups or teams of students work together to achieve team success in a manner that promotes the students’ responsibility for their own learning as well as the learning of others (Mercer & Mercer, 2001). Description of Cooperative Learning: Description of Cooperative Learning Provides students with an opportunity to practice skills or learn content presented by the teacher. Emphasizes team goals, and team success only if each individual learns. Conducive for creating successful inclusive experiences with students with disabilities. Methods of Cooperative Learning: Methods of Cooperative Learning Student Learning Teams (SLT) (Slavin, 1991) Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD) (Slavin, 1978, 1986) Teams-Games-Tournament (TGT) (DeVries & Slavin, 1978; Slavin, 1986) Full Option Science System (FOSS) (Britannica, 1991) Student Learning Teams (SLT): Student Learning Teams (SLT) Team goals are achieved when each member achieves selected academic objectives. Emphasizes: team reward, individual accountability, and equal opportunities for success. Team rewards are earned when a team achieves at or above a predetermined criterion level. Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD): Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD) Heterogeneous group of four students are assigned to a team. Students work together to ensure all students have mastered the lesson after initial teacher led instruction. Students take individual quizzes without peer assistance. Quiz scores are compared to past averages, points are awarded based on progress from past performance. STAD Format: STAD Format Teach: Present Lesson Team Study: Students work on worksheets in their teams to master the material Tests: Students take individual quizzes or other assessments Team Recognition: Team scores are computed on the basis of team members’ scores, and certificates, a class newsletter, or a bulletin board recognizes high-scoring teams Teams-Games-Tournament: Teams-Games-Tournament Same procedures as STAD on initial instruction and heterogeneous groups. Quizzes are replaced with weekly tournaments. Students can compete with players from another team to earn points. Students compete at three-member tournament tables with others who have similar skill levels on target skills. Jigsaw: Jigsaw Students are assigned to 6 member team Academic material has been broken down into sections Each team member reads his/her section of the material Members of different teams who have studied the same sections meet in expert groups to discuss their sections. Students return to their teams and take turns teaching their teammates about their sections Jigsaw II: Jigsaw II Students work in 4-5 member teams All students read the same common text, such as a book chapter Each student receives a topic on which to become an expert Students with the same topics meet in expert groups to discuss Students return to their teams to teach what they have learned to their teammates Students take individual quizzes, which result in a team score Full Option Science System (FOSS): Full Option Science System (FOSS) Four students work together and take turns with different roles to complete a particular science activity. Reader Recorder Getter Starter Reader: Reader Reads all print instructions. Ensures that all students in the group understand the task. Summarizes the activity for the group. Recorder: Recorder Records all data: observations, predictions, and estimations. Uses chart and graph paper. Getter: Getter Responsible for getting all materials and returning all materials after activity is completed. Starter: Starter Begins the manipulations of the materials. Supervises the assembly of materials. Ensures that all group members participate. Classwide Peer Tutoring: Classwide Peer Tutoring Whole class activity which emphasizes reciprocal tutoring, frequent opportunities to respond, and immediate feedback. Peer Tutoring: Peer Tutoring Classwide Peer Tutoring – Juniper Gardens Children’s Project (Delquadri, Greenwood, Whorton, Carta, & Hall, 1986). Peer Assisted Learning Strategies – George Peabody College of Vanderbilt University (Fuchs, Mathes, & Fuchs, 1993). Types of Peer Tutoring: Types of Peer Tutoring Cross-age tutoring: the tutor is several years older than the student being taught Same-age tutoring: student tutors a classmate Juniper Gardens Project (JGP): Juniper Gardens Project (JGP) Designed to help students with mild disabilities improve their basic skills. Integrated behavior management and direct instruction procedure. Based on reciprocal peer tutoring and group-oriented reinforcement contingencies. JGP Cont.: JGP Cont. Peers are used to supervise responding and practice. Game format is used that includes points and competing teams. Weekly evaluation plan ensures gains in individual and class progress. JGP Features: JGP Features Each student tutors for 10 minutes and then receives 10 minutes of tutoring. Systematic procedures for dividing class into two heterogeneous teams. During sessions, the teacher monitors student’s behavior and awards points for good tutoring behavior. Individual and team points are displayed. On Friday the teacher conducts a more intensive assessment of each student’s progress. Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS): Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) Incorporates strategy-based reading practice. Partner reading: students take turns reading aloud, correcting errors, and retelling what they read. Paragraph shrinking: students take turns reading paragraph aloud, correcting errors, and stating main idea. PALS Cont.: PALS Cont. Prediction relay: students take turns predicting what happens next, reading the next passage aloud, correcting errors, verifying predictions, summarizing the text, and making more predictions.