Published on December 7, 2007
Ancient Rome: Ancient Rome Early Western Civilization Chapter Three Etruscan Civilization: Etruscan Civilization The Etruscans: The Etruscans The Etruscans were a group of people who were from northern Italy. Italy had been ruled by 7 kings and it is thought that the last 3 were Etruscans. The Etruscans greatly influenced the city of Rome. They built temples, shops, roads, and homes and influenced other aspects of Roman culture as well. Etruscan Tomb Painting: Etruscan Tomb Painting The Apian Way: The Apian Way The Founding of Rome: The Founding of Rome The city of Rome was founded by twin brothers Romulus and Remus in 753 B.C.E. According to legend they were from a wealthy family and were abandoned by their uncle. A She-wolf took them in and raised them. Romulus killed his brother Remus and took control as leader of Rome. The She-Wolf : The She-Wolf Ancient Rome: Ancient Rome Social and Political Order : Social and Political Order Social and Political Order: Social and Political Order Social and Political Order: Social and Political Order Although both groups were Roman citizens, their rights were different. Both Patricians and Plebians could vote. Both had the right to make legal contracts, and marry, but intermarriage between the classes was not allowed. Patricians were the only ones allowed to hold office. Social and Political Order: Social and Political Order In the later years of the Republic the Plebians became more powerful. They created a new assembly (Council of Plebs) in 471. New leaders called Tribunes protected the Plebians. A new law allowed intermarriage. In 278 B.C.E. the Council received the right to pass laws for all Romans. City of Rome During the Republic Period: City of Rome During the Republic Period The Roman Conquest of Italy : The Roman Conquest of Italy In 509 the last Etruscan monarch was overthrown as ruler of Rome and a Republican system of government was initiated. Carthage: Carthage The Punic Wars: The Punic Wars Punic is the Latin word for Phoencian. The Phoencians controlled Carthage in earlier times. The Romans sent an army to Sicily in order to intervene in a local dispute. The Carthaginians considered this an invasion of their territory. The Punic Wars : The Punic Wars 241 Carthage gave up all rights to Sicily due to Roman dominance in naval strength. Hanibal (a Carthaginian) began the second Punic War when he retaliated against Roman attempts to get Spain to invade Carthage. Hanibal led an army of 30,000- 40,000 men, 6,000 horses and elephants across the Alps and defeated the Romans. The Punic Wars: The Punic Wars The Carthaginians, under Hannibal were not successful in maintaining control over Roman cities. Rome invade Carthage and beat Hannibal and his men. A peace treaty was signed in 201 B.C.E. Carthage lost Spain. 50 years later Rome went to war again and this time Rome destroyed the Carthage in 146 B.C.E. and claimed it as a Roman province called Africa. Roman Conquests in the Mediterranean: Roman Conquests in the Mediterranean From Republic to Empire: From Republic to Empire Tiberius Gracchus represented interests of Rome’s lower class. He served as Tribune. He wanted to limit the amount of land controlled by the Patricians. He was assassinated in 132 B.C.E. His brother Gaius Gracchus continued his brother’s reforms. Gaius Marius: Gaius Marius General in the Roman army. He was prominent in the late 2nd century B.C.E. Civil War breaks out in Rome and Marius seizes Rome in 87 B.C.E. He recruited a private army to support him from landless residents. Sulla: Sulla After Marius dies in 87 B.C.E., Sulla seized control of Rome. He institutes a reign of terror that lasts about five years. Julius Caesar, Marius’ nephew, came to power and instituted liberal policies and social reform. Julius Caesar Conquers Gaul: Julius Caesar Conquers Gaul Roman Fort: Roman Fort Roman Britain: Roman Britain City of Bath- England: City of Bath- England Roman North Africa- Lepcis Magna: Roman North Africa- Lepcis Magna Hadrian’s Wall: Hadrian’s Wall Roman Empire 117 A.D.: Roman Empire 117 A.D. Octavian a.k.a. Augustus Caesar: Octavian a.k.a. Augustus Caesar Octavian became the first Roman Emperor in 27 B.C.E. The Senate gave him the title of Augustus which meant revered one. Julius Caesar: Julius Caesar In 47 B.C.E. he seized power in Rome and was made dictator. A short time later, in 44 B.C.E. he was given the title dictator for life. He made land reforms and gave land to the poor. He increased the Senate to 900 members and then packed it with supporters of his reforms. Julius Caesar: Julius Caesar He gave people in the provinces who had helped him, the status of Roman citizen. He began a number of public works projects and military campaigns in the east. He was assassinated by a group of senators in 44 B.C.E. Augustus (31 B.C.E.-14 C.E.) : Augustus (31 B.C.E.-14 C.E.) He created a standing army of 150,000 men split into legions of around 5,000 men each. Only Roman citizens could be legionaries. Subject peoples in the provinces and else where could serve under the legionaries. Augustus also created the Praetorian guard which were his own personal guards. They numbered about 9,000 men. The Pax Romana: The Pax Romana This is a period of peace and prosperity which begins with Augustus and continues for 200 years. Augustus begins the Julio-Claudian line which ends with Nero. After Nero there is a civil war and Vespasian becomes emperor. Vespasian (69-79 C.E. or A.D.): Vespasian (69-79 C.E. or A.D.) He begins the Flavian line. He orders the construction of the Colosseum for gladiatorial games. He puts down revolts in Gaul and Judea. He rotates the army in the provinces which discourages mutiny. He also makes sure that troops are stationed far from their homelands. The Five Good Emperors: The Five Good Emperors Nerva ( 96-98 C.E.)- Introduced the practice of naming an heir/successor before his death. Trajan (98-117 C.E.)- Trajan eased taxes, provided public services to the poor, and conquered Dacia (parts of modern Romania and Hungary). Trajan’s Column depicts his military victories. The Five Good Emperors : The Five Good Emperors Hadrian (117-138 C.E.)- He strengthened the borders of Britain. Hadrian’s Wall. Fought a number of Jewish revolts. Much of the Jewish population forced out of Palestine. Many Jews were sold into slavery. The Romans encouraged non-Jews to settle in Palestine. The Five Good Emperors: The Five Good Emperors Antonius Pius (138-161 C.E.)- He introduced laws that required humane treatment of slaves. He also introduces the legal principle of innocent until proven guilty. The Five Good Emperors: The Five Good Emperors Marcus Aurelius ( 161-180 C.E.)- He is the philosopher Emperor. He writes the Meditations. He is a Stoic. He wages war in Germania and successfully brings barbarian groups under Roman control. He also re-introduces the idea of a co-emperor. Aurelius names his brother as co-emperor. After his brother’s death, he names his 17 year old son Commodus as co-emperor. Family Life in the Roman Empire: Family Life in the Roman Empire The family included all household members who lived together. Father of the family ruled the household Women had considerable power in their own families and many ran businesses and managed estates. Ancestor worship was extremely important to the family. Roman Family Life: Roman Family Life Urban Life- Insula (everyday home): Urban Life- Insula (everyday home) Slavery: Slavery Slaves made up 1/3 of the Roman population. Working conditions for slaves in the cities were somewhat better. Laborers would often be chained together while working in the fields. Spartacus’ uprising in 73 B.C.E. was the largest slave revolt, but not the only one. The Colosseum: The Colosseum Temple of Jupiter (Lebanon): Temple of Jupiter (Lebanon) Pompeii Ruins: Pompeii Ruins Villa of the Mysteries- Pompeii: Villa of the Mysteries- Pompeii Pompeii : Pompeii Etruscan town that was conquered by Rome. At the time of its destruction it had a population of 20,000 A favorite resort of wealthy Romans and Emperors. Pompeii: Pompeii Bath House : Bath House Basillica of Maxentius: Basillica of Maxentius The Pantheon 128 A.D.: The Pantheon 128 A.D. Commissioned by Emperor Hadrin Started in 118 A.D. It is a clock of sorts. It tells the time by rays of light hitting the sculptures inside.