Published on August 8, 2014
PowerPoint Presentation: Mr.P.B.Awate Lecturer College of Pharmacy,(poly.), Pandharpur 1 NUTRITION AND HEALTH Contents: Contents Introduction Classification of food Macronutrient such as Protein, carbohydrates, lipids along with its source, functions & deficiency. Micronutrients such as vitamins along with classification of vitamins sources, functions & deficiency diseases of each vitamins 2 INTRODUCTION: INTRODUCTION Nutrition may be defined as the science of food and its relationship to health. It is concerned primarily with the part played by nutrients in body growth, development and maintenance . The word nutrient or “food factor” is used for specific dietary constituents such as proteins, vitamins and minerals. Good nutrition means “maintaining a nutritional status that enables us to grow well and enjoy good health .” Protein, carbohydrate and fat had been recognized early in the 19th century as energy-yielding foods and much attention was paid to their metabolism and contribution to energy requirements. 3 CLASSIFICATION OF FOODS: CLASSIFICATION OF FOODS Classification by origin: Foods of animal origin Foods of vegetable origin Classification by chemical composition: Proteins Fats Carbohydrates Vitamins Minerals 4 CLASSIFICATION BY PREDOMINANT FUNCTION: CLASSIFICATION BY PREDOMINANT FUNCTION Body building foods: e.g. meat, milk, poultry, fish, eggs, pulses etc B. Energy giving foods: e.g. cereals, sugars, fats, oils etc. C. Protective foods: e.g. vegetables, fruits, milk, etc 5 NUTRIENTS: NUTRIENTS Organic and inorganic complexes contained in food are called nutrients. They are broadly divided in to: Macronutrients: 1) Proteins 2) Fats 3) Carbohydrates B . Micronutrients: 1) Vitamins 2) Minerals 6 PowerPoint Presentation: 7 macronutrient PROTEINS: PROTEINS Proteins are complex organic nitrogenous compounds. Proteins are made of monomers called amino acids. There are about 20 Different Amino Acids which are found in human body of this 8 A.A. are termed “essential” as they are not synthesized in human body and must be obtained from dietary proteins. 8 Sources : Sources Sources may be plant origin or animal origin such as …. Nuts & Beans Beef & pork Fish Egg Milk & milk products 9 Functions of Proteins: Functions of Proteins Body building Repair and maintenance of body tissues Maintenance of osmotic pressure Synthesis of bioactive substances and other vital molecules 10 Diseases related with deficiency of proteins : Diseases related with deficiency of proteins Marasmus Kwashiorkor Proteinuria 11 FAT: FAT Most of the body fat (99 per cent) in the adipose tissue is in the form of triglycerides, in normal human subjects, adipose tissue constitutes between 10 and 15 per cent of body weight. One kilogram of adipose tissue corresponds to 7700 kcal of energy. 12 Fats yield fatty acids and glycerol on hydrolysis : Fats yield fatty acids and glycerol on hydrolysis Fatty acid content of different fats ( in per cent) Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Fats fatty acids fatty acids fatty acids Coconut oil 92 6 2 Palm oil 46 44 10 Cotton seed oil 25 25 50 Groundnut oil 19 50 31 Safflower oil 10 15 75 Sunflower oil 8 27 65 Corn oil 8 27 65 Soya bean oil 14 24 62 Butter 60 37 3 13 Essential fatty acids are those that cannot be synthesized by humans : Essential fatty acids are those that cannot be synthesized by humans Dietary sources of EFA… Linoleic acid Sunflower oil Corn oil Soya bean oil Sesame oil Groundnut oil Mustard oil Palm oil Coconut oil Arachidonic acid Meat, eggs, milk Linoleic acid Soya bean oil, Leafy greens 14 Functions of fats: Functions of fats They are high energy foods, providing as much as 9 kcal for every gram. Fats serve as vehicles for fat-soluble vitamins Fats in the body support viscera such as heart, kidney and intestine; and fat beneath the skin provides insulation against cold. 15 Diseases related with fats : Diseases related with fats Obesity Coronary heart diseases (CHD/CAD) Hypertension Angina pectoris Atherosclerosis 16 CARBOHYDRATE: CARBOHYDRATE Carbohydrate is the main source of energy, providing 4 Kcals per one gram. Carbohydrate is also essential for the oxidation of fats and for the synthesis of certain non-essential amino acids 17 Sources of carbohydrates: Sources of carbohydrates There are three main sources of carbohydrate, viz. starches, sugar and cellulose. The carbohydrate reserve (glycogen) of a human adult is about 500g. This reserve is rapidly exhausted when a man is fasting. If the dietary carbohydrates do not meet the energy needs of the body, protein and glycerol from dietary and endogenous sources are used by the body to maintain glucose homeostasis . 18 Diseases related with carbohydrates : Diseases related with carbohydrates Diabetes mellitus Lactose intolerance Galactosemia Glycogen storage diseases 19 Dietary fibre: Dietary fibre Dietary fibres which is mainly non-starch polysaccharide is a physiological important component of the diet. It is found in vegetables, fruits and grains. It may be divided broadly into cellulose and non-cellulose polysaccharides which include hemi-cellulose pectin, storage polysaccharides like inulin, and the plant gums and mucilage. These are all degraded to a greater of lesser extend by the micro flora in the human colon 20 PowerPoint Presentation: 21 Micronutrient vitamins VITAMINS: VITAMINS Vitamins may be regarded as organic compounds required in the diet in small amounts to perform specific biological functions for normal maintenance of optimum growth and health of the organism. They fall in the category of micronutrients. Vitamins are divided in to two groups: fat soluble vitamins- A, D, E and K water soluble vitamins: vitamins of the B-group and vitamin C. 22 Classification of vitamins : Classification of vitamins 23 PowerPoint Presentation: 24 FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS VITAMIN A: VITAMIN A « Vitamin A» covers both a pre-formed vitamin, retinol, and a pro-vitamin, beta carotene, some of which is converted to retinol in the intestinal mucosa. The international unit (IU) of vitamin A is equivalent to 0,2 microgram of retinol (or 0,55 microgram of retinal palmitate). Vitamin A is necessary for a variety of functions such as vision, proper growth and differentiation, reproduction and maintenance of epithelial cells. 25 Sources of Vitamin A: Sources of Vitamin A Animal sources contain preformed vitamin A. The best sources are liver, kidney, egg yolk, milk, cheese, butter. Fish (cod or shark) liver oils are very rich in vitamin A. Vegetables sources contain the provitamin A- carotenes. Yellow and dark green vegetables and fruits are good sources of carotenes. E.g. carrots, spinach, pumpkins, mango, papaya etc 26 Functions of Vitamin A: Functions of Vitamin A It is indispensable for normal vision. It contributes to the production of retinal pigments which are needed fro vision lights. It is necessary for maintaining the integrity and the normal functioning of glandular and epithelial issue which lines intestinal , respiratory and urinary tracts as well as the skin and eyes. It supports growth, especially skeletal growth It is anti-infective. It may protect against some epithelial cancers such as bronchial cancers. 27 Deficiency of vitamin A: Deficiency of vitamin A The signs of vitamin A deficiency are predominantly ocular. Ocular deficiency… They are: Nightblindness (Nyctalopia ) Xeropthalmia ( dryness in conjunctiva and cornea) Bitot's Spots Keratomalacia Extra-Ocular deficiency … Growth retardation Anorexia 28 Hypervitaminosis A: Hypervitaminosis A Excessive consumption of vitamin A leads to toxicity. Symptoms of hypervitaminosis A include… dermatitis (drying and redness of skin) enlargement of liver skeletal decalcification tenderness of long bones loss of weight Irritability loss of hair, joint pains etc. 29 VITAMIN D: VITAMIN D The nutritionally important forms of Vitamin D in man are… Calciferol (Vitamin D2) ( Ergocalciferol formed from ergosterol and is present on plants) 2) Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3), found in animals Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin. It resembles sterol in structure and functions like a hormone. Vitamin D was isolated by Angus (1931) who named it Calciferol . 30 Dietary sources: Dietary sources Good sources of vitamin d include fatty fish, fish liver oil, egg yolk etc. Milk is not a good source of vitamin D. 31 Functions of vitamin D and its metabolites : Functions of vitamin D and its metabolites Intestine: Promotes intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus Bone: Stimulates normal mineralization, Enhances bone reabsorption, Affects collagen maturation Kidney: Increases tubular reabsorption of phosphate 32 Deficiency of vitamin D: Deficiency of vitamin D Deficiency of vitamin D leads to: Rickets Osteomalacia 33 Vitamin E: Vitamin E Vitamin E (tocopherol) is a naturally occurring antioxidant. Essential for normal reproduction in many animals, hence known as anti sterility vitamin. α -tochopherol is the most active. The antioxidant property is due to chromane ring. 34 FUNCTIONS : FUNCTIONS Vitamin E is essential for the membrane structure and integrity of the cell, hence it is regarded as a membrane antioxidant . It prevents the peroxidation of poly-unsaturated fatty acids in various tissues and membranes. It protects RBC from hemolysis by oxidizing agent (e.g H 2 O 2 ). It is closely associated with reproductive functions and prevents sterility. Vitamin E preserves and maintains germinal epithelium of gonads for proper reproductive function. It increases the synthesis of heme by enhancing the activity of enzymes aninolevulinic acid (ALA) synthase and ALA dehydratase. It is required for cellular respiration t hrough electron transport chain (believed to stabilize coenzyme Q). 35 FUNCTIONS of vitamin E : FUNCTIONS of vitamin E Prevents the oxidation of vitamin A and carotenes . It is required for proper storage of creatine in skeletal muscle . Vitamin E is needed for optimal absorption of amino acids from the intestine. It is involved in proper synthesis of nucleic acids. Vitamin E protects liver fr om being damaged by toxic compounds such as carbon tetrachloride. 36 VITAMIN K : VITAMIN K Vitamin K is the only fat soluble vitamin with a specific coenzyme function. It is required for the production of blood clotting factors, essential for coagulation (in German – Koagulation )hence the name k for this vitamin. 37 Functions : Functions The functions of vitamin K are concerned with blood clotting process. 38 Dietary Sources : Dietary Sources Cabbage, cauliflower , tomatoes, Spinach and other green vegetables are good sources. It also present in egg yolk, meat, liver, cheese and dairy products. 39 Deficiency : Deficiency Deficiency symptoms... Deficiency of vitamin k leads to the lack of active prothrombin in the circulation. The result is that blood coagulation is adversely affected. The individual bleeds profusely even for minor injuries. The blood clotting time is increased The deficiency of vitamin K is uncommon , since it is present in the diet in sufficient quantity and is adequately synthesized by the intestinal bacteria. However , vitamin K deficiency may occur due to its faulty absorption (lack of bile salts) loss of vitamin into feces (diarrheal diseases ) and Administration of antibiotics (killing of intestinal flora). 40 PowerPoint Presentation: 41 Water soluble vitamins THIAMINE(Vitamin B1): THIAMINE(Vitamin B 1 ) Thiamine (vitamin B1) is a water soluble vitamin. It is essential for the utilization of carbohydrates. Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), the coenzyme of cocarboxylase plays a part in activating transkelolase, an enzyme involved in the direct oxidative pathway for glucose . 42 SOURCES : SOURCES Dietary Sources Cereals, pulses, oil seed, nuts and yeast are good sources. Thiamine is mostly concentrated in the outer layer (bran) of Cereals.( Polishing of rice removes about 80% of thiamine.) Vitamin B1 is also present in animal food like pork, liver, heart, kidney, milk etc. In the parboiled (boiling of paddy with husk) and milled rice, thiamine is not lost in polishing , since thiamine is a water soluble vitamin, It is extracted into the water during cooking process. Such water should not be discarded. 43 Deficiency of thiamine : Deficiency of thiamine The two principal deficiency diseases are beriberi and Wernick's encephalopathy. Beriberi may occur in three main forms: peripheral neuritis, cardiac beriberi infantile beriberi , seen in infants between 2 and 4 months of life. The affected baby is usually breast-fed by a thiamine-deficient mother who commonly shows signs of peripheral neuropathy. Wernick’s encephalopathy is characterized by ophthalmoplegia, polyneuritis, ataxia and mental deterioration 44 RIBOFLAVIN (VITAMIN B2) : RIBOFLAVIN (VITAMIN B2) Riboflavin through its coenzymes takes part in a variety of cellular oxidation reduction reaction. Riboflavin is stable to heat but sensitive to light. When exposed to ultra-violet rays of sunlight, it is converted to lumiflavin which exhibits yellow Fluorescense. The substances namely lactoflavin (from milk), hepatoflavin (from liver) and ovaflavin (from eggs) which were originally thought to be different are structurally identical to Riboflavin. 45 FUNCTIONS: FUNCTIONS Helps in… Carbohydrate Lipid Protein Purine Metabolism 46 SOURCES : SOURCES Dietary sources Milk and milk products, meat, eggs, liver , kidney are rich sources. Cereals , fruit, vegetables and fish are moderate sources. 47 Deficiency : Deficiency Riboflavin deficiency symptoms include… Cheilosis (fissures at the corners of the mouth) Glossitis (tongue smooth and purplish) Dermatitis 48 Vitamin B3 (NIACIN): Vitamin B 3 (NIACIN) Niacin or nicotinic acid is also known as pellagra preventive (P.P) factor of Glodberg. The coenzymes of niacin (NAD + and NADP) can be synthesized by the essential amino acid tryptophan 49 sources: sources Dietary Sources… The rich natural sources of niacin include Liver, yeast, whole grains, cereals, pulses like beans and peanuts . Milk, fish, egg and vegetables are moderate sources. The essential amino acid tryptophan can serve as a precursor for the synthesis of nicotinamide coenzymes. Tryptophan has many other essential and important function in the body , hence dietary tryptophan cannot totally replace niacin. 50 Deficiency: Deficiency Deficiency results in pellagra (Italian rough skin). This disease involves skin , gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system. The symtoms of pellagra are commonly referred to a three Ds . The disease also progresses in that order dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia , and if not treated may rarely lead to death . Dermatitis (inflammation of skin) Diarrhea may be in the form of loose stool, often with blood and mucus. Prolonged diarrhea leads to weight loss. Dementia is associated with degeneration of nervous tissues. The symptoms of dementia , include anxiety , irritability , poor memory, insomnia (sleeplessness) etc. 51 VITAMIN B6: VITAMIN B6 Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) exists in three forms pyridoxine, p y ridoxal and pyridoxamine. It plays an important role in the metabolism of amino acids, fats and carbohydrate. The requirement of adults vary directly with protein intake. Adults may need 2 mg/day, during pregnancy and lactation, 2.5 mg/day. Balanced diets usually contain pyridoxine, therefore deficiency is rare. 52 Dietary sources: Dietary sources Dietary sources Animal sources such as egg yolk, fish, milk, meat are rich in B6. wheat, corn, cabbage, roots and tubers are good vegetables sources. 53 Deficiency: Deficiency Pyridoxine deficiency is associated with… Neurological symtoms such as… depression, irritability, nervousness and mental confusion. Convulsions and peripheral neuropathy are observed in severe deficiency . B. Decrease in hemoglobin levels, associated with hypochromic microcytic anemia. 54 Biotin(vitaminB7 OR VITAMIN H): Biotin(vitaminB 7 OR VITAMIN H ) Biotin (formally known as anti-egg white injury factor, vitamin B7 or vitamin H) It is a sulfur containing B-complex vitamin. It directly participates as a coenzyme in the Carboxylation reactions. Dietary Sources… Biotin is widely distributed in both animal and plant foods. The rich sources are liver , kidney , egg yolk, milk, tomatoes grain etc. 55 Functions : Functions It helps in… 1) Fatty acid synthesis. Acetyl CoA is the starting material for the synthesis of fatty acids. The very first step in fatty acid synthesis is a carboxylation reaction. BIOTIN Acetyl CoA Malonyl CoA Acetyl CoA carboxylase 2 ) Gluconeogenesis and citric acid cycle 56 Deficiency: Deficiency Deficiency symptoms … The symptoms of biotin deficiency include anemia , loss of appetite, nausea, dermatitis, glossitis etc. Biotin deficiency may also result in depression , hallucinations, muscle pain and dermatitis. 57 FOLIC ACID : FOLIC ACID Folic acids or folacin Latin folium leaf is abundantly found in green leafy vegetables. It is important for one carbon metabolism and is required for the synthesis of certain Amino acid, purines and the pyrimidine thymine . Dietary sources… Folic acid is widely distributed in nature. The rich sources are green leafy vegetables, whole grains, cereals, liver , kidney, yeast and eggs. Milk is rather a poor source of folic acid. 58 Deficiency: Deficiency Deficiency symptoms… The microcytic anemia (abnormally large RBC) associated with megaloblastic changes in bone marrow is a characteristic feature of folate deficiency. Folic acid deficiency is probably the most common vitamin deficiency, observed primarily in the pregnant women, in both developed (including USA) and developing countries (including india ). The pregnant women, lactating women, women on oral contraceptives, and alcoholics are also susceptible to folate deficiency . 59 VITAMIN B12: VITAMIN B 12 Vitamin B 12 is a complex organo-metallic compound with a coba l t atom. The preparation which is therapeutically used is cyanocobalamine . Vitamin B 12 cooperates with foliate in the synthesis of DNA . Vitamin B 12 has a separate biochemical role, unrelated to folate, in synthesis of fatty acids in myelin . 60 Vitamin B12 deficiency : Vitamin B 12 deficiency Vitamin B 12 deficiency is associated with… Megaloblastic Anaemia (Pernicous Anaemia), demyelinating neurological lesions in the spinal cord and infertility (in animal species). Dietary deficiency of B 12 may arise the subjects who are strict vegetarians and eat no animal product. At the present time there is little evidence that vitamin B 12 deficiency anemia represents an important public health problem. 61 VITAMIN C: VITAMIN C Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a water-soluble vitamin. It is the most sensitive of all vitamins to heat. Vitamin C has an important role to play in tissue oxidation ,it is needed for the formation of collagen, which accounts for 25 per cent of total body protein 62 Functions: Functions Collagen formation Bone formation Iron and hemoglobin metabolism Tryptophan metabolism Tyrosine metabolism Folic acid metabolism Peptide hormone synthesis Synthesis of corticosteroid hormones Sparing action of other vitamins Immunological function Prevention action on cataract Preventive action on chronic diseases as an antioxidant, vitamin C reduces the risk of cancer, cataract, and coronary heart diseases. 63 Deficiency of vitamin C : Deficiency of vitamin C Deficiency of vitamin C results in scurvy. Signs are … Swollen and bleeding gums, spongy and sore gums Subcutaneous bruising or bleeding into the skin or joints Delayed wound healing Anaemia and weakness. Osteoporosis etc. Scurvy which was once an important deficiency disease is no longer a disease of world importance. 64 PowerPoint Presentation: 65 Thank you!