counseling class_ Module 1 (copy). -1

Information about counseling class_ Module 1 (copy). -1

Published on August 6, 2014

Author: budhadeepgondane



Unit I: Introduction to Counseling:: Unit I: Introduction to Counseling: Class Outline: Definitions of Counseling Characteristics of Counseling Psychotherapy and Counseling Goals of Counseling Work activities of Counselors Where Counselor work Introduction to Counseling:: Introduction to Counseling: Below are concerns that people might wish to share with another: ‘I get very anxious over exams.’ ‘I’m extremely shy and have difficulty making friends.’ ‘Our relationship is heading for the rocks.’ ‘I have a poor relationship with my parents.’ ‘I need to make my mind up about a career.’ ‘I have difficulty relating to my work colleagues and customers.’ ‘I want to get off taking drugs.’ ‘I’m just recovering from a heart attack and need to develop a healthier lifestyle.’ ‘I want to grow old successfully and go on having some meaning in my life.’ ‘I’m feeling very depressed and useless.’ ‘I feel under tremendous stress at work and am not coping well.’ ‘I get angry far too easily.’ ‘I put myself down for being lesbian/gay.’ Definitions of Counseling:: Definitions of Counseling: As a profession counseling is relatively new. It grew out of guidance movement, in opposition to traditional psychotherapy. A few definitions described below will illustrate the meaning and process of counseling profession. “An effort to help the client engage in those types of behavior which will lead to a resolution of the client’s problems” (Krumboltz, 1965). In 1997 the Governing Council of the American Counselling Association(ACA) accepted the following definition of professional counselling: Counseling is the application of mental health, psychological or human development principles, through cognitive, affective, behavioral or systemic interventions, strategies that address wellness, personal growth, or career development, as well as pathology. (http://counseling. org) Definitions of Counseling:: Definitions of Counseling: “Counseling denotes a professional relationship between a trained counselor and a client. Relationship is usually person-to-person, and is designed to help clients to understand and clarify their views of their lifespace, and to learn to reach their self-determined goals through meaningful, well-informed choices and through resolution of problem” (Burks & Stefflre, 1979, p. 14) “An interaction in which the counselor offers another person the time, attention, and respect necessary to explore, discover and clarify ways of living more resourcefully, and to his or her greater well-being” (The BAC, 1999) Definitions of Counseling:: Definitions of Counseling: These definitions indicate that counseling as defined by different people have few common components, as described below: • “Counseling is aimed at helping people make choices and act on them” • Counselors are the people who listen to others and help resolve difficulties. • A relationship: Counselor develops a relationship which is based on unconditional positive regard and trust. • A process: Counseling is a process in which the counselor and the clients involve themselves in a psychological process to solve problems. • The counseling is designed to help people make choices and solve problems. • The counseling helps in recognizing one’s potential and to use this potential in an effective way. Definitions of Counseling:: Definitions of Counseling: Patterson(1961) has pointed out certain behaviour that are not synonymous with the process of effective counseling: 1.Counseling is not the giving of information, though information may be present. 2.Counseling is not the giving of advice. 3.Counseling in not the influencing of attitudes,beliefs, and behaviour by persuading, admonishing, threatening, or compelling without the use of physical force. 4.Counseling in not the selection and assignment of individual to jobs. 5.Counseling is not interviewing, through interviewing is involved. Characteristics of Counseling:: Characteristics of Counseling: Characteristics of Counseling: Counseling as a Relationship: Counseling is sufficient for constructive changes to occur in clients (Rogers, 1957). The counseling relationship is characterized by core conditions namely empathy, unconditioned positive regard, and genuineness. Counseling as a Repertoire of Interventions: In counseling several questions (like which, when, and with what client) are answered and while interventions are decided an attempt is made to have a match between the client and the counselor. Characteristics of Counseling:: Characteristics of Counseling: Counseling as a Psychological Process: • Goals of counseling have a mind component • Process is psychological • Underlying theories are psychological: Some psychologists like Rogers, Albert Ellis and psychiatrists like Berne and Beck have contributed enormously to counseling theories. For example, information about human nature has been derived from psychological theories. Some people argue that counseling is not a profession as it is used in so many disciplines in so many sphere of life, e.g., loan counselors, business counselor, etc., but the difference is that professional counselors work according to some theoretical model. • Psychological research contributes both to creating counseling theories and to evaluate counseling process Comparison of Psychotherapy and Counseling: : Comparison of Psychotherapy and Counseling: Blocher (1966) distinguishes between counseling and psychotherapy by pointing out that the goals of counseling are ordinarily developmental-educative-preventive, and the goals of psychotherapy are generally re mediative-adjustive-therapeutic He describes that five basic assumptions about client and counselor differentiate both: Brammer & Shostrom (1982) indicate that while the two activities may overlap, counseling in general can be characterized by such terms as “educational, vocational, supportive, situational, problem-solving, conscious awareness, normal, present time, and short-term”; psychotherapy can be characterized by such terms as “supportive (in a crisis setting), reconstructive, depth emphasis, analytical, focus on the past, emphasis on ‘neurotic’ or other severe emotional, and long-term problems. Comparison of Psychotherapy and Counseling :: Comparison of Psychotherapy and Counseling : Counseling: Focus: Developmental -fosters coping skills to facilitate development and prevent problems. Clients problems: clients tend to have problem of living such as relationship difficulties, or need assistance with specific problems such as career choice. Goals: the is more on short-terms goals(resolution of immediate concerns) Treatment Approaches: the treatment program can include preventative approaches and various counseling strategies to assist with the clients concerns. Setting: counseling services can be provided in variety of setting such as schools, churches, and mental clinics. Psychotherapy: Focus :Re-mediative -aimed at helping clients overcome existing problems such as anxiety and depression. Clients problems: more complex and may involve using formal diagnostic procedures to determine if there is a mental disorder. Goals: the is no short and long – term goals. Long -term goals can involve process such as helping the client overcome a particular mental disorder. Treatment approaches: Psychotherapeutic approaches are complex. They utilize strategies that relate to conscious and unconscious processes. Setting: Psychotherapy is typically offered in setting such as private practice ,mental health centers, and hospital. Similarities between Counseling & Psychotherapy:: Similarities between Counseling & Psychotherapy: Counseling and psychotherapy are similar in many procedures and concepts. Some of them are given below:

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