CP15633

Information about CP15633

Published on October 22, 2007

Author: Pravez

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education:  Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education Camilo Garcia, M. Ed. Slide2:  “The foundation of every state is the education of its youth.” By: Diogenes Laertius, author of The Lives of the Philosophers Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education - 3 - Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education:  Historical overview of Tertiary Education in the Americas Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education - 4 - Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education:  Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education Four basic structural ‘models’ for tertiary institutions: Elitist – aims at quantitative limitations Vertical – Structured and separated components Unitary model – aims to establish uniformity to reduce inequality Recurrent education – the acquisition of occupational qualifications - 5 - Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education:  Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education Martin Trow's definition of access to Higher Education Economic factors Lack of cohesion Student Affairs Components Weaknesses in the system Emergency Education Importance (value) given to education and other factors IMF and WB requirements and demands on countries Millennium Goals 2nd Summit of the Americas - 6 - Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education:  1. Martin Trow’s (1973) three phases in the development of higher education in every advanced society: Education for the elite (5 %) Education for the masses (20 %) Universal education (60 %) Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education - 7 - Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education:  2. Economic factors Initial inequality is related to the frequently inadequate health and nutrition of poor children Extremely high costs of tertiary education Tertiary education is exclusively private or extremely competitive During economic recession – tertiary education is affected Need for child to work Lack of opportunities after graduation High unemployment rates Lack of a labor market for given industry Need for a meritocratic and democratic society Universal approach versus a particularistic approach to education and economic reform - Contemporary proposals often attempt a ‘fix all’ approach Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education - 8 - Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education:  Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education Source: http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2005/10/19/tuition U.S. Higher Education Institutions - 9 - Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Higher Education:  Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Higher Education - 10 - Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education:  Learning gap Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education Secondary and tertiary institutions are not working together to bridge gaps in tertiary opportunities Weak linkages between universities and non-university tertiary institutions No systems for the transfer of academic credits Skill level Short cycle for non-university education Educational dead-end Low quality Secondary University 3. Lack of cohesion - 11 - Low quality, lack of relevance and brain drain:  Low quality, lack of relevance and brain drain Insufficient qualifications of university professors Deteriorating physical facilities, lack of equipment, obsolete instruction material and outdated curricula University graduates do not meet the skills needs in the economy Source: Brunner (2002), World Bank (2002); UK Higher Education Statistics Agency Individualized Staff Record 2001/02; García Gaudilla (1998) and Schwartzman and Balbachevsky (1996) Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education - 12 - Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education:  4. Student Affairs Components Feeling disenfranchised Special treatment leads to resentment Lack of or no cultural cohesion No extra curricular component Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education - 13 - 5. Weakness in the system:  5. Weakness in the system Low production and mobility of Ph.D.’s and post-docs Inward orientation of university researchers Lack of incentives to commercialize research and solve real-life problems Red tape impeding partnerships and cross-sectoral mobility Source: IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook 2003 Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education - 14 - Weak system and institutional management:  Weak system and institutional management Weak university management structures Insufficient capacity in ministries of education for sector oversight and strategy Low access to relevant management information Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education Multilateral Organizations - 15 - Large increase in tertiary enrollment in recent decades:  Large increase in tertiary enrollment in recent decades Source: WDI 2003 Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education - 16 - Growth in private provision and non-university tertiary education:  Growth in private provision and non-university tertiary education   Percent of total enrollment Year 75%-40% 40%-30% 30%-20% 20%-10% Less than 10% 1985 Brazil Colombia Dom. Republic Chile El Salvador Peru Argentina Guatemala Paraguay Costa Rica Ecuador Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Venezuela Bolivia Panama Uruguay Cuba 2002* Brazil Colombia Chile Dom. Republic El Salvador Nicaragua Paraguay Peru Venezuela   Costa Rica Ecuador Argentina Guatemala Mexico     Honduras Bolivia Panama Uruguay Cuba Source: Schwartzman (2002); World Bank (2002c and 2003); Zúñiga (2003); OECD (2002a) and García Gaudilla (1998) Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education - 17 - Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education:  6. Emergency education Poor preparedness for: Civil war or armed conflict Natural disasters I.E. Hurricane Katrina Economic issues Political climate (lip service) Epidemics Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education - 18 - Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education:  7. Importance of education Political lip service (campaign promises) Funding and proper allocation Parents own educational achievements Gender inequality Ethnic divisions Tertiary education seen as a luxury Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education - 19 - Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Higher Education:  Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Higher Education - 20 - Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Higher Education:  8. IMF and World Bank Lack of seriousness: UN Millennium Project has found that multilateral and bilateral institutions have not encouraged the countries to take the MDG seriously as operational objectives IMF and WB loan requirements are stringent and lead developing nations to compromises that are not always in their country’s economic and socials best interests. Knowledge based economy (WB, 2003) Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Higher Education - 21 - Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education:  9. Millennium Goals: Education Universal primary education, expanded secondary and tertiary education by 2015 Gender equality Science, technology and innovation Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education - 22 - Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Higher Education:  Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Higher Education - 23 - Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Higher Education:  Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Higher Education Source: UN MDG Report - 24 - Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Higher Education:  2nd Summit of the Americas The principal objective set by the 2nd Summit of the Americas consisted of: Universal access to quality primary education for all children and access to quality secondary education for at least 75 percent of young people while providing the general population with opportunities for life-long learning However, secretary general Jose Miguel Insulza recently stated that the most talked about and advanced topic was the free trade negotiations. Primary example of lip service. Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Higher Education - 25 - CP15633

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