Creating Valid Assessments with narration

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Published on July 18, 2014

Author: bhoutz

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Creating Valid Assessments: Creating Valid Assessments Class Six Bloom’s Taxonomy Revisited: Bloom’s Taxonomy Revisited Knowledge – recognizes students’ ability to use rote memorization and recall certain facts. test questions focus on identification and recall of information Comprehension – involves students’ ability to read course content, extrapolate and interpret important information, and put other’s ideas into their own words. test questions focus on use of facts, rules, and principles Application – students take new concepts and apply them to another situation. test questions focus on bringing together information to find the answer PowerPoint Presentation: Analysis – students have the ability to take new information and break it down into parts to differentiate between them. test questions focus separation of a whole into component parts Synthesis – students are able to take various pieces of information and form a whole, creating a pattern where one did not previously exist. test questions focus on combining ideas Evaluation – involves students’ ability to look at someone else’s ideas or principles and see the worth of the work and the value of the conclusions. test questions focus on making judgments Remembering: Remembering Definitions Examples of processes Identification of structures or concepts Recall of basic information Understanding: Understanding Comparing processes or models Summarizing a concept Explaining how a reaction works Looking at a graph or illustration and explaining what it is at a very basic level Applying: Applying Given an example of a real-life situation, use a deeper understanding of the concept to figure out how to solve the problem Brings in a basic knowledge and uses it in a new setting What is the final concentration of Cl- ion when 250 mL of 0.20 M CaCl 2 solution is mixed with 250 mL of a 0.40 M KCl solution? (assume additive volumes) a. 0.10 M b. 0.20 M c. 0.30 M d. 0.40 M e. 0.60 M Analyzing: Analyzing A young relative of yours has never had much energy. He goes to the doctor for help and is sent to the hospital for some tests. There they discover his mitochondria can only use fatty acids and amino acids for respiration, and his cells produce more lactate than normal. Which of the following statements is the best explanation of his condition? a. His cells cannot move NADH from glycolysis into the mitocondria. b. His cells contain something that inhibits oxygen use in his mitochondria. c. His mitochondria lack the transport protein that moves pyruvate across the outer mitochondrial membrane. d. His cells lack the enzyme in glycolysis that forms pyruvate. Evaluating / Creating: Evaluating / Creating Require a much more extensive reading or explanation to set up the question. Students make a logical decision based upon a thorough understanding of a complex topic. Often used as short-answer or essay test questions. Can be used for projects or reports. What’s wrong with these?: What’s wrong with these? Q. Can you explain how X process relates to Y outcomes? A. Yes. Q. Describe how processes in category A affect the ability of an organism to do process B. A. They’re directly related. Better Examples: Better Examples Using information from the notes and readings, explain in 3 paragraphs or more how X process relates to Y outcomes. Given the processes in category A, explain in detail how they may affect the ability of an organism to do process B. Write at least 2 paragraphs, referring to ideas and concepts discussed in class. Rubric: Rubric A chart composed of criteria for evaluation and levels of fulfillment of those criteria. Allows for standardized evaluation according to specified criteria. grading is transparent and more objective tells the student exactly what is expected greatly reduces time YOU spend on grading PowerPoint Presentation: Criteria Points 0 – 2 3 – 5 6 – 8 9 – 10 Abstract Does not fully explain the point of the paper; exceeds or has significantly smaller required word limit Partially explains the point of the paper; exceeds or has significantly smaller required word limit Adequately explains the point of the paper; meets or nearly meets word limit Fully explains the point of the paper; meets word limit Content & Graphics Lacks depth, breadth, or understanding of basic facts or concepts; few or no graphics Shows adequate understanding of basic facts or concepts; inappropriate graphics Shows proficient understanding of basic facts or concepts; two or more appropriate graphics Shows extensive understanding of basic facts or concepts; uses 3 or more detailed graphics Conclusions Reached A conclusion is made from the evidence offered Some detailed conclusions are reached from the evidence offered Several detailed conclusions are reached from the evidence offered Numerous detailed conclusions are reached from the evidence offered References & Literature Review Information gathered is inadequate, outdated, or improperly cited Information is gathered from limited electronic and non-electronic sources; some references are not properly cited Information is gathered from extensive electronic and non-electronic sources; few references are not properly cited Information is gathered from extensive electronic and non-electronic sources; all references are properly cited Formatting Does not follow proper formatting; numerous errors in spelling, grammar, or punctuation Does not follow proper formatting; few errors in spelling, grammar, or punctuation Properly formatted; few errors in spelling, grammar, or punctuation Properly formatted; no errors in spelling, grammar, or punctuation Total Score Where to Find Examples: Where to Find Examples http://www.tcet.unt.edu/weblibrary2/resources/?id=21 meta-page on rubrics; multiple links http://www.ncsu.edu/midlink/ho.html has rubric templates to import to spreadsheets http://rubistar.4teachers.org appropriate for different topics pull-down list of options save your rubric to a word-processing document and make changes Personal Experience: Personal Experience Providing my students with rubrics prior to grading increased average grade by 15% Helped good students organize their ideas Helped the best students do an outstanding job Left myself a 5 - 10% ‘fuzzy factor’ to curve a grade up or down depending on effort or participation Course Objectives: Course Objectives Use them to create your questions. 25% of lowest two levels of information. 70% of middle two levels of information. 5% of highest two levels of information. Create a Test Blueprint: Create a Test Blueprint A matrix, or chart, representing the number of questions you want in your test within each topic and level of objective. Identifies the objectives and skills that are to be tested and the relative weight on the test given to each item. Can help you ensure that you are obtaining the desired coverage of topics and levels of objectives. PowerPoint Presentation: Topic A Topic B Topic C Topic D TOTAL Remembering 1 0 2 1 4 Understanding 1 2 0 1 4 Applying 4 3 3 4 14 Analyzing 3 4 4 3 14 Evaluating 1 1 0 0 2 Creating 0 0 1 1 2 TOTAL 10 10 10 10 40 You can weight the evaluating and creating questions to make them worth more than the easier questions. If you are requiring extended responses to evaluating or creating questions, cut down the number to 1 – 2 per exam. How to write a good multiple choice question: How to write a good multiple choice question Base each one on a course objective (NO trivia!) Have only one clearly best answer. Wrong answers should be plausible or use common misconceptions or student errors from homework. Each response should be about the same length. Which is the better question?: Which is the better question? If a segment of DNA is 5’-TAC GAT TAG-3’, the RNA that results from the transcription of this segment will be: a. 5’-TAC GAT TAG-3’ b. 5’-UAG GAU UAG-3’ c. 3’-ATG CTA ATC-5’ d. 3’-AUG CUA AUC-5’ PowerPoint Presentation: If a segment of DNA is 5’-TAC GAT TAG-3’, the RNA that results from the transcription of this segment will be: a. the opposite of the DNA b. have all thymines replaced with uracils c. 3’-AUG CUA AUC-5’ d. a, b, c are all correct e. only b and c are correct f. none of the above are correct What’s wrong with this question?: What’s wrong with this question? Neural transmissions a. are slow b. involve the flow of K - and Na + across the synaptic gap c. use calcium within the axons and dendrites of nerves adjacent to a synapse to act as a neurotransmitter d. travel in only one direction Tips: Tips Have the same number of answers each time. Avoid “all of the above” and “none of the above.” Vary the placement of the correct answer. Make sure the answers include common mistakes made by students. Avoid “no, because...” and “yes, because...” Tips: Tips Limit short answer and essay questions (they take too long to grade). Provide criteria for your short answer and essay questions: “In at least 2 paragraphs ...” “Explain in detail, using examples from the readings, why ...” “Explain your reasoning based on information from the class.” Avoid very short “stem” questions. Ribosomes _______ are made of RNA help to transcribe DNA into proteins have several subunits What type of exam is it?: What type of exam is it? Mid-term or final? Short quiz or comprehensive? How long do students have to complete it? Will you have help grading it? Do you expect to curve or adjust the score to reflect a higher or lower grade? Tests and Validity: Tests and Validity Does this exam test what I want it to test? based on established objectives students have had previous practice demonstrating the levels of understanding you’re testing advanced or outstanding students do well on most questions poor or struggling students do less well on most questions When to question your test: When to question your test Almost no one scores above a 50% Students who have done well on other tests/assessments scored very poorly on specific questions Student responses to questions seem to be random (if 5 responses, students seem to choose any 1 of the 5) You receive complaints from some of your best students Solution?: Solution? Curve heavily if you have to (30% = B+). Throw out 1 or more questions and give everyone free credit for those answers. Give an additional test and drop the lowest test score. Give an alternative assignment (detailed and intensive) in exchange for dropping a test grade. your best students will be willing to work harder for a better grade Assignment: Assignment Choose five objectives from last week’s assignment. one each from knowledge/remembering, comprehension/understanding, and applying or analyzing one for evaluating one for synthesizing / creating Write three different multiple choice questions. one for each of the three lower-level objectives Write two essay questions. one for each upper level objective SUBMIT YOUR QUESTIONS TO THE COURSE WEB SITE

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