Published on April 22, 2008
Creative Cities: The Role of Creative Industries in Regeneration: Creative Cities: The Role of Creative Industries in Regeneration Justin O’ConnorSchool of Performance and Cultural Industries: Justin O’Connor School of Performance and Cultural Industries Culture central to the contemporary City: Culture central to the contemporary City Culture-led regeneration The ‘creative city’ Creative industries and the City Culture-led Regeneration: Culture-led Regeneration 1980s city governments faced: contracting industrial base increasing globalisation erosion of the key traditional competitive functions of cities. culture as the ‘new fix’ New role for culture: New role for culture Global image and attraction of ‘footloose capital’ Highly mobile and highly skilled personnel Cultural tourists Culture-led regeneration: investment in the urban fabric. Property Led Regeneration: Property Led Regeneration Subsidised visual and performing arts, museums and heritage etc. New build and ‘re-programming’ of 19th and 20th century industrial structures Anchor private sector investment into entertainment, leisure and shopping facilities; cafes and restaurants; new type of up-market accommodation, offices and apartments. Problems: Problems Regeneration viewed as physical regeneration at the expense of a more holistic vision. The big regeneration projects about culture and consumption Cultural consumption generates business, enhances property markets, has strong image effects, but has limits. Property-led development: Property-led development Tends to involve high capital investment often at the expense of the local Blandness, homogeneity Social exclusion (real and symbolic) Privatisation of public space City centre at expense of suburbs Property-led Regeneration: Property-led Regeneration Sustainability Extent of Local Impact – economic and social Question of wider benefits to the city - content frequently ‘art’, of ‘international quality’ – whose culture, whose image? Used instrumentally with little feeling for the actual content. Emphasis on cultural consumption rather than production Can be destructive of spaces of creation and production The Creative City: The Creative City Culture-led regeneration attempt to re-image the city giving it a greater global profile. Real creative vision involves much wider and deeper set of transformations. Re-imaging must involve renegotiation of local identity - not just marketing exercise. Creative City: Creative City About building partnerships, inspiring visions, leadership, accepting painful change About re-imagining the city, telling a different story about what it was and what it could become. From Cultural to Creative Industries: From Cultural to Creative Industries Adorno – Culture Industry: culture as mass production for mass society. Political economists: Cultural Industries Different conditions of production and consumption: commodity and flow; public and private. Need for innovation and authenticity - Risky business – dealing with unpredictability Artists remain freelance ‘Artisans’ Break with artist centred cultural policy – value chains, access to production and distribution; industrial strategies for cultural purposes Greater London Council Cultural industries as new economy : Cultural industries as new economy Late 1980s/early 1990s Fordism to Post - fordism – mass production to flexible specialisation; National space to global/ local spaces New economy – innovation, creativity, flexibility, reflexivity, responsiveness CI’s no longer a remnant of the old but a template for the new Cultural to creative industries: Cultural to creative industries ‘Creative industry’ DCMS 1998 mapping document DCMS: individual creativity and exploitation of intellectual property rights, ‘creative industries’ to forefront of ‘new economy’. Key role of information and knowledge services within the new global system, services based on creativity and innovation. Creativity goes mainstream: Creativity goes mainstream ‘Creativity’ moved beyond classical cultural industries Traditional attributes of (modernist) ‘artistic’ production - innovation, intuition, ‘out of the box’ thinking, rule breaking, rebellion – now crucial part of new economy as a whole. Why are they growing? : Why are they growing? Education; leisure; disposable income New technologies of creation, distribution and consumption Consumption of cultural goods as part of lifestyle Cultural component of material goods Cultural component of service products Information and communication now meshed with symbolic Cultural consumption: Cultural consumption 1960s: ‘Expressive revolution’: transformation of western culture Value shifts – collective to individual; from restraint to self-expression; from duty to self-realisation. Creativity - reflexive construction of identity Risk; responsibility for ‘life choices’ Cultural Production: Cultural Production Break the 9-5 Doing it for yourself Learning by doing (make it up as you go along) Fluid boundaries of work and play Portfolio careers Reason and Intuition A new habitus Why Cities?: Why Cities? Global economy about networks and flows – of capital, information, goods and services, people, ideas, images Cities key nodes and command centres in global networks. Why Cities?: Why Cities? Produce and process knowledge and information; Harness R&D to new business opportunities; Generate new skills and entrepreneurial energy; Provide complex division of labour and institutional mix of dynamic post-industrial city. ‘commodified cultural production’ (Scott): ‘commodified cultural production’ (Scott) High levels of human input Clusters of small companies operating on a project basis Dense flows of information, goods and services Economies of scale in skills sourcing and know-how Complex divisions of labour tying people to places CIs and Cities: CIs and Cities Creativity, innovation, competitiveness at premium Flexible, responsive, user-driven Complex mix of large and small companies Clusters and networks– ideas, information, support, trust Why some cities not others?: Why some cities not others? Embeddedness Tacit knowledge Traditions Institutions ‘Atmosphere’ Local identity Urbanity Art Worlds: Art Worlds Artistic milieus: artists Also intermediaries, impresarios, agents, gallery owners, lawyers, craftspeople, technicians, specialist material suppliers etc. ‘Cool places’, ‘atmosphere’, ‘buzz’, ‘scenes’ Could not just be created - organic quality. Independents: Independents Freelancers and micro businesses – part of a localised ‘scene’, ‘active consumers’, ‘near to the street’ Insider’s knowledge of the volatile and localised logic of cultural consumption Creative milieus: active consumers became active producers of cultural products Spaces, people, networks, exemplars, experiences, institutions – part of the creative assets of a city Independents: Independents New sense of cultural identity and purpose, New mix of cultural and commercial knowledge New mix of emotional investment and calculation, of creativity and routinisation, of making money and making meaning Operating in risky environment, using networks of trust and of information Independents: Independents New habitus Has to be learned - but tacit rather than formal learning. Tacit, embedded knowledge is also part of the creative assets of a city The Independents: The Independents They thrive on easy access to local, tacit know-how – a style, a look, a sound – which is not accessible globally. Thus the cultural industries based on local know-how and skills show how cities can negotiate a new accommodation with the global market, in which cultural producers sell into much larger markets but rely on a distinctive and defensible local base. Leadbeater and Oakley Creative Urban Ecology: Creative Urban Ecology ‘meanings adhere to the urban landscape’ - used as factors in the production of cultural commodities Meanings re-assimilated into the ‘urban landscape’, acting as ‘a source of inputs to new rounds of cultural production and commercialisation’, and ‘a further enrichment of the urban landscape’ Creative Urban Ecology : Creative Urban Ecology Cultural production and consumption transform the landscape of the city through its ‘shopping malls, restaurants and cafés, clubs, theatres, galleries, boutiques’. Creative Urban Ecology: Creative Urban Ecology This ‘revitalisation of the symbolic content’ of cities draws in city governments, Link these transformations with ‘ambitious public efforts of urban rehabilitation in the attempt to enhance local prestige, increase property values and attract new investments and jobs’. Creative Urban Ecology: Creative Urban Ecology ‘Their survival can be further assured where policy makers at production locals are able to work out effective systems for the provision of co-ordination and steering services directed to the amplification of these agglomeration economies’. Creative City, Narratives of regeneration: Creative City, Narratives of regeneration Scott links specific support for CIs with a wider management of the urban ecology - the symbolic infrastructure of the city. Also a mobilisation of local urban identity - ‘creative cities’ – a narrative, usually by the city development agencies of local identity as a cultural resource. New Urban Visions: New Urban Visions These narratives draw on: Wider sense of urban identity City as a theatre of identity Wider sense of what the city is, what it might be Alternative spaces: Spaces of imagination and new narrative of City The Creative City (again): The Creative City (again) About building partnerships, inspiring visions, leadership, accepting painful change About re-imagining the city, telling a different story about what it was and what it could become. The Creative City: The Creative City What narrative resources does such a process mobilise? What narratives does it use and transform? How do such narratives resonate within the complexity and diversity of the city? (whose culture, whose city) Manchester: Creative City: Manchester: Creative City Successful case of culture-led regeneration Image Cultural Industries growth City council understanding, promotion and investment as key aspect of economic growth Manchester: Original Modern: Manchester: Original Modern Strong role of popular culture, especially music Peter Saville – Factory Records and Hacienda Original modern as organising concept not marketing slogan Manchester: Original Modern: Manchester: Original Modern Historical background: Historical background Manchester – shock city of industrialisation Challenge to London’s economic, political and cultural dominance Response to challenges – plugged into global transformations 1930s in decline – though still ‘city of Empire’ 1960-80 - collapse Manchester: Narratives of Regeneration: Manchester: Narratives of Regeneration G-Mex/ Bridgewater Hall Central Manchester Development Agency Olympic bids IRA bomb – tabla rasa Narratives of Regeneration: Narratives of Regeneration Revitalised Retail and Commercial Core Commonwealth Games New Arts Infrastructure Events and Festivals Convention Centre and Hotels City Centre Living – Cosmopolitan City Narratives of Regeneration: Narratives of Regeneration Entrepreneurial City - ‘Manchester Men’ Post -1987 – took different direction to Liverpool From Confrontation to Co-operation Public-Private Partnerships Erosion of democracy Howard Bernstein – ‘Enlightened Despotism’ (AH Wilson) Narratives of Regeneration: Narratives of Regeneration Understanding Role of Culture Prioritising Design Quality Rediscovery of the Urbanistic… Deeper Resources of Energy and Creativity Manchester: Shock City…. Alternative Narratives: Alternative Narratives CMDC: failure to attract large development Capital Emergence of smaller local development capital Small scale retail, arts and culture Larger developers – Tom Bloxham and Urban Splash. Urban Cultural Intermediaries: Urban Cultural Intermediaries Zukin: artist-led gentrification recouped by property developers Manchester: peripheral city; small scale development grew out of cultural scene ‘Re-landscaping’ of city a work of cultural intermediation not at first recognised by City New kind of local growth coalition based around culture and creative industries Urban Cultural Intermediaries: Urban Cultural Intermediaries Olympic Bid – never went beyond traditional growth coalition networks Newsweek – different worlds Increasingly turned to Popular Culture and Music Manchester Music: Manchester Music Iconic representation of the City Hatred and Despair – get out as soon as you can (Love Will Tear us Apart ) The Smiths Hall: Creative Cities: Hall: Creative Cities These creative cities were ‘societies troubled about themselves’; They were in a state of tension, of ‘transition forward to new and unexplored modes of organisation… societies in the throes of a transformation in social relationships, in values and in views about the world’; Creative cities and creative milieux ‘are places of great social and intellectual turbulence: not comfortable places at all’. Structure of Feeling: Structure of Feeling Manchester: Transformation of Habitus ‘Structure of feeling’–a way of inhabiting a field of cultural production, linked to a local cultural field. CIs in Manchester – ‘Thatcher’s children’ – oppositional, entrepreneurial by default, different sense to traditional idea of ‘the artist’, transposed to a more popular cultural notion of authenticity and ambition (neo-Bohemia?) Manchester as a space where this emerged most clearly. Shock City Narratives: Shock City Narratives Wider resonances with history of city Dave Haslam’s Manchester England Ian Taylor et al: A Tale of Two Cities – first global city, not mono-cultural Tale of Two Cities: Tale of Two Cities ‘It is this restless flux of the utopias of organised labour and the utopian dreams of urban fortunes, won through free trade and enterprise, that defines the parameters of local mancunian “structure of feeling” – a culture that sees itself as connected up to a larger world and a larger set of possibilities, rather than simply an industrial city caught within a narrow labour metaphysic.’ Tale of Two Cities: Tale of Two Cities ‘The dominant image of the Mancunian of the 1990s, of the street-wise “scally” (scallywag) doing business across the world or profiting from local initiatives in the entertainment business (the pop groups of the 1980s “Madchester” or the Olympic bid in 1992), we would argue is no overnight invention.’ Original Modern: Original Modern Reworked narrative of past and future Complex process of negotiation - draws on very real resources Process not easy – negotiations, tactics - emergent rather than strategic logic You Cannot Be Serious: You Cannot Be Serious From Best Club to the McEnroe Group 1996 IRA bomb – Special Projects, new networks Urbis – Rediscovering the City ‘Original Modern’ – Return of Factory (24PP and Wilson) Industrial City to Industrial City: Industrial City to Industrial City Shift of emphasis from industrial to urbanistic innovation Drew on long standing narratives (first global city, entrepreneurial, open to change) Drew on popular culture as symbolic of wider vibrancy and creativity Peter Saville: Peter Saville I felt that the Manchester brand had to build on its history, and of course the quintessential fact of that history is that it was the first industrial city. This was the foundation of my original modern theme, I reinterpreted ‘first industrial’ as ‘original modern’ - the terms original and modern being very characteristic of Manchester. Peter Saville: Peter Saville The attitude there is original, there is a wilfulness of Mancunians to do things their own way and it is a city concerned with the now. It knows it has a history but it’s not historically minded. Originality and modernity are values characteristic of Manchester, values which the city has epitomised. Original and modern thinking built it. My vision for the brand was the pursuit of the original and modern in this century. Issues: Issues Symbolic management of Urban Spaces (Scott) – urban landscape creates input to cultural production in virtuous circle Expertise, Influence and Power – the solidification of networks (Urbis) Property versus Creative Assets Urban Democratic Space (Bernstein) Managing the Margins… Issues: Issues Use and Abuse of Popular Culture Selective use of popular culture: the excluded and the ignored Literacy, Education and depression Difficult traditions of popular culture Venues and spaces under threat Consumption not production Uses and Abuses: Uses and Abuses Generated arts infrastructure Chains not small retailers Cultural Consumption rather than production CIs not supported Creative Production and Space: Creative Production and Space CIs need space and place As much an issue of public policy as space for subsidised art Urban ecology increasingly threatened by culture-led regeneration Private spaces have a public function – spaces of innovation and experiment Creative cities about hard economic choices Beyond Cultural Policy: Beyond Cultural Policy Support for creative production: Not artist centred – range of key actors and skills About the non-human – things organise us! Systems – about structures and autonomous processes Sometimes about economic muscle and regulation The Dark Side: The Dark Side ‘Benign narrative’ of culture and economics Creative Milieus mobilised as economic policy Creativity and culture about conflict, ‘unpopular culture’, the ‘dark side’: does not always sit well with policy makers Urbanity and Modernity: Urbanity and Modernity ‘Creativity’ linked to the (urban) public sphere and to transformations of lifestyle and social structure ‘Creative Milieus’ involve cultural and political questions Can you have creativity and innovation (modernisation) without the more difficult modernity that goes with it? Creativity ?: Creativity ? Creativity based on modernism not ‘traditional’ cultural values – golden mean, middle way, balance, slow acquisition of skills, discipline etc. These values stripped away by discourse of ‘creativity’ Endless innovation – mirror of capitalism (‘all that is solid melts into air’) Threats: Threats Instrumentalisation of culture Collapse of culture into economic policy Homogenisation, globalisation and erosion of local production New work culture Modernity: danger and opportunity!