Published on January 22, 2008
Confined Space EntryTraining Session : Confined Space Entry Training Session Introduction: Introduction Working in confined spaces can involve hazards that typically wouldn’t exist in other situations Hazards frequently aren’t dealt with because “there have never been any problems before.” Purpose: Purpose UWSP has a written confined space entry program to guide work in confined spaces for use by all departments. http://www.uwsp.edu/ehs/ Objective: Objective To provide an introduction to the hazards, protective measures, equipment, procedures and duties associated with CSE. Training Topics: Training Topics Personal and topic introduction Training requirements Definition of terms Confined space hazards Videos Confined space categories Assessing confined spaces Marking confined spaces Training Topics (cont.): Training Topics (cont.) Written procedures Using the permit system Preparing a space for entry Testing the air in a confined space Using ventilation equipment CSE duties Rescue procedures Coordinating working with contractors Auditing the program Confined Space Statistics: Confined Space Statistics 65% of all fatalities were due to air quality problems 100% of fatalities at 139 sites in 17 states in a 2-yr. period had one thing in common--no detector instruments or powered ventilation 29% of all people who died were supervisors 60% of all who die are rescuers 25% died in spaces “ready to kill” Training: Training Who needs it? Why do you need it? When do you need it? Frequency? Key Definitions: Key Definitions Confined space Permit-required confined space Non-permit confined space Hazardous atmosphere Entry Emergency IDLH (e.g. CO 1200, H2S 100 ppm) Potential CS Hazards : Potential CS Hazards Oxygen Hazards too much or too little Toxic Hazards gases, vapors or fumes (examples: hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide) Flammable or Explosive Hazards vapors or dusts in concentrations large enough to ignite Engulfment shifting liquid or solid substance that traps employee Configuration Walls or floor which slope downward or taper in can trap an employee Physical Hazards Contact with mechanical or electrical equipment, steam or other sources of heat, moving parts, energy. Hazardous atmosphere: Hazardous atmosphere Hazardous atmosphere: (1) Flammable gas, vapor, or mist in excess of 10 percent of its lower flammable limit; (2) Airborne combustible dust at a concentration that meets or exceeds its LFL; NOTE: This concentration may be approximated as a condition in which the dust obscures vision at a distance of 5 feet (1.52 m) or less. (3) Atmospheric oxygen concentration below 19.5 percent or above 23.5 percent; (4) Concentration of a substance capable of causing death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue, injury, or acute illness in excess of its PEL or other known safe level. (5) Any other atmospheric condition that is immediately dangerous to life or health. How do AtmosphericHazards Occur? : How do Atmospheric Hazards Occur? Previously stored chemicals/products Leaks/spills Infiltration Chemical reactions Operations conducted within the space Inerting with nonflammable products Pneumatic tools Employees are not to enter spaces with any hazardous atmospheres. What is Air?: What is Air? Flammable (p. 9): Flammable (p. 9) UEL % Upper Explosive Limit LEL % Lower Explosive Limit ALARM at 10% LEL Example: Gasoline Methane (CH4): Methane (CH4) Natural gas, swamp gas. Due to gas leak or organic decay Colorless/odorless flammable gas, or scented LEL = 5%; UEL = 15% Carbon Monoxide (CO) : Carbon Monoxide (CO) Colorless, odorless gas Slightly lighter than air Chemical asphyxiant/Flammable. Deadly! Primary source: incomplete combustion of organic material Gasoline-fueled combustion engines Signs/Symptoms: Confusion. Dizziness. Headache. Nausea. Unconsciousness. Weakness. IDLH = 1200 ppm. 8-Hour PEL = 50 ppm CO Alarm point = 35 ppm Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) : Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Sewer gas, stink gas (rotten eggs) Odor threshold: 0.02-0.2 ppm Colorless, flammable gas. Strong odor BUT Fatigues your senses. Deadly! Very high concentrations lead to cardiorespiratory arrest because of brainstem toxicity. Affect nervous system. Heavier than air IDLH H2S = 100 ppm 8 hr. PEL = 10 PPM Alarm Point = 10 ppm Other Chemical Hazards: Other Chemical Hazards Chemical contamination of surfaces Routes of entry (skin absorption, eye contact, ingestion, injection) Types of effects (irritation, chemical burns, systemic toxicity) Physical Hazards : Physical Hazards Electrical Slips, trips, and falls Augers, turbines, blades, pumps Falling objects and materials Drowning or engulfment Converging sections Fire/explosion Noise Heat Psychological Engulfment: Engulfment Configuration: Configuration Other Hazards: Other Hazards Other Hazards: Other Hazards Identification, Assessment and Classification: Identification, Assessment and Classification Confined space inventory Hazard assessments and control Confined space classification Follow-up Confined Space Categories: Confined Space Categories Non-permit spaces Permit-required spaces Permit-required spaces that can be reclassified to non-permit Reclassifying Permit Spaces: Reclassifying Permit Spaces Eliminate all serious safety hazards prior to entry Eliminate all actual and potential air hazards prior to entry, (Note: simply controlling air hazards ((i.e. ventilation)) is not sufficient) Hazards must remain eliminated Complete and post reclassification portion of permit. Permit Space Identification : Permit Space Identification Permit entry confined spaces need to be identified, usually by signs. Confined spaces that will not be entered must also be posted. Written Procedures: Written Procedures For each permit space, a written procedure must be in place to identify hazards and how to enter safely Completed procedures will be used with the permit or reclassification certificate. Post both at entry point. Permits: Permits A permit must be prepared and all specified conditions satisfied before entering a permit space Permit content Permit duration Entry supervisor duties Documentation Space Preparation - Decontamination: Space Preparation - Decontamination Make the space as clean as possible prior to entry. The goal is to minimize the need for PPE. If the purpose of the entry is to clean the space, take whatever measures available to minimize hazards and need for PPE. Space Preparation - Lockout / Tagout: Space Preparation - Lockout / Tagout Before entry, the space must be in a zero energy state. Anyone using lockout must be trained at the “authorized” level. Space Preparation - Misc. Physical Hazards: Space Preparation - Misc. Physical Hazards Temperature Extremes Noise Slipping Hazards Falling Objects Engulfment Etc.. Air Testing and Evaluation: Air Testing and Evaluation Air inside a permit-required space must be tested and evaluated before entry Air will be classified as “safe” or “hazardous.” Entry into a hazardous atmosphere requires approval of at least a general supervisor, the facility safety coordinator and entry supervisor Oxygen Toxic atmospheres Flammable atmospheres NO ENTRY! Procedures For Testing: Procedures For Testing If possible, test from outside. Test top, middle, and bottom. Stratification. Test entire portion of space Test before ventilating to establish baseline. Test while ventilating to ensure contaminants have been removed and system itself is not causing a hazard. Procedures For Testing (cont..): Procedures For Testing (cont..) Retest whenever there is a change in work or conditions. At a minimum, retest At the start of each permit period The start of each workshift Whenever the space and immediate area have been left unattended for > 5 minutes. When there is a change in personnel. Procedures For Testing (cont.): Procedures For Testing (cont.) Continuous monitoring required whenever there is potential for hazardous atmosphere: Work being done may affect air quality Exhaust ventilation is being used to control a hazardous atmosphere Air quality could change based on nature of confined space (e.g.., sewer) Monitors must be explosion proof and equipped with an alarm. EHS recommends continuous monitoring even when not required. Ventilation: Ventilation Forced ventilation is required when: Testing indicates a hazardous atmosphere out of acceptable range There’s a potential for atmospheric conditions to move out of acceptable range The work can cause a hazardous atmosphere, such as welding, cutting, painting, chemical cleaning, etc.... Ventilators/Blowers: Ventilators/Blowers Push clean air in If using a portable generator to power blower, make sure exhaust from generator is positioned downward from the confined space If using an extension cord, use GFCI cord Do not use blowers in enclosed spaces where damaged asbestos exists Performance RequirementsFor Ventilation: Performance Requirements For Ventilation Ventilation may include blowers, fans or other air movers Selection of system will depend on the space size, the gases, vapors, or dusts to be exhausted, and the source of make up air Blowing fresh air into a space usually works best. Performance RequirementsFor Ventilation (Cont.): Performance Requirements For Ventilation (Cont.) Don’t allow discharged air to be re-circulated into the space Ventilation controls must be located a safe distance from the space For potentially explosive or combustible atmospheres, the system must be explosion proof Ventilation system should provide an audible warning to signal a failure. CSE Duties: CSE Duties Permit space entrants Permit space attendants Permit space entry supervisors Permit space rescue team Recognizing Signs and Symptoms: Recognizing Signs and Symptoms Shallow rapid breathing Vision blurred, seeing spots, blackouts Exaggerated sense of feeling good Disorientation Profuse sweating Ringing in the ears Smell of solvents, gases, vapors, etc... Signs and Symptoms (cont.): Signs and Symptoms (cont.) Lips have slippery sweet taste Dryness of the throat Chest pains Change in heart rate Sudden skin irritation Loss of manual dexterity/coordination Weakness in the knees PPE: PPE See Permit listing. Required PPE will vary with the job being performed. Equipment Requirements: Equipment Requirements Equipment needed should be selected on a case by case basis Written procedures will identify minimum equipment requirements The permit includes a checklist for equipment Equipment training session goes into detail Safety Equipment: Safety Equipment You must receive hands-on training in use of equipment RESCUE: RESCUE To facilitate non-entry rescue, retrieval systems or methods shall be used whenever an authorized entrant enters a permit space, unless the retrieval equipment would increase the overall risk of entry or would not contribute to the rescue of the entrant. RESCUE: RESCUE When appropriate, authorized entrants who enter a permit space must wear a chest or full body harness with a retrieval line attached to the center of their backs near shoulder level, or above their heads. The other end of the retrieval line is to be attached to a mechanical device or to a fixed point outside the permit space. A mechanical device must be available to retrieve personnel from vertical type permit spaces more than 5 feet deep. Safety Equipment: Body Harness: Straps which may be secured about an employee in a manner that will distribute the fall arrest forces over at least the thighs, pelvis, waist, chest and shoulders with means for attaching it to other components of a personal fall arrest system Safety Equipment Safety Equipment: Safety Equipment Adjusting harness Your harness must fit and be adjusted correctly in order to work comfortably Safety Equipment: Lanyard: A flexible line used to secure a body belt or body harness to a lifeline or directly to a point of anchorage. Safety Equipment Safety Equipment: Connector: A device used to couple (connect) parts of the personal fall arrest system, such as a carabiner, or it may be an integral component of part of the system (such as a buckle or “D-ring” sewn into a body belt or body harness, or a snap-hook spliced or sewn to a lanyard or self-retracting lanyard.) Carabiners Safety Equipment Safety Equipment: Lifeline: A line provided for direct or indirect attachment to a worker’s body belt, body harness, lanyard or deceleration device. Such lifelines may be horizontal or vertical in application Safety Equipment Retractable life lines Inspection and Calibration: Inspection and Calibration All equipment must be cleaned, inspected, repaired and stored to keep it in a safe serviceable condition. Equipment must be inspected and determined fit for use at the beginning of each job. Rescue ProceduresPermit Spaces: Rescue Procedures Permit Spaces Prior notification of job must be provided to the Stevens Point Fire Department (SPFD) by calling them with the location of the entry and estimated duration. 344-1833. Rescue services for permit spaces is provided by SPFD. Dedicated equipment. Coordination with other emergency services. Non-Entry or non-permit space rescue may be performed by UWSP personnel. RESCUE - MSDS: RESCUE - MSDS In addition, if an injured entrant is exposed to a substance for which a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) or other similar written information is required to be kept at the worksite, that MSDS or other written information must be made available to the medical facility treating the exposed entrant. Contractors: Contractors For a permit space, inform them: What is known about the space and associated hazards Of any special procedures or precautions Of rescue procedures, and Make it clear they are responsible for assessment and necessary precautions Hold debriefing at end of operations Don’t loan equipment unless authorized. Provide program only when asked. They must follow legal CSE standards. Contractors: Contractors When UWSP employees will be working with a contractor in a permit space: Hold a meeting to plan the entry. Establish uniform and understood entry procedures to minimize hazards following all requirements. Audits: Audits Reviewed and updated as needed to keep it current and accurate At least once/year using canceled permits or if other problems arise. Jobs audited on a periodic, ongoing basis to ensure correct procedures are being followed Questions??: Questions?? If you saw someone in a confined space would you enter to rescue them? What percentage of would-be rescuers die in confined space rescue attempts? Can conditions inside a confined space change after a job begins? Who would we call for CS rescue? Summary: Summary Other Questions. EHS available to assist in specific department training/procedures as needed. Contact Jeff Karcher at 2320 for assistance or additional questions.