Published on December 3, 2007
Current Issues in Food Preservation: Current Issues in Food Preservation by Martha Stone, Ph.D. Mary Schroeder, M.S., R.D. Colorado State University Cooperative Extension Desktop Training June 21, 2006 Overview: Overview Jams and Jellies Without added sugar With sucralose or Splenda® Using Clear Jel Review on tomato canning USDA recommendations Salsa Food Processing Support Services Jams and Jellies: Jams and Jellies Traditional products either made with: 1. No added pectin (natural pectin in fruit or juice) i.e. Long Boil Method 2. Added pectin (dry or liquid) Regular Modified Require certain amounts of sugar and acid to gel Too little sugar can allow yeasts and molds to grow Artificial Sweeteners (like Splenda®) cannot be used! Traditional Jams and Jellies:Ingredients: Traditional Jams and Jellies: Ingredients Pectin Stabilized in juice by : Water shell Negative charge May be naturally in fruit or added Acid Adds positive charge May be in fruit or added Sugar Dehydrating agent; removes water shell from pectin Added ingredient 65% sugar concentration in hot syrup Preservative; allows for short processing in boiling water bath Pectin and Acid Proportions: Pectin and Acid Proportions Testing Pectin: Allow ¾ cup sugar per cup juice/fruit To test pectin, measure 1/3 cup fruit/juice and ¼ c. sugar in saucepan. Bring to rapid boil, until sheets from spoon Pour into clean hot glass and cool. If jelly-like, will gel. Pectin and Acid Proportions: Pectin and Acid Proportions Testing Acidity: Heat to boiling: 1 tsp. lemon juice, 3 T. water and 1/2 tsp. sugar. Compare by tasting fruit to mixture. If fruit isn’t as tart, add 1 T. lemon juice to each cup fruit/juice Traditional Jams and Jellies:Method: Traditional Jams and Jellies: Method Prepare jars and lids Prepare fruit/ extract juice Add ingredients Acid Commercial pectin (liquid or powder) Sugar Boil to 65% sugar concentration Endpoint temperature (8◦F higher than boiling point of water) Timing (when pectin is added) Fill and seal containers (1/4 “ headspace) Process in boiling water bath Scenario #1: Scenario #1 Someone brings you a freshly made jelly sample with sugar crystals? What is the most likely cause? Scenario #2: Scenario #2 Someone brings you a traditional jelly that did not set up properly (i.e. no gel formed). What are possible reasons? Function of Sugar: Function of Sugar Gel formation Preserving agent Adds flavor When remove sugar: Changes in consistency (melting point) Texture changes (some like jello!) Flavor It is challenging to get the same quality product when sugar is removed ! Scenario #3: Scenario #3 Someone in your county calls you. She has used her grandmother’s recipe for making strawberry preserves (with fruit and sugar only) for many years. Since she was recently diagnosed with diabetes, she wants to reduce the sugar in this recipe. Can she do this? What would you tell her? Jellied Products without added Sugar : Jellied Products without added Sugar 4 Methods: 1. Long-Boil Method 2. Regular Pectin with Special Recipes 3. Special Modified Pectins 4. Recipes using Gelatin Jellied Products withoutadded Sugar: Jellied Products without added Sugar Long-Boil Method Boiling fruit pulp for extended periods of time Will make product thicken and resemble a jam, preserve, or fruit butter Artificial sweetener may be added Example: apple butter Use processing times for canning fruit! i.e. Apple butter- traditional vs. no sugar Jellied Products withoutadded Sugar: Jellied Products without added Sugar Regular Pectin with Special Recipes Formulated so that no added sugar is needed Contain some sugar Artificial sweetener is often added Pectin packages of different brands vary in weight from 1.75 to 2 ounces Best to use recipes enclosed in package! Jellied Products without Added Sugar: Jellied Products without Added Sugar Special Modified Pectins (Low Methoxyl Pectins) Follow directions on package Some products made with less sugar; some with artificial sweeteners Sure Jell TIP: To enhance the sweetness and color of the jam – prepare as directed, substituting 1 thawed can (12 oz.) frozen white grape juice or apple juice concentrate in place of the water. Making Pectin Jam or Jelly without Sugar: Making Pectin Jam or Jelly without Sugar Modified (low methoxyl) pectin must be used Pectin has “no sugar needed” on label Require divalent ions such as Ca++ or Mg++ to form gel Ions usually added to the pectin (as purchased) Ca++ powder may be in separate packet in box and added in an additional step Sometimes gums are added to pectin mixtures for texture Non-nutritive sweeteners added for flavor Low Methoxyl Pectins: Low Methoxyl Pectins “Light” “Less sugar” “Low sugar” “No sugar needed” Brands available in this area: Ball Fruit Jell Sure-Jell MCP Mail Order: Mrs. Wages Lite Home Jell Pomona’s Pectin Jellied Products withoutadded Sugar: Jellied Products without added Sugar Recipes Using Gelatin (instead of pectin) Unflavored gelatin is the “thickener” Artificial sweetener is often added Cannot be heat processed Used for making refrigerator/freezer jams and jellies Lots of Interest in Using Splenda®: Lots of Interest in Using Splenda® Used in place of sugar in making low calorie: Baked goods Jams/Jellies Pie Fillings Will discuss the trade-offs in using Splenda® in food preservation. What is Splenda® (Sucralose) ?: What is Splenda® (Sucralose) ? Splenda® Brand Sweetener = Sucralose No-calorie sweetener Approved for use in 80+ countries Approved in the U.S. since 1998 No warning is required extensively studied for safety Chemical Structure: Chemical Structure Sucrose and Sucralose Market Forms of Sucralose: Market Forms of Sucralose Splenda ® Granular Only form for use in food preservation = 96 kcals/cup vs. Sugar =770 kcals/cup Splenda ® Sugar Blend for Baking Bake with half the sugar Splenda ® Brown Sugar Blend Bake with half the sugar Splenda ® No Calorie Sweetener Packets, pouches 600 times sweeter than sugar Characteristics: Characteristics Largely unabsorbed Not broken down for energy or to smaller compounds Does not de-chlorinate Eliminated quickly Non carcinogenic Highly water soluble; poorly soluble in fats MW=400 (sucrose MW=342) Characteristics: Characteristics Tastes similar to sugar 600 x sweeter than sugar Stable to high temperatures (even UHT pasteurization) Does not caramelize or brown like sugar Long shelf life Stable in acidic media (soft drinks) Stable in dry applications Benefits: Benefits Tastes like sugar (no aftertaste) Heat stable Can help control caloric intake Diabetes (not recognized as sugar or carbohydrate by the body) Does not promote tooth decay Long shelf life Ingredient compatibility (water soluble) Problems with Pectin Jams and Jellies containing Splenda®: Problems with Pectin Jams and Jellies containing Splenda® Regular pectin (HMP) will not gel Must use low methoxyl pectin (LMP) with calcium added Some no-sugar needed pectin still will not gel with Splenda® Granular Best to use recipes that have been tested! Successful Trials at Univ of GA: Successful Trials at Univ of GA Jams/Jellies made using Splenda® and low methoxyl pectins. Pomona’s Universal Pectin Mrs. Wages Lite Home Jell Ball Fruit Jell No Sugar Needed Pectin (All contain monocalcium phosphate which allows the pectin to set without sugar) Read ingredient list! University of GeorgiaSplenda® Trials: University of Georgia Splenda® Trials Tested jams made with red plums, fresh peaches, fresh strawberries, and frozen whole strawberries. Followed same methods for adding Splenda® as suggested for adding sugar Experimented with varying amounts of Splenda® Recommendations Based on Testing Results: Recommendations Based on Testing Results 1.5 cups of Splenda Granular is the right amount to try for recipe quantities given on package inserts Taste differences noted: Mrs. Wages Lite Home Jell products seemed more tart than product made with Ball Fruit Jell Increasing Splenda led to undesirable aftertaste Results: U of GA- Splenda® Jams: Results: U of GA- Splenda® Jams Much lower yield than package inserts suggest! When 1.5 cups Splenda are substituted for up to 3 cups sugar, yield will be decreased For example: Mrs. Wages: Use 5 cups prepared fruit and add 1.5 cups Splenda. Yield = 3 pints instead of suggested 5-6 pints. More like “spreadable fruit” than traditional jam Ball: Use 1.5 cups Splenda. Yield = 4.5 pint jars instead of suggested 6 pints. Results: U of GA - Splenda® Jams: Results: U of GA - Splenda® Jams Inconsistent texture For example: Mrs. Wages products were usually thicker even too stiff in some cases Spreadable fruit (not jam consistency) Results: U of GA - Splenda® Jams: Results: U of GA - Splenda® Jams Trapped air Foam layer in the headspace Color (pale, cloudy) Texture Flavor (after taste-if too much used) Appearance So….can people get desirable or acceptable fruit spreads with Splenda® Granular ? (weigh pros and cons…individual choice) Safety Recommendations for LMP Products containing Splenda®: Safety Recommendations for LMP Products containing Splenda® No storage or shelf life information available Process sealed jars in boiling water bath 10 minutes* at sea level Add 1 minute for each 1000 ft above sea level Refrigerate after opening to minimize changes in flavor, sweetness, and color Refrigerator/Freezer Jelly without added Sugar: Refrigerator/Freezer Jelly without added Sugar Juice Unflavored gelatin Non-nutritive sweetener Liquid = Saccharin Powder = Sucralose Refrigerator Jelly with Splenda®: Refrigerator Jelly with Splenda® Ingredients: 2 packages or 2 tablespoons unflavored gelatin 4 ½ cups bottled unsweetened fruit juice ½ cup Spenda Granular Yield: about 4 half-pints Refrigerator Jelly with Splenda®: Refrigerator Jelly with Splenda® Procedure: Soften gelatin in juice Bring to a rolling boil Boil 1 minute Remove from heat Stir in Splenda® granular Pour into hot, clean jars or plastic refrigerator containers NOT shelf-stable. Store in refrig (1 mo) or freezer Different texture but easy to make! Using Clear Jel ®: Using Clear Jel ® Modified cornstarch-can replace flour, cornstarch or tapioca as a thickener 1 tbsp cornstarch = 1 ½ tbsp Instant clear Jel ® 2 tbsp flour or tapioca = 1 tbsp Instant Clear Jel ® Types of Clear Jel® available Instant Does not require heat to thicken Product will thicken once liquid is added Ie. Instant puddings, gravies, pie fillings Mix w/ equal amounts sugar; stir into food; wait 10 min. Regular Must be heated to thicken Preferred type for products to be canned Jams/jellies, canned pie filling Mix w/ cold H20 before adding to food; heat 10 min. Clear Jel® Advantages: Clear Jel® Advantages Clear in color when cooked Excellent stability Remains smooth Prevents liquid separation and curding after foods have been frozen. Excellent for cream sauces, custard, puddings Clear Jel® Advantages: Clear Jel® Advantages For Jams and Jellies: Less expensive than pectin Sugar can be adjusted without losing jelling capacity Recipes can be doubled, tripled or halved Jam may be frozen or processed in boiling water bath for 10 minutes (plus altitude adj). Clear Jel® in Jams/Jellies: Clear Jel® in Jams/Jellies Not an exact science (small batch 1st) Can use any recipe-if processed 10 min. or frozen Use pint or ½ pint jars Hint: To dissolve more easily in liquid, mix with some sugar before adding to fruit or juice Rule of Thumb: Use 7 tbsp ClearJel ® for cooked jams Use 3 to 4 tbsp ClearJel ® for freezer jams Clear Jel® Resources: Clear Jel® Resources Univ. of GA NCHFP “Purchasing and Using Clear Jel®” www.uga.edu/nchfp/publications/uga/purchasing_using_clearjel.pdf Blue Chip Group, Inc. www.bluechipgroup.net/clearjel.html WSU Skagit County Cooperative Extension “Using Clear Jel ®” including jam recipes: http://skagit.wsu.edu/FAM/publications/using%20clear%20jel%2003.pdf Pectin Resources: Pectin Resources Splenda® website: 3 no-sugar jam recipes using Splenda ® Granular and Sure Jell ® for Low Sugar Recipes at: www.splenda.com Kraft Kitchens: links to no-sugar jam recipes and pectins at: http://www.kraftfoods.com/ Sure Jell ® website: www.kraftfoods.com/surejell/ Pomona’s Universal Pectin Phone and Hotline: 413-772-6816 Mrs. Wages ® Pectins: link to recipes at www.mrswages.com/ Review of Tomato Canning: Review of Tomato Canning Key is having sufficient acidity for safety (to prevent growth of Clostridium Botulinum) Acidity level measured by pH scale Due to variations in natural acidity, tested recipes call for added lemon juice pH Scale: <4.6 needed for safety: pH Scale: <4.6 needed for safety Acidity Test-ND State Univ. : Acidity Test-ND State Univ. North Dakota State University Extension Tested pH levels of 15 varieties of tomatoes and salsa made with and without lemon juice pH of tomatoes (4.93-5.09) pH of salsa with lemon jc (4.09-4.32) pH of salsa without lemon jc (4.72-5.0) Must have pH <4.6 to be safe! http://www.ext.nodak.edu/food/lemnjuic.pdf pH Scale: <4.6 needed for safety: pH Scale: <4.6 needed for safety Tomato Acidification: Tomato Acidification For whole, crushed, or juiced tomatoes: Per quart of tomatoes, add: 2 T. bottled lemon juice OR ½ tsp. citric acid Per Pint: 1 T. bottled lemon juice OR ¼ tsp. citric acid Add directly to jars before filling May want to add sugar to adjust for tartness If don’t acidify, pressure can as a low-acid food. USDA Tomato Canning Directions: USDA Tomato Canning Directions Based on USDA Complete Guide to Home Canning (1994): Crushed Hot pack only. Use cooked quartered tomatoes Whole or halved; with liquid Raw or Hot pack, with boiling water or tomato juice to cover Whole or halved; no added liquid Hot or Raw pack Tomatoes are pushed tightly into jars to create juice as the jar fills Salt is optional USDA Tomato Canning Directions: USDA Tomato Canning Directions Tomato Juice Hot pack only Tomato-Vegetable Juice Blend Hot pack only Add no more than 3 cups vegetables for each 22 lb. tomatoes used. Tomato Sauce Hot pack only Processing times: Water Bath: time per elevation-see chart Pressure Canning: Dial gauge: 10 lb psi + ½ lb/1,000 ft. Weighted gauge: 15 lb psi at 1,000-10,000 ft. What about salsa?: What about salsa? pH is influenced by: Tomato variety, stage of maturity Acidification Added ingredients Questions “Can I change the ingredients in my salsa recipe?” “Can I thicken my salsa with flour or cornstarch? “What about recipes from friends or on the internet?” Use only tested recipes! Risk of C. botulinum not worth the risk. What would you do?: What would you do? John Q. Public has a salsa with corn and black beans. He wants to know if it should be processed in boiling water or steam pressure canned. Recommendation? Did the formula change?: Did the formula change? Enchilada sauce Client stated no formula change Flour as thickener Replaced flour with gum Would this small change in formula cause a change in pH? Why or why not? CSU Food Processing Support Services: CSU Food Processing Support Services Food Processing Support Lab- Dept.FSHN Nutrient Analysis $80 per formula Based on ingredients/formulation provided by client Initial pH screen $15/sample pH testing $108 Based on values from 3 samples from 3 different batches Sample=final product in form sold by client CSU Food Processing Support Services: CSU Food Processing Support Services Water Activity $90 ($30/sample) Samples from 3 different batches Color Assessment $30/sample Shelf-life testing $30 per week of testing 1 week under accelerated conditions = 1 month at room temperature To provide minimum/maximum shelf-life of product Client must provide 10 units/sample evaluation CSU Food Processing Support Services: CSU Food Processing Support Services Product Development Consultation $75/visit Other services: Fees negotiated based on client needs Go to: www.fshn.cahs.colostate.edu/foodsupport.asp/ Denver Enterprise Center, Inc. USDA-approved production facility 3003 Arapahoe St. Denver, CO 80205 1(303) 296-9400 Tested Salsa Recipes: Tested Salsa Recipes Washington State Univ. Extension Publications: www.wsu.edu/ Salsa Recipes for Canning #PNW395 CSU CooperativeExtension Resource Center www.cerc.colostate.edu/ Salsa Recipes for Canning #XCM-149 $2.75 Food Preservation Resources: Food Preservation Resources University of Georgia National Center for Home Food Preservation www.uga.nchfp.org CSU Fact Sheets #9.302 Food Preservation Without Sugar or Salt #9.303 Making Jellies #9.341 Canning Tomatoes and Tomato Products http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/foodnut/pubfood.html#pres Food Preservation Resources: Food Preservation Resources USDA Complete Guide to Home Canning (1994) http://www.uga.edu/nchfp/publications/usda/can_guide_order.html Master Food Safety Advisor Volunteer Training Manual www.cerc.colostate.edu/ ($20) Books Putting Food By Ball Blue Book of Preserving -2005 ($8.50) So Easy to Preserve by Univ. of GA DVD set ($39.95) 5th Edition Book (any time now?) Preserving Food at Home: A Self Study (free online Web-CT modules) http://www.homefoodpreservation.com/ Questions?: Questions?