Published on September 4, 2009
Curriculum Models : Curriculum Models Slide 2: A Definition of Curriculum (Daniel Tanner, 1980) “The planned and guided learning experiences and intended learning outcomes, formulated through the systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experiences, under the auspices of the school, for the learners’ continuous and willful growth in personal social competence.” SUBJECT-CENTERED : SUBJECT-CENTERED Design Model Slide 4: Subject-Centered Curriculum This model focuses on the content of the curriculum. The subject centered design corresponds mostly to the textbook written for the specific subject. Subject-Centered Curriculum : Subject-Centered Curriculum The subject-centered curriculum can be focused on traditional areas in the traditional disciplines interdisciplinary topics that touch on a wide variety of fields on processes such as problem solving on the goal of teaching students to be critical consumers of information. Subject-Centered Curriculum : Subject-Centered Curriculum A curriculum can also be organized around a subject center by focusing on certain processes, strategies, or life-skills, such as problem solving, decision making, or teamwork. Slide 8: In the Philippines, our curricula in any level is also divided in different subjects or courses. Most of the schools using this kind of structure aim for excellence in the subject matter content. Subject-Centered Curriculum Slide 9: Examples of Subject-centered curriculum: 1. Subject Design The drawback of his design is that sometimes learning is so compartmentalized. It stresses so much the content that it forgets about students’ natural tendencies, interest and experiences. 2. Discipline Design Discipline refers to specific knowledge and through a method which the scholars use to study a specific content of their fields. Slide 10: This comes from a core, correlated curriculum design that links separate subject designs in order to reduce fragmentation. Subjects are related to one another but each subject a maintains its identify. 3. Correlation Design Examples of subject-centered curriculum: 4. Broad field design/interdisciplinary This design was made to prevent the compartmentalization of subjects and integrate the contents that are related to each other. Slide 12: Students in history should learn the subject matter like historians, students in biology should learn how biologist learn, and so with students in mathematics should learn how mathematicians learn. The discipline design model of curriculum is often used in college Discipline becomes the degree program. Examples of Subject-centered curriculum: Reflection: : Reflection: Let’s review the following: Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) Secondary Education Development Program (SEDP) College Algebra syllabus What curriculum design(s) do you find? Do your schools support the subject – centered curriculum? Learner-Centered Curriculum : Learner-Centered Curriculum centered on certain aspects of the learners themselves. may explore the learner’s own life or family history or local environment. Learner-Centered Curriculum : Child-centered design (John Dewey, Rouseau, Pestallozi and Froebel ) It is anchored on the needs and interests of the child. The learner is not considered as a passive individual but as one who engages with his/her environment. One learns by doing. Learners interact with the teachers and the environment. Learner-Centered Curriculum Learner-Centered Curriculum : 2. Experience-Centered design Experiences of the learners become the starting point of the curriculum. Thus the school environment is left open and free. Learners are made to choose from various activities that the teacher provides. The learners are empowered to shape their own learning from the different opportunities given by the teacher. Learner-Centered Curriculum Learner-Centered Curriculum : Humanistic design - Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers.Maslow The development of self is the ultimate objective of leaning. It stresses the whole person and the integration of thinking, feeling and doing. It considers the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains to be interconnected and must be addressed in the curriculum. It stresses the development of positive self-concept and interpersonal skills. Learner-Centered Curriculum Advantages: : Advantages: It gives power to the learners: they are identified as the experts in knowing what they need to know. The constructivist element of this approach honors the social and cultural context of the learner. Advantages: : Advantages: It creates a direct link between in-class work and learners' need for literacy outside the classroom. As a result, learners can more easily transfer new skills to day-to-day use (Purcell-Gates, et al., 2001). The immediacy of this transfer of skills at home, at work, and in communities also encourages learner persistence. Disadvantages: : Disadvantages: It often relies on the teacher's ability to create or select materials appropriate to learners' expressed needs. This requires skill on the part of the teacher, as well as time and resources: at a minimum, texts brought in from real life, a wide pool of commercially available materials from which to draw, and a reliable photocopier. Given the reality of teachers' professional preparation and working conditions (Smith, et al., 2001), lack of skill, time and resources makes creating curriculum with this approach difficult. Disadvantages: : Disadvantages: Teachers may also find it difficult to strike an acceptable balance among the competing needs and interests of students. Alternative Methods for a Learner-Centered Curriculum : Alternative Methods for a Learner-Centered Curriculum (These are only suggestions for supplementing your style, not substituting for it) Individualized diagnosis and (some) course objectives Learning contracts Programmed learning sequences Organize structured drills Multi-sensory instructional activities Paired activities Student-designed creative activities Design task cards Small-group activities (in and out of class) Role play Design competitive games Read aloud Design problem solving games Sit on the floor in a circle Focus on team learning/peer teaching Standard lecture Change the seating configurations Teacher demonstrations Alternative Methods for a Learner-Centered Curriculum : Alternative Methods for a Learner-Centered Curriculum (These are only suggestions for supplementing your style, not substituting for it) Go outside or meet in an alternate location Speedwriting Listserve, online forums Computer applications Socratic dialogue (question-answer-deeper question) Chunk knowledge and connect chunks to make “big picture” Multimedia presentations (film, CDs, audio-tapes, animated graphics) Student presentations (encourage multi-sensory supports) Cancel class and meet students individually Present multiple invention and discovery techniques (brainstorming, clustering, freewriting, idea letters, graph and object relationships, meditations, dreams, art, etc.) Split Page (key phrases on one side, commentary on other) Color code ideas in documents and lesson plans (already known, yet-to-learn, still negotiating) Reverse question (look at answers and solutions first; create a question that it answers next) Treat objective questions an essay questions Reflection: : Reflection: Let’s review the following: Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) Secondary Education Development Program (SEDP) College Algebra syllabus What curriculum design(s) do you find? Do your schools support the learner – centered curriculum? Problem-Centered Curriculum : Problem-Centered Curriculum Problem-centered curriculum, or problem based learning, organizes subject matter around a problem, real or hypothetical, that needs to be solved. Problem-Centered Curriculum : Problem-centered curriculum is inherently engaging and authentic, because the students have a real purpose to their inquiry -- solving the problem. Problem-Centered Curriculum Problem-Centered Curriculum : Types of problems to be explored may include: Life situations involving real problems of practice Problems that revolve around life at a given school Problems selected from local issues Philosophical or moral problems Problem-Centered Curriculum Problem-Centered Curriculum : 1. Life-situations design It uses the past and present experiences of learners as a means to analyze the basic areas of living. As a starting point, the pressing immediate problems of the society and the student’s existing concerns are utilized. Based on Herbert Spencer’s curriculum writing, his emphases were activities that sustain life, enhance life, and in rearing children, maintain the individual’s social and political relations and enhance leisure, tasks and feelings. The connection of subject matter to real situations increases the relevance of the curriculum. Problem-Centered Curriculum Problem-Centered Curriculum : 2. Core design It centers on general education and the problems are based on common human activities. The central focus of the core design includes common needs, problems, concerns, of the learners. Problem-Centered Curriculum Reflection: : Reflection: Let’s review the following: Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) Secondary Education Development Program (SEDP) College Algebra syllabus What curriculum design(s) do you find? Do your schools support the problem – centered curriculum? Slide 34: Curriculum Development Models These are based on a body of theory about teaching and learning. These are targeted to needs & characteristics of a particular group of learners. Outline approaches, methods, & procedures for implementation. Slide 35: Curriculum Development Models Deductive Models: Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis’s Tyler’s Inductive Model: 3. Taba’s model Slide 36: Models of Curriculum Development The Taba Model Taba took what is known as a grass-roots approach to curriculum development. She believed that the curriculum should be designed by the teachers rather than handed down by higher authority. Further, she felt that teachers should begin the process by creating teaching-learning units for their students in their schools rather initially in creating a general curriculum design. Slide 37: Models of Curriculum Development The Taba Model an inductive approach to curriculum development, starting with specifics and building up to a general design Slide 38: The Taba Model Five-Step Sequence. Producing pilot units - linking theory and practice a.) Diagnosis of Needs b.) Formulation of Objectives c.) Selection of Content d.) Organization of Content e.) Selection of Learning Experiences f.) Organization of Learning Activities g.) Determination of what to evaluate and of the ways and means of doing it h.) Checking for Balance and Sequence Slide 39: Five-Step Sequence (cont.): Testing Experimental Units Revising and consolidating Developing a Framework Installing and disseminating new units. The Taba Model Slide 40: GOALS & OBJECTIVES CURRICULUM DESIGNING Decisions as to design(s) made by the responsible curriculum planning group(s) for a particular educational center. Various prior decisions by political and social agencies may limit the final design(s). CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION (Instruction)Decisions as to instructional modes made by responsible teacher(s). The curriculum plan includes alternative modes with suggestions as to resources, media, and organization, thus encouraging flexibility and more freedom for the teacher(s) and students. CURRICULUM EVALUATION Decisions as to evaluative procedures for determining learner progress made by the responsible teacher(s). Decisions as to evaluative procedures for evaluating the curriculum. Plans are made by the responsible planning group. Evaluative data become bases for decision making in further planning. Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis’s conception of the curriculum planning process: Slide 41: Models of Curriculum Development The Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis Model Curriculum: “a plan for providing sets of learning opportunities for persons to be educated.” Curriculum planners begin by specifying the major educational goals and specific objectives they wish to be accomplished. Slide 42: Models of Curriculum Development The best or one of the best known models for curriculum development with special attention to planning phases is Ralph W. Tyler’s in his classic little book, Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. The Tyler Model Slide 43: The Tyler Model of Curriculum Design The nature and structure of knowledge The needs of the society The needs of the learner Tyler: Fundamental Questions in Developing Curriculum : Tyler: Fundamental Questions in Developing Curriculum What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? How can we determine whether and to what extent these purposes are being attained? Reflection: : Reflection: On what bases would you choose a model for curriculum development? Who should decide which model for curriculum development to follow? Is the Tyler rationale a suitable basis for current curriculum development?