Danmark Project

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Published on August 3, 2014

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Project On M.A.P.E.H: Project On M. A. P. E. H Name: Danmark A Badrina <3 <3 Sec/Grade : 9-C Techear ; Ms Mery Ann Manzano PowerPoint Presentation: The Medieval Period The Renainssances And The Baroque Period Medieval Period: Medieval Period Composer Of Medieva Period: Composer Of Medieva Period Johann Sebastian Bach Characteristics of medieval Period: Characteristics of medieval Period The motet was based on the work of Leonin and Perotin , two medieval French composers from the Notre Dame Church in France. Around the 1200s, they added multiple vocal parts to what was previously a single line of church chant. The motet was even more complex, with additional vocal parts being sung along with previously existing chant. These additional vocal parts started as short repeating patterns, as is heard here. Over time, the rhythms became longer and more complex. The text of the motet also became more and more complex. Along with the original chant, Latin or French text was added. Near the end of the period, this included both sacred and secular text. Composer Of Renainssances: Composer Of Renainssances Thomas Tallis Characteristics of Renaissance Period: Characteristics of Renaissance Period Renaissance music  is music written in Europe during the  Renaissance . Consensus among music historians – with notable dissent – has been to start the era around 1400, with the end of the  medieval  era, and to close it around 1600, with the beginning of the  Baroque  period, therefore commencing the musical Renaissance about a hundred years after the beginning of the Renaissance as understood in other disciplines. As in the other arts, the music of the period was significantly influenced by the developments which define the  Early Modern  period: the rise of  humanistic  thought; the recovery of the literary and artistic heritage of ancient Greece and Rome; increased innovation and discovery; the growth of commercial enterprise; the rise of a bourgeois  class; and the  Protestant Reformation . From this changing society emerged a common, unifying musical language, in particular the  polyphonic  style of the  Franco-Flemish  school. The development of  printing  made distribution of music possible on a wide scale. Demand for music as entertainment and as an activity for educated amateurs increased with the emergence of a bourgeois class. Dissemination of  chansons ,  motets , and masses  throughout Europe coincided with the unification of polyphonic practice into the fluid style which culminated in the second half of the sixteenth century in the work of composers such as  Palestrina ,  Lassus ,  Victoria  and  William Byrd . Relative political stability and prosperity in the  Low Countries , along with a flourishing system of music education in the area's many churches and cathedrals, allowed the training of hundreds of singers and composers. These musicians were highly sought throughout Europe, particularly in Italy, where churches and aristocratic courts hired them as composers and teachers. By the end of the 16th century, Italy had absorbed the northern influences, with  Venice ,  Rome , and other cities being centers of musical activity, reversing the situation from a hundred years earlier.  Opera  arose at this time in Florence as a deliberate attempt to resurrect the music of ancient Greece. [1] Music, increasingly freed from medieval constraints, in range, rhythm, harmony, form, and notation, became a vehicle for personal expression. Composers found ways to make music expressive of the texts they were setting. Secular music absorbed techniques from sacred music, and vice versa. Popular secular forms such as the chanson and madrigal spread throughout Europe. Courts employed virtuoso performers, both singers and instrumentalists. Music for the first time became self-sufficient, existing for its own sake. Many familiar modern instruments, including the violin, the guitar, and keyboard instruments, were born during the Renaissance. During the 15th century the sound of full triads became common, and towards the end of the 16th century the system of  church modes  began to break down entirely, giving way to the  functional tonality  which was to dominate western art music for the next three centuries. Composer Of Baroque Period: Composer Of Baroque Period George Frideric Handel Characteristic Of Baroque Period: Characteristic Of Baroque Period The Basso Continuo (Figured Bass):  Figured Bass is a sort of musical shorthand that provides a framework for playing the bass line of the piece. The bass parts were usually played by the string bass along with either the harpsichord or the organ, which also played an improvised chord part. While most of the orchestra played parts that were written out note-by-note, the basso continuo was simply sketched out in a Figured Bass notation.  One mood throughout the entire piece:  This is called the  Doctrine of Affections . Composers in the Baroque period attempted to communicate pure emotion in their music. There was nothing autobiographical in their compositions, meaning that a composer never tried to write a “happy” song because he was happy that day. Rather, they were trying to write music that perfectly expressed the range of human emotions.  Important String sections:  During the Medieval period, the human voice was the predominate instrument and nearly all music was written for voice. Gregorian chants had no accompaniment. The motets and madrigals of this period had some accompaniment, usually an organ or harpsichord. However, Baroque composers began giving greater attention to the violin, viola, cello and string bass and wrote many pieces that brought these instruments to the forefront of the orchestra.  Modes were replaced by the Major/Minor key system:  Medieval music was written in modes that did not allow for changes from one mode to another. If a song started in Mode 1, it ended in Mode 1 with no possible way to shift to Mode 2. With the invention of the Major and Minor key system, it became possible for composers to modulate from one key to another related key.  Many different forms are used (e.g. Binary, Fugue):  Chants, motets and madrigals were written in a single form and allowed for very little variations. Baroque music was a time of experimentation and expansion. Composers began writing pieces in many forms, most of which followed some kind of fast-slow-fast format. Binary music was two forms, fast and slow. Fugues were complex and complicated variations on a single melody that build organically from that single melody into rich and varied musical tapestries.  Many types of music, e.g. The Chorale, Opera, the Dance Suite:  Prior to the Baroque period, most music was written exclusively for use in religious services. Some these pieces, the masses, were formed in such a way to allow for very little experimentation or variation. As the Baroque progressed, musicians began writing more and more religious music for use in services other than the mass. Secular music, pieces written either for royalty and the courts or for the general public, became popular during the Baroque period. Baroque composers wrote thousands of pieces for both sacred and secular use.  Energetic rhythms (Exuberance), long melodies, many ornaments, contrasts (especially dynamics, but also in timbres):  The music of the Medieval period; chants, motets and madrigals, was mostly slow and fairly uniform in style and mood. The voice still dominated as the main instrument, with a few harpsichords and organs thrown in as accompaniment. That changed dramatically in the Baroque as composers began experimenting with new rhythmic structures, long complicated melodies, trills and other musical ornaments and a wide variety of contrasts, both dynamically (volume) and in the timbre, or texture, of the music. 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