david simek

Information about david simek

Published on September 17, 2007

Author: Techy_Guy

Source: authorstream.com

Content

DEER SKIN TANNING WITH A PRODUCT FOCUSDavid SimekSimco Leather Corporation:  DEER SKIN TANNING WITH A PRODUCT FOCUS David Simek Simco Leather Corporation Today, I would like to address two topics: the procedures of tanning exotic leathers, specifically deer, and the viability and the future of exotic leather and the future of exotic leather markets in the U.S. Simco Leather was founded in 1960 as a family business on a new and environmentally clean site in Johnstown, New York. We would come to realize the importance of this in the 1980’s when regulatory and monitoring procedures were required by the government. Slide2:  Initially, we had 4 employees and a 5,000 square foot building. Over the years, we have grown to 62,000 square feet with a 15,000 square feet warehouse with approximately 30 to 40 employees varying with seasonal production. In the `60’s, we processed sheep from Iran for garment leather as well as some cow hide for garments and handbags. Do to changes in the marketplace and the Iranian embargo, we expanded to include processing deer, suedes, and other apparel leathers along with military leathers. Today, deer production is approximately 50% of our total. Tanning Process With the following slides you can see the processes we use at Simco Leather. For those of you who are in the tanning industry or are familiar with tanning this will be just a rerun of what you already know. For the others who have not been involved in this industry it will help explain some of the complexities of making deer and other exotics into fine leather. Slide3:  Our deer warehouse will contain up to 80,000 hides at one time. Seasonally, we process over a quarter of a million hides. Since deer harvesting takes place in the fall and winter during hunting season, we must have a capacity to store these hides safely throughout the winter. By the end of June, all of the deer will be processed at least to the pickle stage. The first step is to trim the hides to remove non-essential parts and to cull poor or damaged hides for special treatment. This is a typical white-tailed deer from the mid-western states. These are the largest found in the U. S. The first week of production is involved in the removal of unwanted proteins and fats from the hides that cannot be made into leather. The 'beam shop' procedures are the preparation steps for the tanning which is to follow. Slide4:  These two pictures are of the soak bays. They are used for re-hydration of hides. Soaps, alkalis and fungicides are added during this stage to retard bacteria growth and to begin breaking down natural fats in the hides. Earlier, we used tanks or drums to soak. They were too labor intensive. By using the soak bays, handling was reduced by 50%. After 24 to 48 hours of soaking, fleshing is the next step. Here we remove the flesh from the hides so chemicals in the next step will penetrate the skin properly. Most animal hides can be un-haired by placing them in a paddle or drum with chemicals to dissolve the hair. Deer has to be handled differently because of its sensitive grain and the problems of floatation caused by the hollow hair. Keeping them underwater is a major problem. Our soak bays have 1/4' chains every 3 feet to hold down the soaking raw hides. My first experience, about 20 years ago, I had to improvise because we Slide5:  did not have the proper equipment. I placed the hides in a paddle, put plywood over the top, and wedged 2x6’s to the ceiling. I added water and chemicals and went home. Several hour later, I got a call from the plant to come back. The 2x6's had literally raised the roof due to the pressure from the floating hides. Following the fleshing, un-hairing chemicals are sprayed on the flesh side and then the hides are piled overnight. The chemicals are absorbed and the hair follicle sufficiently weakened to allow mechanical removal of the hair. By removing hair in this way, we can use it as a by-product for horse padding and collars which are manufactured by the Amish or for padding for hockey uniforms manufactured in Canada. After the hair is removed the hides are placed in a paddle with a weak lime and sulfide solution for 24 hours. After they are removed from the paddle, they are fleshed a second time. Slide6:  The last step in the 'beam shop' is the bating and pickling procedure. An enzyme is added to remove the protein elastin and clean the residual hair scud. This is one of the most critical points of production. Enzymatic strength is very temperature and time sensitive. A 5o temperature difference can either double or reduce by one-half its active strength. A process time variation of 5 to 10 minutes can also result in too much or too little bating with a resulting piece of leather that is not suitable for its desired end use. At this point, sulfuric acid and salt are added. The hides are now in the pickled state. From the point of re-hydration, approximately 4 days prior to this step, the process is continuous. The chemicals added to perform their functions must be deactivated by pH or temperature change as in the bate, or rinsed clear as in the lime and sulfide stage but continued to the next stage without stopping until pickled. We process some deer which are transported to us from New Zealand and Australia in the pickle. As long as temperatures never exceed 90o F or is diluted by fresh water, the hides can be held for long periods of time. Slide7:  After a period of 7 to 14 days of storage to achieve a uniform pH, the hides are ready for tanning. Chromium is used to tan with supplemental additions of replacement syntans and resins to enhance the unique grain characteristics. The hides are dried after tanning by first wringing excess water from them and then hanging them individually in a tunnel dryer for 24 hours. On the right you can see a pile of deer hides that have just been taken down from hanging. Those of you who experienced the feel of clothes dried on a clothes line can appreciate the need for this next step. We now have to dampen the leather and let it rest for another 24 hours. Heat is generated by dampening and piling. Slide8:  We then mill the hides in a dry drum until soft. Once softened, the hides are stretched on a staking machine. We have three different types of staking machine: the first is a multi-step machine designed and built locally, The second and third are feed-through machines, one from Italy, And the other from Czechoslovakia. Following staking, the hides are ready to be graded and sorted into different categories for quality and size depending on their final use, such as shoes, garments, gloves, or work gloves. After grading, the hides are split to level thickness. Without this procedure, manufacturers could not achieve straight, even seams. Large hides will produce a second, less valuable, but saleable split from the bottom half of the hide. Deer splits are used for clothing, gloves, and other small leather goods. Slide9:  Coloring and finishing is determined by the customer’s end use. Custom coloring is a highly skilled craft and requires an artistic sensibility as well as the technical knowledge to address the range of customers’ needs. In addition to creating hundreds of color variations, the leather may also have to meet the need for sheen, firmness, flame retardant, water and perspiration resistance and other use-specific characteristics. This slide shows just our current custom colors being made for the month of April this year. Drying procedures are the same as in the tanning stages but an added process of toggling is sometimes used to stretch and firm the hides. Final trimming to customers’ specifications brings the hides to completion. Slide10:  We also must remember that hides are purchased by the unit (per hide) and sold, after finishing, by the square foot or square meter. This slide is of our measuring machine or 'cash register' as we refer to it. It is the last step before shipping. Also, not to be overlooked is the importance of machine maintenance. The hardware we utilize in all of these processes can be just as critical to producing a quality product as the skills of the tanners and the formulations. Along with normal production equipment, we utilize small sample paddles and drums for research andamp; development or processing one-of-a-kind hides for trophies or exotic leathers. Over the years we have tanned everything from a yak with the hair on for a mountain climber in Nepal to a 200 pound bison hide which was a blue ribbon winner at a state fair. Some of these unique items have led to new customers, some have not. Slide11:  Our ostrich tanning started this way - after 10 years of working with small numbers of ostrich, we were asked to assist in a joint ostrich program in South Korea. American ostrich has the potential to become a profitable domestic leather, so we continue to support it as much as time allows us. This last slide is one which I take exceptional pride in. Our state’s Business Review wrote an article last year about the elevation of Simco’s six department managers to company shareholders and managing partners. Now, I’d like to share some thoughts about building an industry in exotic leathers. As you saw from our slides, the manufacture of fine leather from a wild animal is an intricate and complicated process. Some factors that occur in its production are not a consideration in packing house hides. Proper curing, storage, flaying or hide removal can detract from the final quality but cannot be controlled by the tanner or the purchaser. We can go to all the extra work to make a quality product but if markets are not there we still do not have a viable industry. Slide12:  Let’s look at some of the things which have to be in place to be successful in the deer industry. 1. The raw hides should be readily available and as consistently uniform as possible. 2. The market must be researched to find a niche for the product. Small processors must find a manufactured product that is either overlooked or deemed unprofitable by large multi-national corporations. Products that are usually not produced by large companies include those that have too small production runs, too small profit margins, too tight time frames, or which demand too much attention to detail. 3. At each stage, from farm production to slaughtering, tanning, and manufacturing, we all must be diligently cost-conscious, or we will drive the end cost too high. Simco Leather is profitable in spite of massive changes in domestic leather production, very expensive regulatory mandates, union wages and benefits, and ever increasing chemical and equipment costs. Slide13:  To give you some examples of the above: a) Fashions in the apparel industry change with the seasons and frequently in mid-season. Samples that are submitted will not all be in demand for a production run, however, those that are well received by the buyers will have to be produced in a short time frame. b) Smaller operations can economically produce small runs of specialty items which can not be done by large volume manufacturers. As an example, Simco spends more than $1,000 a week on BASF chemicals, however, our volume is not sufficiently high enough for BASF to sell to us directly. Their costs to administer our account make it prohibitive. For small accounts like ours, BASF has to use an independent distributor. c) If the production is domestic, the time frame is much less than from a Pacific Rim area and makes domestic contracts feasible for small producers. Conversely, small operators cannot compete successfully with standard colors and finishes for high volume Slide14:  leathers. Typically they are the black and brown jacket leathers, pig suedes, white athletic shoe leather, etc. These products can have a manufacturer’s lead time of 6 to 9 months and are being produced in countries with lower wage structures, less environmental restrictions and all the other factors that make large scale, low skill production hugely profitable for multi-nationals. d) There is no area in our tannery that has not been made more efficient in the past decade. In addition, we never stop looking at ways to partner with others to get the job done better, faster, or cheaper depending on what is being demanded by the customer. If we neglect any area of production, we risk our profitability. After being in business for 40 years, it is apparent to me that in the future, our large U.S. corporations will be heavily invested in the service sectors, emerging technologies, and finance. Smokestack industries will be secondary and most operations relegated to third Slide15:  world countries. Small companies, like mine, will have to be committed to highly specialized fields filling niche markets such as fashion and military leathers or those which require extra care and a higher level of skills than can be attained in large-volume operations. Exotic leather fits all of these general parameters. Our area of New York had been active in tanning Texas deer for many years but with the move of glove leather production and manufacturing overseas, it completely stopped. The small size of Texas deer makes it uncompetitive to northern white-tail in the traditional deer markets. Texas deer promoters will have to develop new markets within the limitations of the product. Slide16:  Three areas come to mind immediately: chamois leather, foil-faced, and printed leather. All of these can be used with hides which have grain defects to produce a quality product. Texas deer sold to China gains some return on investment but selling retail instead of wholesale ultimately will produce a larger profit margin which may mean the difference between success and failure in the long run. In less than two decades, Simco has watched some of our customers go from 95o domestic manufacturing and 5% imports to just the opposite. The majority of our leather is going to be manufactured into products abroad and imported back into this country. However, our area supports several, highly successful manufacturing operations. Some sewing operations are done in the mid-Atlantic states, but custom work is still done locally. We’ve seen large volume, high end leather manufacturers move to offshore facilities, move again to Pacific Rim countries, and ultimately go out of business. Success does not always follow cheap overhead. Slide17:  One good idea with the proper groundwork, can create a profitable business. Chamois, which I mentioned earlier, is selling in catalogs and automotive centers for up to $20.00 a square foot. Normally, nowhere on the packaging does it mention what type of hide is used to create this chamois. Traditionally it has been an end-use for poor grained sheep, but some of the finest chamois I’ve produced is from deerskin. Foils and prints which are applied to leather are another unique product with endless possibilities in the fashion industry. I’ve brought some samples of these with me. Although not all of these are in demand at this time, it does give one an idea of potential uses. Recently, we developed a nonchrome-tanned leather. which replicates brain-tanned leather used by Native Americans. This is being made into Native American products being sold through Slide18:  their casinos all across the country. We learned of this tannage through a university seminar, years ago, in Regina, Canada. The aldehyde tannage mimics the incomplete combustion or 'smoky' tannage of the past. In my experience, there is no one, big solution to establishing a domestic industry in exotic leather, but a series of small solutions. An example of an exotic leather business getting off to the wrong start, in may opinion was the ostrich industry. The ranchers we’ve done business with have been pursuing contracts with U.S. boot manufacturers. If this market had been properly researched, I’m sure that most ranchers would have seen that the lack of uniformity of their hides would be a deterrent to a large volume buyer. Even if a hide seller had a decent inventory of grade ones and twos, without an outlet for the balance of their inventory, it wouldn’t be long before they were out of business or in a serious cash shortfall. The variety of ostrich breeds and mixes across the Slide19:  country and even within the same flocks, demands national standards before the industry can truly move forward. The exotic deer industry can learn valuable lessons from these mis-steps. Basically, each region of the country will have different resources, different contacts, and different outlets. The successes in one area will enhance the chances of success for those in another. The key is not to lose sight of the goal which is to establish farm-raised deer as a quality leather. An industry starts by sharing knowledge as we are doing here today - and I’m very pleased to have been asked to contribute to your conference.

Related presentations


Other presentations created by Techy_Guy

Character Analysis
04. 01. 2008
0 views

Character Analysis

Roosevelt and Latin America
22. 10. 2007
0 views

Roosevelt and Latin America

S10 Processor Performance
17. 09. 2007
0 views

S10 Processor Performance

Hawaiian Humpback Whale
17. 09. 2007
0 views

Hawaiian Humpback Whale

rainforest
02. 10. 2007
0 views

rainforest

Comvalid BGPsentinel
07. 10. 2007
0 views

Comvalid BGPsentinel

PETERPAN
10. 10. 2007
0 views

PETERPAN

across crocodile lake
11. 10. 2007
0 views

across crocodile lake

MLM basic info
12. 10. 2007
0 views

MLM basic info

VortragRichter
15. 10. 2007
0 views

VortragRichter

azerbaijan
15. 10. 2007
0 views

azerbaijan

ch02jjm
19. 10. 2007
0 views

ch02jjm

PRNAV Eurocontrol presentation
19. 10. 2007
0 views

PRNAV Eurocontrol presentation

Hakkarainen 091104
17. 09. 2007
0 views

Hakkarainen 091104

Extreme Ostrich2
17. 09. 2007
0 views

Extreme Ostrich2

Soy Protein in Baking
04. 10. 2007
0 views

Soy Protein in Baking

McMurrenTidbits
23. 10. 2007
0 views

McMurrenTidbits

Larijani stemcell ABA2007 Final
24. 10. 2007
0 views

Larijani stemcell ABA2007 Final

F Gauze
24. 10. 2007
0 views

F Gauze

TornadoSafetyAMS
07. 10. 2007
0 views

TornadoSafetyAMS

nii report
09. 10. 2007
0 views

nii report

NS102 3a S07 Fighting Sail
21. 10. 2007
0 views

NS102 3a S07 Fighting Sail

am0845 Khanna
16. 11. 2007
0 views

am0845 Khanna

culturechange
10. 12. 2007
0 views

culturechange

Jeopardy
29. 10. 2007
0 views

Jeopardy

masstheory
02. 11. 2007
0 views

masstheory

Finnish Chemicals information
21. 08. 2007
0 views

Finnish Chemicals information

zodiac
21. 08. 2007
0 views

zodiac

ICT Expo Presentation
21. 08. 2007
0 views

ICT Expo Presentation

words alive notes
21. 08. 2007
0 views

words alive notes

notes 13
21. 08. 2007
0 views

notes 13

200612011440150 ser mama
01. 10. 2007
0 views

200612011440150 ser mama

t5f2
07. 11. 2007
0 views

t5f2

PHYS 124 lt 2
13. 11. 2007
0 views

PHYS 124 lt 2

Localization days1 2
14. 11. 2007
0 views

Localization days1 2

Barlow
15. 11. 2007
0 views

Barlow

CEO breakfast Mar
16. 11. 2007
0 views

CEO breakfast Mar

SEVESO II 28 04 2003 d jansen
23. 11. 2007
0 views

SEVESO II 28 04 2003 d jansen

farawayplaces quiz
31. 10. 2007
0 views

farawayplaces quiz

lino hospitalstay 2005
28. 12. 2007
0 views

lino hospitalstay 2005

eno
05. 10. 2007
0 views

eno

Destinos Tradicionale
22. 10. 2007
0 views

Destinos Tradicionale

El Karib Hagmann 2001 HEKS ACORD
23. 10. 2007
0 views

El Karib Hagmann 2001 HEKS ACORD

Bioceramics
05. 01. 2008
0 views

Bioceramics

dennis
07. 01. 2008
0 views

dennis

DNR wetland benefits
07. 01. 2008
0 views

DNR wetland benefits

Norm Wright Presentation06
17. 09. 2007
0 views

Norm Wright Presentation06

Tudor Sports
21. 08. 2007
0 views

Tudor Sports

watson 2006
21. 08. 2007
0 views

watson 2006

IBM Presentation Roel Spee
24. 10. 2007
0 views

IBM Presentation Roel Spee

75thWinter Silver
02. 08. 2007
0 views

75thWinter Silver

Revay Presentation
17. 09. 2007
0 views

Revay Presentation

week12 f03
17. 09. 2007
0 views

week12 f03

Ch12 ResolutionTheoremPro ving
17. 09. 2007
0 views

Ch12 ResolutionTheoremPro ving

INFOCOM99
05. 10. 2007
0 views

INFOCOM99

RoHS Presentation3 May
12. 10. 2007
0 views

RoHS Presentation3 May

Botany
07. 12. 2007
0 views

Botany

Week6February20 07
20. 02. 2008
0 views

Week6February20 07

Microcosmo Parte II
12. 10. 2007
0 views

Microcosmo Parte II

TSW
29. 02. 2008
0 views

TSW

HazMat Flow Study
26. 02. 2008
0 views

HazMat Flow Study

Vegetarian Nutrition 101
04. 03. 2008
0 views

Vegetarian Nutrition 101

White 10th Inter mountain
21. 08. 2007
0 views

White 10th Inter mountain

hondaimobil
02. 01. 2008
0 views

hondaimobil

Cfi
10. 03. 2008
0 views

Cfi

Timber Bridge Presentation
01. 01. 2008
0 views

Timber Bridge Presentation

carstenschymik
29. 12. 2007
0 views

carstenschymik

Ch 22 WB
07. 04. 2008
0 views

Ch 22 WB

Macroclean
10. 04. 2008
0 views

Macroclean

agingandwork
13. 04. 2008
0 views

agingandwork

nyBrazeau
14. 04. 2008
0 views

nyBrazeau

presentation total
16. 04. 2008
0 views

presentation total

3 Tufano2002
17. 04. 2008
0 views

3 Tufano2002

Chapter 18
18. 04. 2008
0 views

Chapter 18

Baltic states and Russia
12. 10. 2007
0 views

Baltic states and Russia

quotes
03. 10. 2007
0 views

quotes

WDR 2008
29. 11. 2007
0 views

WDR 2008

CHLA PSRS Overview
30. 04. 2008
0 views

CHLA PSRS Overview

15 UKernel
02. 05. 2008
0 views

15 UKernel

Mr Logan OCCAR
06. 03. 2008
0 views

Mr Logan OCCAR

shen
15. 10. 2007
0 views

shen

Industry Brief
22. 10. 2007
0 views

Industry Brief

sess 4 solano
18. 06. 2007
0 views

sess 4 solano

sess 2 vollmer
18. 06. 2007
0 views

sess 2 vollmer

NSDI05 poster
18. 06. 2007
0 views

NSDI05 poster

NLC talk
18. 06. 2007
0 views

NLC talk

My Proxy GW06
18. 06. 2007
0 views

My Proxy GW06

my Master 4
18. 06. 2007
0 views

my Master 4

More Mosaics
18. 06. 2007
0 views

More Mosaics

MEM SPI Jan00
18. 06. 2007
0 views

MEM SPI Jan00

VCA Org Charts
11. 12. 2007
0 views

VCA Org Charts

cjdim com Boudchiche
23. 10. 2007
0 views

cjdim com Boudchiche

GA Conf06China1
25. 03. 2008
0 views

GA Conf06China1

lecture 7 deadlock
17. 09. 2007
0 views

lecture 7 deadlock

Neptune Presentation
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Neptune Presentation

neptune
15. 06. 2007
0 views

neptune

Mehregan
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Mehregan

Plants are very useful
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Plants are very useful

Learning Phonics
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Learning Phonics

Learning Percent III
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Learning Percent III

Learning Percent I
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Learning Percent I

Physical Education Procedures
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Physical Education Procedures

Penguins
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Penguins

Olympic Wax Museum
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Olympic Wax Museum

howe9
17. 09. 2007
0 views

howe9

GSantin Siena 2 SpaceTools
03. 01. 2008
0 views

GSantin Siena 2 SpaceTools

gunderia powerpointlab
26. 11. 2007
0 views

gunderia powerpointlab

MySQL UC solid DB xact
18. 06. 2007
0 views

MySQL UC solid DB xact

Civics Lecture
31. 12. 2007
0 views

Civics Lecture

Physics and psycho2
14. 02. 2008
0 views

Physics and psycho2

TOUREDIT
12. 03. 2008
0 views

TOUREDIT

harvard deas
03. 01. 2008
0 views

harvard deas

Angelology
01. 10. 2007
0 views

Angelology

HenryVIII wwtbam
21. 08. 2007
0 views

HenryVIII wwtbam

AGU 2002
03. 10. 2007
0 views

AGU 2002

RubÃn Blades
22. 10. 2007
0 views

RubÃn Blades

tran present
21. 08. 2007
0 views

tran present

BU01
17. 09. 2007
0 views

BU01

Thode
17. 09. 2007
0 views

Thode

PP R CAJAR
22. 10. 2007
0 views

PP R CAJAR

moore lightning uw05
17. 09. 2007
0 views

moore lightning uw05

Space- The Outside World
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Space- The Outside World

arts and humanities applications
22. 11. 2007
0 views

arts and humanities applications

Session9 CATHALAC UNDP
25. 10. 2007
0 views

Session9 CATHALAC UNDP

use sunscreen
17. 09. 2007
0 views

use sunscreen

aatom
20. 11. 2007
0 views

aatom

9681
02. 08. 2007
0 views

9681

HHDL
15. 10. 2007
0 views

HHDL