Deltas

Information about Deltas

Published on January 9, 2008

Author: Ubert

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Deltas :  Deltas DELTAS Outline:  Outline Deltas Fan-Deltas Excel Practical Definition of a delta :  Definition of a delta Name from the Greek letter ‘D’, from the shape of the Nile Delta Definition of a delta :  Definition of a delta Name from the Greek letter ‘D’, from the shape of the Nile Delta Definition of a delta :  Definition of a delta Name from the Greek letter ‘D’, from the shape of the Nile Delta Definition: 'a discrete shoreline protuberance formed at a point where a river enters an ocean or other body of water' Deltas are progradational in character (cf. estuaries) A delta may form at the shores of the sea or a lake Delta sub-environments:  Delta sub-environments Delta sub-environments:  Delta sub-environments Delta sub-environments:  Delta sub-environments Classification of deltas :  Classification of deltas Galloway (1975) classification Classification of deltas :  Classification of deltas Orton and Reading (1993) Classification Classification of deltas :  Classification of deltas Modern deltas Mississippi Ganges-Brahmaputra Skeidararsandur Niger Rhone Amazon Classification of deltas:  Nile: the ‘original’ delta Rhone: wave-dominated Mississippi: river-dominated Ganges- Brahmaputra: tide-dominated Classification of deltas Controls on delta environments and facies:  Controls on delta environments and facies Facies - definition:  Facies - definition A Facies is a body of rock with specified characteristics which reflect the conditions under which it was formed. Facies description involves characterising lithology texture sedimentary structures fossil content Delta sub-environments:  Delta sub-environments Delta progradation:  Delta progradation Delta progradation:  Delta progradation Classification of deltas:  Classification of deltas Controls on delta environments and facies:  Controls on delta environments and facies River-dominated delta:  River-dominated delta River-dominated delta:  River-dominated delta Pro delta muds River-dominated delta:  River-dominated delta Occur when wave and tide action are relatively weak: river progrades with levees into basin (also called “Bird’s foot delta”) Example: Mississippi delta Classification of deltas:  Classification of deltas Controls on delta environments and facies:  Controls on delta environments and facies Wave-influenced delta:  Wave-influenced delta Wave-influenced delta:  Wave-influenced delta Pro delta muds Wave-influenced delta:  Wave-influenced delta Occur where wave action is strong: sands at river mouth are reworked by waves to form shore-parallel bars Example: Rhone delta Classification of deltas:  Classification of deltas Controls on delta environments and facies:  Controls on delta environments and facies Tide-influenced delta:  Tide-influenced delta Tide-influenced delta:  Tide-influenced delta Pro delta muds Tide-influenced delta:  Tide-influenced delta Occur where tide action is strong: sands and muds are reworked by tidal currents Example: Ganges- Brahmaputra delta Controls on delta environments and facies:  Controls on delta environments and facies River-dominated delta:  River-dominated delta Delta lobe switching:  Mississippi Delta Delta lobe switching Delta progradation and basin bathymetry:  Delta progradation and basin bathymetry Delta progradation and basin bathymetry:  Delta progradation and basin bathymetry Delta progradation and basin bathymetry:  Delta progradation and basin bathymetry Delta cycles:  Delta cycles Delta cycles:  Delta cycles Delta cycles:  Delta cycles Delta cycles:  Delta cycles Delta cycles:  Delta cycles Deltas :  Deltas FAN DELTAS Classification of deltas :  Classification of deltas Orton and Reading (1993) Classification Coarse-grained deltas – fan deltas :  Coarse-grained deltas – fan deltas Shelf-type fan delta Slope-type fan delta Gilbert-type fan delta Coarse-grained deltas – fan deltas :  Coarse-grained deltas – fan deltas Shelf-type fan delta Bathymetry: gently sloping shelf Coarse-grained deltas – fan deltas :  Coarse-grained deltas – fan deltas Shelf-type fan delta Bathymetry: gently sloping shelf Coarse-grained deltas – fan deltas :  Coarse-grained deltas – fan deltas Slope-type fan delta Bathymetry: stepped shelf Coarse-grained deltas – fan deltas :  Coarse-grained deltas – fan deltas Slope-type fan delta Bathymetry: stepped shelf Coarse-grained deltas – fan deltas :  Coarse-grained deltas – fan deltas Gilbert-type fan delta Bathymetry: Steep slope at shoreline Coarse-grained deltas – fan deltas :  Coarse-grained deltas – fan deltas Gilbert-type fan delta Bathymetry: Steep slope at shoreline Coarse-grained deltas – fan deltas :  Coarse-grained deltas – fan deltas Shelf-type fan delta Slope-type fan delta Gilbert-type fan delta Coarse-grained deltas – fan deltas :  Coarse-grained deltas – fan deltas Fan deltas: Modern example (Gulf of Suez, Egypt) Coarse-grained deltas – fan deltas :  Coarse-grained deltas – fan deltas Fan deltas: modern example (Gulf of Suez, Egypt) Extensional fault Hangingwall Footwall Coarse-grained deltas – fan deltas :  Coarse-grained deltas – fan deltas Fan deltas: modern example (Gulf of Suez, Egypt) Extensional fault Hangingwall Footwall Feeder channel (wadi – ephemeral river) Coarse-grained deltas – fan deltas :  Coarse-grained deltas – fan deltas Fan deltas: modern example (Gulf of Suez, Egypt) Extensional fault Hangingwall Footwall Feeder channel (wadi – ephemeral river) Topset – alluvial deposits Coarse-grained deltas – fan deltas :  Coarse-grained deltas – fan deltas Fan deltas: modern example (Gulf of Suez, Egypt) Extensional fault Hangingwall Footwall Feeder channel (wadi – ephemeral river) Topset – alluvial deposits Topset – wave reworked

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