deq wb dwehs wcu drillingpluggingflow ingwells 209

Information about deq wb dwehs wcu drillingpluggingflow ingwells 209

Published on January 17, 2008

Author: Toni

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Slide1:  Considerations on Drilling & Plugging Flowing Artesian Wells Slide2:  0 20 40 60 80 100 Percentage of Flowing Wells Drilled in Michigan (1997) Percent 3.17 96.83 Flowing Nonflowing Slide3:  “Flowing wells (along with springs and geysers) symbolize the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”. (From Groundwater, Freeze and Cherry, 1979) Slide4:  Arenac County - 1900 Slide5:  A WELL WITH ARTESIAN PRESSURE SUFFICIENT TO CAUSE THE WATER TO FLOW ABOVE THE GROUND SURFACE ARTESIAN WELL Slide6:  ARTESIAN WELL A WELL THAT PENETRATES A CONFINED AQUIFER. WATER LEVEL RISES ABOVE THE TOP OF THE CONFINED AQUIFER. Slide7:  Upper Confining layer Lower Confining Layer Slide8:  TOPOGRAPHICALLY – CONTROLLED FLOWING WELL Unconfined aquifer condition Slide9:  Recharge Area Natural Discharge Area (Stream, Lake) Unconfined Aquifer Slide10:  OFTEN LOCATED NEAR GROUND WATER DISCHARGE ZONES… AT LOWER ELEVATIONS NEAR STREAMS OR LAKES. Slide11:  WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING DEFINES AN “ARTESIAN” WELL? A well having a static water level at the top of the aquifer. A well having a static water level above the top of the aquifer. A well constructed by a well driller of Artesian nationality. A well having a static water level above the top of the casing. Slide12:  R 325.1621(3)(c): “A well shall be constructed, equipped, and operated to prevent unnecessary discharges from flowing wells.” R 325.1638(1): “A well shall be grouted to protect the aquifer, prevent erosion, and confine the flow within the casing.” Slide13:  WELL CAP ELECTRICAL CONDUIT (WIRING NOT SHOWN) WATER CONFINED IN CASING WATER SERVICE LINE SPOOL WITH O-RING SEALS FLOW STOPPED BELOW FROST LINE * SEE MANUFACTURERS’ SPECIFICATIONS FOR RATED PRESSURE (PSI) FOR HOLD-DOWN ASSEMBLY. SPOOL HOLD-DOWN ASSEMBLY* CABLE SEALS HOLD-DOWN PIPE SURFACE FLOW CONTROL USING FLOWING WELL PITLESS UNIT (SPOOL TYPE) Slide14:  You CAN NOT allow a well to flow without a deviation from the local health department. Slide16:  USE YOUR WATER WELL AND PUMP RECORD TO EXPLAIN FLOWING WELL CONSTRUCTION ISSUES KEEP THE LOCAL HEALTH DEPARTMENT IN THE LOOP!! Slide17:  “BENEFICIAL USE” Maintain pond levels for: IRRIGATION RECREATION WILDLIFE ENHANCEMENT FISH REARING FIRE PROTECTION OTHER COMMERICIAL USE Slide18:  Wasting Michigan’s Groundwater Resources Slide19:  “BENEFICIAL USE” Supply water for: HEATING POWER GENERATION INDUSTRIAL PROCESS COOLING Slide20:  DEVIATION – RULE 113 FLOWING WELL DISCHARGES FLOW CONTROL NOT PRACTICAL OR FLOW CONTROL WILL CAUSE SAND OR TURBIDITY IN WATER OR DISCHARGE IS FOR BENEFICIAL USE Slide21:  R 325.1638(2): FLOW CONTROL METHODS VALVED PIPE CONNECTION PITLESS ADAPTER WATERTIGHT PUMP CONNECTION OTHER APPROVED METHODS PACKER RECEIVING TANK Slide22:  DRAIN TO DITCH, LAKE, RIVER, POND, OR SURFACE FLOW DISCHARGE PIPING AT WELL HEAD (Discharge permitted with written deviation from local health department official) WATERTIGHT WELL CAP AIR - GAP 2 X DIAMETER OF VALVE OUTLET GATE VALVE (HANDLE REMOVED) DRAIN PIPE SIZE MINIMUM OF TWICE DIAMETER OF WELL DISCHARGE PIPE SCREENED OUTLET (IF PUMPING RATE HIGHER THAN WELL FLOW RATE) SEALED ELECTRICAL CONDUIT WATER SERVICE LINE PITLESS ADAPTER Slide23:  FLOW CONTROL USING ELEVATED FLOW TANK (Discharge permitted with written deviation from local health department official) PRESSURE TANK (DIAPHRAGM OR BLADDER TYPE) PRESSURE SWITCH DISCHARGE LINE TO BUILDING JET OR CENTRIFUGAL PUMP FLOW RATE CONTROL VALVE FROM WELL AIR GAP (PREVENTS CROSS-CONNECTION) AIR GAP MUST BE AT LEAST TWICE THE DIAMETER OF THE FLOW TANK DISCHARGE LINE FLOW DRAIN LINE NONPRESSURIZED STORAGE TANK DRAIN PIPE MUST BE AT LEAST TWICE THE DIAMETER OF THE TANK DISCHARGE PIPE PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE UNION GATE VALVE Slide24:  FLOWING WELL PROBLEMS -NONBENEFICIAL DISCHARGE- WASTES RESOURCE REDUCES ARTESIAN HEAD OVERLOADS STORM SEWERS & DITCHES CREATES ARTIFICIAL STREAM FLOW AND “WETLANDS” ALTERS NATURAL GROUNDWATER FLOW Slide25:  FLOWING WELL PROBLEMS -LOSS OF CONFINING LAYER- FLOW BREAKOUT AROUND CASING REDUCTION OF ARTESIAN HEAD ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE OF UNCONFINED AQUIFER EROSION & PROPERTY DAMAGE DAMAGE TO RECEIVING WATERS Slide26:  FLOW FROM UNSEALED ANNULUS DIVERTED INTO DRAIN (SHOULD HAVE BEEN GROUTED TO STOP FLOW) SURFACE UNAPPROVED ANNULAR FLOW DISCHARGE PIPING LAKE OR STREAM WATERTIGHT WELL CAP GRAVEL POCKET UNSEALED ANNULUS CONFINING LAYER NOT SEALED (CORRECTION NEEDED TO SEAL ANNULUS) PITLESS ADAPTER WATER LINE TO HOME DRAIN PIPE Slide27:  FLOWING WELL PROBLEMS -DISCHARGE PIPING HAZARDS- BURIED UNPROTECTED SUCTION LINES SUBMERGED INLETS OR OTHER CROSS-CONNECTIONS CAN RESULT IN DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION Slide28:  UNAPPROVED BURIED FLOW DISCHARGE PIPING WITH CHECK VALVE Slide29:  10 GPM FLOW DISCHARGE WASTES: 14,400 GALLONS PER DAY 5.25 MILLION GALLONS PER YEAR! Slide30:  FLOWING WELL PROBLEMS OCCUR WHEN: (FROM LEVERETT, ET AL. - FLOWING WELLS AND MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLIES IN THE MIDDLE AND NORTHERN PORTIONS OF THE SOUTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN, U..S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, 1907) Fire-Service Test – Arcadia, Manistee County 5 STREAMS FROM A SINGLE FLOWING WELL Slide31:  RECOMMENDATIONS WHEN DRILLING IN KNOWN FLOWING WELL AREAS: Plan ahead – In case something goes wrong! Schedule aquifer penetration appropriately. AVOID LATE NIGHT WELL COMPLETION Slide32:  IN KNOWN FLOWING WELL AREAS: CEMENT CASING INTO CONFINING LAYER BEFORE PENETRATING ARTESIAN AQUIFER ARTESIAN AQUIFER CONFINING LAYER Slide33:  USE STATEWIDE GROUNDWATER DATABASE (WELLOGIC & SCANNED LOGS) AND WELL PERMITS TO: IDENTIFY FLOWING WELL AREAS NOTIFY PROPERTY OWNERS CONTRACTORS SUGGEST WELL CONSTRUCTION METHODS PREVENT FUTURE PROBLEMS. Without the Internet, you are at a disadvantage! Slide34:  FLOWING WELL PROBLEMS OCCUR WHEN: CONTRACTORS DRILL IN UNFAMILIAR AREAS CONTRACTORS ARE NOT PREPARED TO DEAL WITH HIGH VOLUME FLOW OR HIGH ARTESIAN HEAD (Poor choice of drilling method) Slide35:  UPWARD LEAKAGE AROUND UNGROUTED CASING CONFINED AQUIFER UNCONFINED AQUIFER CONFINING LAYER STATIC WATER LEVEL UPWARD LEAKAGE Slide36:  LEAKAGE FROM UNGROUTED ANNULUS CONFINED (ARTESIAN)AQUIFER UNCONFINED AQUIFER CONFINING LAYER WATER FLOWING UPWARD IN UNGROUTED ANNULUS AROUND CASING BRIDGED SOIL AROUND UPPER CASING FLOW FOLLOWS PATH OF LEAST RESISTANCE WATER ON SURFACE Slide37:  Alcona County Flowing Well – Case Study Recommendation: Carefully document steps taken PICTURES HELP HELPS PROCESSING OF INSURANCE CLAIM Slide38:  KILL OR SAVE WELL FLOW RATE & PRESSURE LOCATION OF BREAKOUT SOURCE OF FLOW DEGREE OF EROSION WATER DISPOSAL WATER REQUIREMENTS Factors to Consider Slide40:  EVALUATE SITE SAFETY CLEAR DISCHARGE = SAFE TURBID DISCHARGE = UNSAFE (BOREHOLE EROSION OCCURRING) Slide41:  Cloudy Flow Breakout Outside Casing Slide42:  WATER SAMPLING MAY BE USED TO DETERMINE SOURCE OF FLOW WATER INSIDE CASING PARTIAL CHEMICAL INDICATORS: HARDNESS IRON CONDUCTIVITY WATER OUTSIDE CASING Slide43:  Cloudy Flow Breakout Near Structure’s Foundation Slide44:  CORRECTING FLOW BREAKOUTS DRIVE LARGER PIPE AROUND CASING JET TREMIE PIPE(S) INTO ANNULUS AND PUMP CEMENT GROUT PUMP CEMENT GROUT DOWN CASING Slide45:  BASIC PRINCIPLES FOR FLOW BREAKOUTS WHEN DRIVING OUTER CASING… USE PIPE MINIMUM 2 IN. LARGER THAN BOREHOLE OR WASHOUT DRIVE PIPE INTO CONFINING LAYER Slide46:  ESTIMATE VOLUME OF MATERIAL ERODED FROM BOREHOLE USE TO DETERMINE VOLUME OF PLUGGING MATERIAL NEEDED Slide47:  ESTIMATE THE ANNULAR FLOW RATE… PUMP PLUGGING MATERIAL AT HIGHER RATE THAN FLOW RATE BASIC PRINCIPLES FOR FLOW BREAKOUTS Slide48:  HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE Pressure at bottom of borehole due to weight of fluid column. FORMULA HP (PSI) = SLURRY WEIGHT (LBS./GAL) X .052 X DEPTH Slide49:  USE PLUGGING MATERIAL WITH ENOUGH WEIGHT TO OVERCOME HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE OF FLOW BASIC PRINCIPLES FOR FLOW BREAKOUTS Slide50:  PLUGGING MATERIAL HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE FROM FLOW BASIC PRINCIPLES FOR FLOW BREAKOUTS Slide51:  DENSITY COMPARISON BENTONITE (20-30% solids) 9.4 -10.4 lbs./gal NEAT CEMENT (65% solids) 15 lbs./gal VS Slide52:  Shows Influence of Depth and Artesian Head on Grout Material Suitability SHADED AREAS SHOW CONDITIONS WHERE CERTAIN GROUTS ARE NOT HEAVY ENOUGH TO OVERCOME THE HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE OF THE FLOW Slide53:  BASIC PRINCIPLES FOR FLOW BREAKOUTS ATTACK FLOW AT SOURCE… NOT ABOVE PLACE TREMIE PIPES INTO FLOWING ZONE Slide54:  LOWERING HEAD WHILE CEMENTING ARTESIAN AQUIFER CONFINING LAYER PUMP DISCHARGE TREMIE PIPE FOR CEMENTING FLOW OUTSIDE CASING LOWERED BY PUMPING HIGH CAPACITY PUMP GROUTER Slide55:  STOPPING ANNULAR FLOW CONFINEDAQUIFER CONFINING LAYER NEAT CEMENT 1” TREMIE PIPES ON SIDES OF CASING (JETTED INTO PLACE) PIPES PENETRATE CONFINING LAYER GROUTER Slide56:  FLOW STOPPED BY PUMPING ACCELERATED CEMENT DOWN TWO TREMIE PIPES PLACED IN ANNULUS Slide57:  CATASTROPHIC FLOW BREAKOUT -Characteristics- TECHNICALLY CHALLENGING – NO TWO ARE ALIKE COSTLY (NON-PROFIT WELL) – NO STATE FUNDING AVAILABLE STRESSFUL! Slide58:  CATASTROPHIC FLOW BREAKOUT -ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN- SMOTHERS FISH SPAWNING BEDS DESTROYS MACROINVERTEBRATE HABITAT (MAYFLIES, CADDISFLIES, WORMS, ETC.) FILLS IN STREAM BOTTOM – CHANGES VELOCITY ALTERS WATER QUALITY (CHLORIDES, SULFATES, TDS) SEDIMENT DEPOSITION INTO SURFACE WATERS Slide59:  FLOW BREAKOUT DISCHARGED INTO NEARBY DRAIN Slide60:  …AFTER Slide61:  1997 HILLSDALE COUNTY FLOW BREAKOUT -COSTS- Cementing subcontractor $26,292.82 Calcium chloride $111.30 Portland cement $2,317.29 Grout pipes, valves & bent. chips $2128.34 Safety fencing $33.21 Permit to close road $10.00 Water trucks & labor $1,950.00 Miscellaneous $481.58 Total = $33,324.54 Slide62:  FLOW BREAKOUT Slide63:  HOW DO YOU PLUG ABANDONED FLOWING WELLS SAFELY? Slide64:  INFLATABLE PACKER DESIGN SHALE PACKERS CASING HEAVY DUTY INNER TUBE AIR LINE TO SURFACE Slide65:  FIRST STEP: GET THE “FLOW” UNDER CONTROL. INSTALL CASING EXTENSION Slide66:  SPECIAL GROUT PLACEMENT METHODS ARE NECESSARY. NEAT CEMENT IS REQUIRED. TREMIE PIPE. WELL CASING RIZER. Slide67:  Various riser configurations will work to control the flow Slide68:  Reducing the area to be plugged in fractures or lost circulation zones using aggregate. Slide69:  INITIAL WATER RETURN. NEAT CEMENT RETURN. Slide70:  Flowing Well Handbook

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