diabetes

Information about diabetes

Published on November 12, 2011

Author: Kudus

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Mr. Akoto : Mr. Akoto GROUP 300B MEMBERS OF THE GROUP: MEMBERS OF THE GROUP MOHAMMED KUDUS MORO MOZU EDUKU JEFFREY JEFFREY KODJO ARHIN EMMANUEL ATTAFUAH MICHAEL OKYERE BAKUTOMAH SAMPSON JEMIMA YEBOAH AKRASI DANIELLA SANDRA OTOO SALOMEY ABABIO PROBLEM STATEMENT: PROBLEM STATEMENT Mr. Akoto has been experiencing fatigue, weight loss, polydypsia and polyuria . His lab results showed an elevated levels of ketone bodies and 8.2% of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). He was diagnosed of diabetes type2 and he was told the aetiology had to do with pancreatic hormone deficiency, chiefly insulin. OBJECTIVES: OBJECTIVES Anatomy, embryology and histology of the pancreas General functions of the pancreas Roles of insulin in the body Hormonal control of blood sugar Ketogenesis and its regulation Diabetes mellitus and its managements ANATOMY OF THE PANCREAS: ANATOMY OF THE PANCREAS Source: Clinical Oriented Anatomy. 6 th edition EMBRYOLOGY: EMBRYOLOGY Source: nildram.co.uk/embryo/pancreas HISTOLOGY: HISTOLOGY Source: Color Textbook of Histology GENERAL FUNCTIONS OF THE PANCREAS: GENERAL FUNCTIONS OF THE PANCREAS Endocrine functions: α cells: glucagon δ cells: somatostatin PP cells: Panreatic polypeptides G cells: Gastrin β cells: insulin Source: Medical physiology. Guyton and Hall ROLES OF INSULIN: ROLES OF INSULIN Makes glucose available to the cells Enhances the storage of excess glucose → glycogen Lipogenesis Growth Hormonal regulation of blood sugar: Hormonal regulation of blood sugar Hormones involved: Insulin Glucagon Epinephrine Norepinephrin Cortisol Growth hormones KETOGENESIS & ITS REGULATIONS: KETOGENESIS & ITS REGULATIONS Ketogenesis: Ketogenesis Ketogenesis (synthesis of ketone bodies) takes place primarily in the liver. REGULATIONS: REGULATIONS DIABETES MELLITUS: DIABETES MELLITUS Types Signs and symptoms Polyuria Polydypsia Polyphagia Fatigue and weight loss HbA1c Management of Diabetes Mellitus: Management of Diabetes Mellitus Insulin infusion Islet cell regeneration INGAP So, there is more hope for our diabetic patients CONCLUSIONS: CONCLUSIONS The pancreas is simply an indispensable organ in the body. Defective pancreas affects its secretions and hence the body as a whole. REFERENCES: REFERENCES Human Anatomy and Physiology, 6th Edition, John W. Hole Hyperinsulinemia unmasks insulins effect to stimulate protein synthesis in human forearm.Am . J. Physiol. 274 ( Endocrinol . Metab . 37): E1067-E1074, 1999 Impaired anabolic response of muscle protein synthesis is associated with S6K1 dysregulation in elderly humans. FASEB J. 2004 Oct;18(13):1586-7. Epub 2004 Aug 19. Intravenous insulin decreases protein breakdown in infants on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.J Pediatr Surg. 2004 Jun;39(6):839-44; discussion 839-44. Extremity hyperinsulinemia stimulates muscle protein synthesis in severely injured patients Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab . 2004 Apr;286(4):E529-34. Epub 2003 Dec 9. Insulin: the other anabolic hormone of puberty. Acta Paediatr Suppl. 1999 Dec;88(433):84-7. Review. Contribution of amino acids and insulin to protein anabolism during meal absorption. Diabetes. 1996 Sep;45(9):1245-52. REFERENCE CONTINUED: REFERENCE CONTINUED American Diabetes (January 2006). "Standards of medical care in diabetes--2006" . Diabetes Care . 29 Suppl 1 : S4–42. PMID 16373931 . Retrieved 19 July 2008. Qaseem A, Vijan S, Snow V, Cross JT, Weiss KB, Owens DK (September 2007). " Glycemic control and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the optimal hemoglobin A1c targets. A guidance statement from the American College of Physicians" . Ann. Intern. Med. 147 (6): 417–22. PMID 17876024 . Retrieved 19 July 2008. Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Committee (September 2008). "Canadian Diabetes Association 2008 clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes in Canada" . Can J Diabetes 32 ( suppl 1): S1–S201. Retrieved 19 July 2008. Brown AF, Mangione CM, Saliba D, Sarkisian CA (May 2003). "Guidelines for improving the care of the older person with diabetes mellitus" . J Am Geriatr Soc 51 (5 Suppl Guidelines): S265–80. doi : 10.1046/j.1532-5415.51.5s.1.x . PMID 12694461 . Retrieved 19 July 2008. Walker, Donald (November 2007). "Similarity Determination and Case Retrieval in an Intelligent Decision Support System for Diabetes Management" . Retrieved 2 October 2009. REF. CONTINUED: REF. CONTINUED Effects of chronic hyperandrogenism and/or administered central nervous system insulin on ovarian manifestation and gonadotropin and steroid secretion. Fertil Steril . 2005 Apr;83 Suppl 4:1319-26. Metabolic effects of growth hormone in humans. Metabolism. 1995 Oct;44(10 Suppl 4):33-6. Clinical uses of insulin-like growth factor I. Ann Intern Med. 1994 Apr 1;120(7):593-601. Anabolic effects of insulin on bone suggest a role for chromium picolinate in preservation of bone density.Med Hypotheses. 1995 Sep;45(3):241-6. Review. Physiologic hyperinsulinemia stimulates protein synthesis and enhances transport of selected amino acids in human skeletal muscle. J Clin Invest. 1995 Feb;95(2):81-9. http://www.kuduslab.blogspot.com http://www.steroid.com/Insulin.php#ixzz1XMA5O0Sk http://www.steroid.com/Insulin.php#ixzz1XM9wJQVI Slide 20: THANK YOU !!!!!! The End

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