Dietary Guidelines

Information about Dietary Guidelines

Published on March 4, 2008

Author: Barbara

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Dietary Guidelines for Americans:  Dietary Guidelines for Americans What are the 2005 Dietary Guidelines?:  What are the 2005 Dietary Guidelines? Provides science-based advice to promote health and reduce risk of major chronic diseases Encourages most Americans to: Eat fewer calories Be more physically active Eat a healthful diet by making wiser food choices Prepare and handle foods to reduce risk of foodborne illness 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans:  2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans 41 key recommendations 23 for general public 18 for special populations 10 chapters Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs Weight Management Physical Activity Food Groups To Encourage Fats Carbohydrates Sodium and Potassium Alcoholic Beverages Food Safety Evolution of USDA’s Food Guidance:  1940s 1950s-1960s 1970s 1992 Food for Young Children 1916 2005 Evolution of USDA’s Food Guidance Slide6:  1. Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs Weight Management Physical Activity Food Groups To Encourage Fats Carbohydrates Sodium and Potassium Alcoholic Beverages Food Safety 1. Background and purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans:  1. Background and purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Document for policymakers, healthcare providers, nutritionists, and nutrition educators Jointly developed by HHS/USDA every 5 years Recommendations for an overall pattern of eating that can be adopted by the general public Applicable to food preferences of different racial/ethnic groups, vegetarians, and other groups 1. Background and purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans:  1. Background and purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Recommendations for Americans over 2 years of age Emphasizes: Eating a healthful diet to optimize growth and reduce risks of chronic diseases Getting exercise Meeting nutrient intakes (Dietary Reference Intakes) set by Institute of Medicine Does not emphasize dietary supplements Slide9:  1. Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs Weight Management Physical Activity Food Groups To Encourage Fats Carbohydrates Sodium and Potassium Alcoholic Beverages Food Safety 2. Adequate nutrients within calorie needs:  2. Adequate nutrients within calorie needs Eat a variety of nutrient-dense foods from different food groups (DASH eating plan) Limit: Saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, alcohol Key recommendations People over 50 yrs: Vitamin B-12 Pregnancy: Iron, folic acid Older and dark-skinned people: Vitamin D 2. Adequate nutrients within calorie needs What YOU can do:  2. Adequate nutrients within calorie needs What YOU can do Eat breakfast each day based on the Dietary Guidelines eating pattern Fortified cereals source of nutrients and whole grains Encourages milk and fruit Helps raise metabolism and curb appetite to control weight Helps you perform better at school or work Read food labels when shopping at the grocery store Use labels to make quick, informed choices:  Use labels to make quick, informed choices http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/foodlab.html Check Calories Sample label for macaroni and cheese Slide13:  1. Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs Weight Management Physical Activity Food Groups To Encourage Fats Carbohydrates Sodium and Potassium Alcoholic Beverages Food Safety 3. Weight management:  3. Weight management Obesity linked to: Early death High blood pressure Type 2 diabetes Heart disease, stroke, lipid disorders Gall bladder disease Gout Bone and muscle problems: osteoarthritis, hip disorder Pulmonary and respiratory problems: asthma, sleep apnea Abnormal growth acceleration: early puberty, menarche Psychological and social problems: depression Certain cancers (endometrial, breast, colon) 3. Weight management:  3. Weight management Aim for slow, steady weight loss Eat fewer calories Maintain adequate nutrient intake Increase physical activity For obese adults, a modest weight loss (10 lbs) has health benefits Eat 100 fewer calories/day lose 10 pounds/yr Eat less added sugars, fats, alcohol, which provide calories but few or no essential nutrients Slide16:  1996 2003 Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults BRFSS: 1991, 1996, 2003 BMI 30, or about 30 lbs overweight for 5’4” person No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25% 3. Weight management What YOU can do:  3. Weight management What YOU can do When dining out, choose smaller portions of main meals and beverages, and don’t purchase “super-size” items Buy “regular” or “small” size items Don’t be tempted by better deals Share an entrée, take some home Choose low fat foods when eating out Lower fat terms: grilled, broiled, baked, steamed poached Higher-fat terms: buttered, buttery, fried, breaded, creamed, in cream sauce, with gravy, au gratin, scalloped, hollandaise, pastry 3. Weight management:  3. Weight management Body mass index (BMI) is more accurate approximation of body fat than weight alone Overestimates fat in muscular people Underestimates fat in people who lost muscle Calculation: Weight (lbs) X 703 Height (in) BMI ranges Healthy 19-24 Overweight 25-29 Obese 30 and above BMI calculator: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/bmi/calc-bmi.htm http://www.nhlbisupport.com/bmi/bmicalc.htm 2 Slide19:  1. Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs Weight Management Physical Activity Food Groups To Encourage Fats Carbohydrates Sodium and Potassium Alcoholic Beverages Food Safety 4. Physical activity:  4. Physical activity Physical activity reduces risk or helps manage Overweight and obesity Heart disease Stroke High blood pressure Type 2 diabetes Osteoporosis Colon cancer Mild to moderate depression/anxiety Early mortality American adults and children do not get enough exercise for a variety of reasons 4. Physical activity:  4. Physical activity 3 components to physical fitness Cardiovascular conditioning: Walking, jogging, aerobic activities Stretching exercises for flexibility: Yoga Resistance exercises or calisthenics for muscle strength and endurance: Weight lifting 4. Physical activity:  4. Physical activity Adults 30 min. of moderate activity, above usual activity, on most days: Reduce chronic disease risk 60 min. of moderate to vigorous activity on most days while balancing caloric intake: Manage body weight and prevent weight gain 60-90 min. of moderate activity daily, while balancing caloric intake: Sustain weight loss Children & adolescents: 60 min. of activity on most, preferably all, days of the week Pregnant and breastfeeding women, older adults: OK to exercise 4. Physical activity What YOU can do:  4. Physical activity What YOU can do Make small changes to increase your daily level of physical activity Climbing stairs, dancing, choosing distant parking places Set aside a time each day for exercise Try to balance the calories in your food with the amount of activity you do in order to maintain a healthy weight Replace TV watching with activities requiring more movement Don’t reward yourself with food Slide24:  1. Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs Weight Management Physical Activity Food Groups To Encourage Fats Carbohydrates Sodium and Potassium Alcoholic Beverages Food Safety Slide25:  9 9 5. Food groups to encourage. Fruits and Vegetables:  5. Food groups to encourage. Fruits and Vegetables 4 ½ cups (9 servings) of fruits and vegetables/day (for 2000 calorie diet) Recommendation not changed, but expressed in cups instead of servings Contain vitamin A (carotenoids), vitamin C, fiber, potassium, magnesium, other phytonutrients 5. Food groups to encourage. Vegetables:  5. Food groups to encourage. Vegetables 2 ½ cups vegetables/day (for 2000 calorie diet) Choose fresh, frozen, and canned Minimize added butter and salt Different vegetables are rich in different nutrients Vary your veggies:  Vary your veggies Vary your veggies:  Vary your veggies Eat 2-1/2 cups of vegetables per day for a 2,000 calorie diet Select from all 5 vegetable SUBGROUPS several times a week Subgroup 1: Dark green vegetables:  Subgroup 1: Dark green vegetables Broccoli Spinach Most greens — spinach, collards, turnip greens, kale, beet, mustard greens Green leaf and romaine lettuce Subgroup 2. Orange vegetables:  Subgroup 2. Orange vegetables Carrots Sweet potatoes Winter squash Pumpkin Subgroup 3. Legumes:  Subgroup 3. Legumes Dry beans and peas such as Chickpeas Pinto beans Kidney beans Black beans Garbanzo beans Soybeans Split peas Lentils The USDA Food Guide includes dry beans, peas and soybeans in the meats and beans group as well as the vegetable group; however count them only in one group. Subgroup 4. Starchy vegetables:  Subgroup 4. Starchy vegetables White potatoes Corn Green peas Subgroup 5. Other vegetables:  Subgroup 5. Other vegetables Tomatoes Cabbage Celery Cucumber Lettuce Onions Peppers Green beans Cauliflower Mushrooms Summer squash Eat a rainbow:  Eat a rainbow “For optimum health, scientists say eat a rainbow of colors. Your plate should look like a box of Crayolas.” ~Janice M. Horowitz,TIME, January 12, 2002 5. Food groups to encourage. Fruits:  5. Food groups to encourage. Fruits 2 cups fruits/day (for 2000 calorie diet) Whole fruits (fresh, frozen, canned, dried) have more fiber than fruit juice Orange juice is good source of vitamin C, potassium, and calcium and vitamin D if fortified 5. Food groups to encourage. Dairy:  5. Food groups to encourage. Dairy Adults and children 9 years and older: 3 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products Children 2-8 years: 2 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products Yogurt, lactose-free milk (or lactase), cheese Non-dairy eaters should choose alternative sources of calcium (fortified cereals & juice, seafood, soy foods) 5. Food groups to encourage. Whole grains:  5. Food groups to encourage. Whole grains Eat 3 or more ounce-equivalents of whole grain products per day Half your grains should come from whole grains What is a whole grain?:  What is a whole grain? Foods made with the entire grain seed (kernel). If kernel has been cracked, crushed, or flaked, it must retain nearly the same relative proportions of bran, germ, and endosperm as the original grain FDA health claim: Whole grain food must contain 51% or more whole grain ingredients by weight per reference amount and be low in fat and cholesterol Endosperm Bran Germ Whole grains contain more than just fiber:  Whole grains contain more than just fiber http://www.bellinstitute.com/nutrition/index.htm 5. Health benefits of whole grains:  5. Health benefits of whole grains Coronary heart disease Type 2 diabetes Colon cancer Weight control Toasted corn and bulgur salad http://www.wheatfoods.org/ Finding whole grains when shopping:  Finding whole grains when shopping Check ingredient list for a “whole” grain Don’t rely on color Good Source A half serving (8 g) of whole grain Excellent Source A full serving (16 g) of whole grain 100%/Excellent A full serving (16 g) & all grains are whole What counts as an “ounce equivalent” serving of a whole grain food?:  What counts as an “ounce equivalent” serving of a whole grain food? 1 slice whole wheat bread (16 g of whole grain) ½ cup of cooked cereal, rice, pasta 1 cup dry flake cereal ¼ cup dense cereal (granola) 1 ½ cups puffed cereals Whole grains are consumed in the U.S. as a single food or an ingredient in a product:  Amaranth Barley Brown rice Buckwheat Bulgur Emmer Farro Grano Kamut Millet Oatmeal and whole oats Popcorn Quinoa Sorghum Spelt Teff Triticale Whole corn Whole-grain pasta Whole rye Whole wheat Whole-wheat couscous Wild rice Whole grains are consumed in the U.S. as a single food or an ingredient in a product 5. Food groups to encourage What YOU can do:  5. Food groups to encourage What YOU can do Eat fruits and vegetables for a total of at least four and one-half cups (9 servings) each day Pack fruits and vegetables as snack during the day Choose low-fat or fat-free milk, yogurt, and other dairy products Have vanilla yogurt with fruit instead of ice cream for dessert Try to eat at least half of your grains as whole grain foods, or about 3 ounce-equivalents/day Try a new whole grain food each month Slide47:  1. Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs Weight Management Physical Activity Food Groups To Encourage Fats Carbohydrates Sodium and Potassium Alcoholic Beverages Food Safety 6. Fats:  6. Fats Total fat: 20-35% of daily calories Children 2-3 years: 30-35% of calories Children and adolescents 4-18 yrs: 25-35 of calories Mainly poly- and monounsaturated fats: fish, nuts, vegetable oils Saturated fat: Less than 10% of daily calories Cholesterol: Less than 300 mg/day Trans fats: As low as possible Fats What YOU Can Do:  Fats What YOU Can Do Choose “healthy fats” such as olive oil and canola oil Use canola margarine and cook with canola oil Use olive oil salad dressings Avoid “unhealthy fats” such as saturated and trans fat Check nutrition labels and ingredient lists Choose low-fat dairy products and lean meats Eat at least 2 seafood meals each week Source of omega-3 fats Slide50:  Where do Trans fats come from? Slide51:  Saturated fat: Comparing different foods Sources of Omega-3 fats:  Sources of Omega-3 fats Values are grams per 3-oz serving Slide53:  1. Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs Weight Management Physical Activity Food Groups To Encourage Fats Carbohydrates Sodium and Potassium Alcoholic Beverages Food Safety 7. Carbohydrates :  7. Carbohydrates Choose fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, and whole grains often Aim for 14 g. of fiber/1000 calories Choose legumes several times a week Excellent source of fiber Part of vegetable and meat/beans group Choose and prepare foods and beverages with little added sugars or caloric sweeteners Choose sugar- and starch-containing foods and beverages less frequently for good oral health 7. Carbohydrates. What YOU Can Do:  7. Carbohydrates. What YOU Can Do Choose more healthy snacks that are low in fat and sugar and high in fiber Snack on fruits and cut-up vegetables Limit foods high in added sugars Check ingredient lists for added sugars: high fructose corn syrup, sucrose, corn sweetener, corn syrup Regular soft drinks, candy, cakes, cookies, pies Major sources of added sugar Should be part of discretionary calories Slide56:  1. Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs Weight Management Physical Activity Food Groups To Encourage Fats Carbohydrates Sodium and Potassium Alcoholic Beverages Food Safety 8. Sodium and potassium:  8. Sodium and potassium Choose and prepare foods with little salt Consume less than 2,300 mg (1 tsp salt) of sodium/day Check food labels for sodium: Foods with less than 140 mg sodium (5% DV) are low in salt Consume potassium-rich foods, such as fruits and vegetables People with high blood pressure or at risk Less than 1,500 mg sodium day Meet potassium recommendation (4,700 mg/day) Sodium sources:  Sodium sources Processed food 77% Naturally occurring 12% Adding it at the table 6% Adding it while cooking 5% Cucumbers vs. pickles:  Cucumbers vs. pickles Sodium 2 mg/cup 1,987 mg/cup Potassium 162 mg/cup 180 mg/cup USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 17 Slide60:  1. Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs Weight Management Physical Activity Food Groups To Encourage Fats Carbohydrates Sodium and Potassium Alcoholic Beverages Food Safety 9. Alcoholic Beverages:  9. Alcoholic Beverages Drink sensibly and moderately Women: 1 drink/day Men: 2 drinks/day Avoid Addiction Pregnant and lactating women Children and adolescents Taking medications Driving, operating machines 1 Drink is: 12 oz. beer 5 oz wine 1.5 oz liquor 9. Alcoholic Beverages:  9. Alcoholic Beverages Risks Liver cirrhosis Inflammation of pancreas High blood pressure Stroke Some cancers Injury Benefits Relieves stress Lowers risk of heart disease In middle-aged and older adults, 1-2 drinks/day associated with lowest mortality Alcoholic beverages have calories 5 oz wine 100 cal 12 oz regular beer 150 cal 1.5 oz 80-proof 100 cal distilled spirits Slide63:  1. Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs Weight Management Physical Activity Food Groups To Encourage Fats Carbohydrates Sodium and Potassium Alcoholic Beverages Food Safety 10. Food Safety:  10. Food Safety Consumers at greatest risk Infants and young children Pregnant women Older adults Those with weakened immune systems Foods of special concern Unpasteurized dairy and juices Partially cooked or raw eggs Raw or undercooked meats Raw sprouts Food Safety:  Food Safety Other messages: Clean refrigerators and check temperature Do not wash raw meat and poultry Wash fresh fruits and vegetables just before cooking or eating Protocol for washing fresh fruits and vegetables (Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee):  Protocol for washing fresh fruits and vegetables (Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee) Remove and discard outer leaves (lettuce, cabbage) before washing Wash all fruits and vegetables, including organically grown and home-grown ones, just before cooking or eating Wash under running potable water When possible, scrub fruits and vegetables with a clean scrub brush or with hands Dry fruits and vegetables Slide67:  Feel better today – stay healthy for tomorrow Make smart choices from every food group Mix up your choices within each food group Find your balance between food and physical activity Get the most nutrition out of your calories To know the facts…use the label Play it safe with food Finding Your Way to a Healthier You Communicating with and not to consumers:  Communicating with and not to consumers Speak their language Tell them how to do it Make advice specific, manageable, and actionable Instead of “eat less fat,” say “when eating out, choose steamed, grilled, or broiled foods instead of fried” Take a positive approach Help them fit appropriate portion size of favorite foods into balanced, healthful eating plan Personalize advice Account for tastes, lack of time, convenience IFIC Foundation. Food Insight. Jan/Feb 2005 Acknowledgements :  Acknowledgements Thanks to the following for providing images or information used on some slides Alice Henneman, Univ. of Nebraska Cooperative Extension in Lancaster County Linda Bobroff, University of Florida Anne Hoisington, Oregon State University Extension Ruth Litchfield, Iowa State University Extension The Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition, Minneapolis

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