Published on February 7, 2008
AN OVERVIEW OF NATURAL DISASTER PREPAREDNESS AND MITIGATION PROGRAMMES: AN OVERVIEW OF NATURAL DISASTER PREPAREDNESS AND MITIGATION PROGRAMMES Prepared by: M.K. Barooah, IAS Commissioner & Secretary to Govt. of Assam, Department of Revenue DISASTER (What it is?): DISASTER (What it is?) A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic and environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected community / society to cope using its own resources DISASTER (risk) REDUCTION: DISASTER (risk) REDUCTION The systematic development and application of policies, strategies and practices to minimize vulnerability and disaster risks throughout a society, to avoid (prevention) or to limit (mitigation and preparedness) adverse impact of hazards, within the broad context of sustainable development. MITIGATION: MITIGATION Structural and non-structural measures undertaken to limit the adverse impact of natural hazards, environmental degradation and technological hazards. NATURAL HAZARDS Natural process of phenomena occurring in the biosphere that may constitute a damaging event. EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT: EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT The organization, management of resources and responsibilities for dealing with all aspects of emergencies, in particular, preparedness, response and rehabilitation. A disaster reduction strategy is a global challenge today and for the future. It is a strategy to find a way to live with these phenomena, rather than die from it, since natural disaster cannot be prevented and people are caught unaware when it happened IDNDR(International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction): IDNDR (International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction) The UN International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR), 1990-1999, was a decade dedicated to promoting solutions to reduce risk from natural hazards. Major Disaster Events in last Decade: Major Disaster Events in last Decade 1991 Bangladesh Cyclone, casualities 1,40,000 people died 1993 Latur Earthquake in Maharastra : 10,000 people died 1995 Kobe-Japan earthquake , death more than 15,000. 1998 a powerful hurricane damaged 70% infrastructure in Honduras and Nicaragua. 1999 worst cyclone in 100 years in Orissa – destroyed 18,000 villages in one night, 9,885 people died. Loss of property – Rs.1,733 crores. 1999, worst flood in Maxico since 1600. almost 300,000 made homeless. 1999 Turkey Earthquake, deaths above 18,000. 2001 a powerful typhoon caused 500 dead in philippines and Vietnam. 2001, 26th January – the Gujarat earthquake. Killed several thousand people. Crores of rupees lost. The trend during the last three decades shows an increase in the number of natural hazards, the reported death toll has decreased to less than half. ISDR(International Strategy for Disaster Reduction): ISDR (International Strategy for Disaster Reduction) The ISDR is a global framework established within the United Nations for the promotion of action to reduce social vulnerability and risks of natural hazards and related technological and environmental disasters. Two International mechanisms as strategy for disaster management was launched by UN General Assembly in 2000 are: An Inter-Agency Secretariat, in Geneva, Switzerland An Inter-Agency Task Force on Disaster Reduction (represents UN Agencies) Vulnerability factors in Disaster Management: Vulnerability factors in Disaster Management Disaster Management in India : Disaster Management in India NB: Nodal Ministry is the Ministry of Home Affairs, GoI Types of Natural Disaster : Types of Natural Disaster Flood, Sea & River erosion, Landslide & mudflows, Drought Cyclone, Hurricanes, Hailstorm, Heat & Cold wave, Earthquake etc. The whole Indian coastal area of the Bay of Bengal are situated in most vulnerable zone V of tropical storms and cyclone. As a result, frequent cyclonic storms ravage the shores of Orissa and Andhra Pradesh. The entire North-Eastern region, Northern Bihar, Northern UP, Uttaranchal and Jammu and Kashmir are in most vulnerable zone V of the seismic zones of earthquake. The new zonation map of India, which earlier used to contain V zones has now IV zones of seismicity. We need to bring awareness among the people regarding the earthquakes. This will help a great deal in allaying public fear. IMPACT OF DISATER(Global Scenario): IMPACT OF DISATER (Global Scenario) The trend during the last three decades shows an increase in the number of natural hazard events and of affected populations. Even though the number of disasters has more than tripled since the 1970s, the reported death toll has decreased to less than half. Most devastating natural calamity in India (Recent Memory) : Most devastating natural calamity in India (Recent Memory) Orissa Cyclone on 29th and 30th October 1999. the warning period was 72 hours. It was not possible to move men and material covering 14 districts. 1.7 Crore population affected 9,885 lives lost. Heavy flood associated with Super Cyclone. Infrastructure like road, rail telephone, hospitals etc. built over a period of 150 years destroyed within 48 hours. Airport communication tower at Bhubaneswar was totally blown, including two helicopters. The Gujarat Earthaquake occurred at 8.46 hours on 26th January, 2001 measured 6.9 magnitude on the Ricter scale having epicentre 65 Km east-north-east of Bhuj. Killed thousands of people and caused widespread damage to several hundred buildings. About 80% of the losses of life and property caused due to failure of building structure. BUT Earthquake resistant structures survived. EARTHQUAKE : EARTHQUAKE EARTHQUAKES cannot be predicted accurately nor prevented with our present knowledge. There is no scientific way to predict earthquake in TIME and SPACE (area) so far. What is an Earthquake???? Earthquake is a set of vibration on the earth surface, ranging from faint tremor to wild motion. There are caused by sudden release energy stored beneath the earth. In other words – earthquake is a form of energy, which originates in a limited region and then spreads in the form of waves in all directions from the source of disturbance. MAJOR EARTHQUAKES IN INDIA: MAJOR EARTHQUAKES IN INDIA How EARTHQUAKE happens ???: How EARTHQUAKE happens ??? Earth is divided into 3 (three) layers: Inner heavy liquid CORE Middle elastic MANTLE Outermost rigid CRUST CRUST is further divided into two: Outer Lithosphere Inner Asthenosphere, resting over the Mantle How EARTHQUAKE happens ???: How EARTHQUAKE happens ??? The Lithosphere is divided into 20 plates. The plates have been moving in different directions. In this context, the continent of today were once joined together into one super continent known as Pangaca. Nearly 290 million years ago rifting took place in this super continent (Pangaca) and India moved northward towards Asia. Nearly 65 millions ago India collided with Asian Plate that subsequently resulted in the formation of Himalaya. The Indian shield is still pushing against the Himalaya approx @5 cm per year persistently. As a result, stress and strains are building up and accumulating progressively in the Himalayan region. This enormous energy being accumulated in the last few hundred years is adequately released through the fault zones that causes earthquakes. NEW INITIATIVES!!!!: NEW INITIATIVES!!!! As a permanent systems to handle natural calamity Orissa and Gujarat Government established: Orissa State Disaster Mitigation Authority (OSDMA), 1999. Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority, 2001. Government of Uttaranchal created Disaster Mitigation and Management Centre (DMMC) to handle disaster in highly vulnerable area. The Government of India established the National Center for Disaster Management (NCDM) with Prime Minister as the Chairman and Shri Sarad Pawar as Vice Chairman (with Cabinet Minister status). It is an autonomous body with appropriate linkages. The NCDM is currently engaged in preparation of a National Relief Policy and a National Disaster Management Plan. GOI’s Recommendations to States: GOI’s Recommendations to States State Department of Relief and Rehabilitation be converted into the Department of Disaster Management To Set up State disaster management Authority with CS as chairman Specialized search and Rescue teams to be formed Fire services may be trained and equipped for disaster management activities Control rooms to be set up at state and District levels. Recommendation to states: Recommendation to states 6. Secretary of Disaster management departments be made a member of all bodies for clearance of projects. 7. Rural Development funds to be utilised for construction of shelters 8. Hazard related plans to be prepared/ updated 9. Maintain an online inventory of resources of Govt/ public/ private 10. Training Curriculum for field staff to be prepared – basic Do’s and Do N’ts to be distributed. 11. Creation of Awareness in building designs and BIS norms followed 12. Disaster mitigation curriculum in Engineering Colleges. 13. CBSE course on Disaster Management – State boards also to follow. Disaster in ASSAM: Disaster in ASSAM Assam is ravaged by several natural calamities in almost regular intervals. The common calamities are flood, erosion, cyclonic storm, hailstorm and earthquakes besides the sufferings from various epidemics. The Brahmaputra commands a gigantic watershed of 580,000 sq.km over China, India (Arunachal – Assam) and Bangladesh. It causes inundation in Assam and Bangladesh almost every year and causes erosion of the banks which have besides causing huge loss of lives and property made thousands of people homeless. The Brahmaputra flood management can be made by; (i) by constructing embankments, dams, dykes etc. to moderate the flow (ii) flood forecasting and warning, disaster mitigation programmes (iii) Flood plain management by aforestation and soil conservation measures and (iv) Relief and rehabilitation process. Disaster in ASSAM context: Disaster in ASSAM context Steps taken/being taken in Assam for Disaster Management: Steps taken/being taken in Assam for Disaster Management A State Control Room is already established in Deptt. of Revenue, with required instruments and internet computerized databank is initiated: Three National level and one State Level workshops were organized at Guwahati from June, 2002 to December 2002- the first one organized by the Revenue Department of Government of Assam and UNICEF jointly, the second one by the Institute of Engineers, Assam the third one by Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India and the UNDP jointly and another is very important workshop organized by the Revenue Department of Government of Assam and UNDP jointly specially for Legislators (MLAs) which is infact 1st kind in the whole country. District control rooms being started in 12 districts of Brahmaputra and Barak Valley in 2002-2003. Six DPO’s have been selected for the first phase of the programme and posted in the districts. A State to Block level information network is being established soon. Steps taken/being taken in Assam for Disaster Management: Steps taken/being taken in Assam for Disaster Management As per Agreement with Government of India, UNDP has adopted the State for Disaster Management and mitigation for four years from 2003 to 2007. Drafting of a Disaster Management bill is in final form. A Disaster management plan is also under preparation by the Revenue Department. Disaster (Earthquake) management Plan is already prepared SPO is being posted very soon. With assistance from Govt. of India a Faculty in Disaster Management is already appointed in the Assam Administrative Staff College. AASC is requested to formulate a training module and take up training of the trainers on disaster management. A civil Engineer is also posted for initiating training on construction of Disaster resistant houses (TDU) A frequent contact through discussion and workshops established with NGOs engaged in disaster management for uniformity of actions. Steps taken/being taken in Assam for Disaster Management: Steps taken/being taken in Assam for Disaster Management Guwahati City Earthquake Preparedness Plan has been initiated District Administration under GoI- Undp Disaster Risk Management Programme - MoU has been Signed with District administration: activities include, AWARENESS, training & Capacity Building, COMMUNITY PREPAREDNESS PLAN FOR THE CITY - MoU signed with GMDA: activities include, Vulnerability assessment of buildings, Techno legal regime, training of engineers. Home Guard, Civil Defence and Fire Brigade organizations have reportedly started training of their staff on rescue and relief operation. A mass awareness programme on disaster management and mitigation up to the grass-root level is being initiated. Special emphasis will be laid on Panchayati Raj Institutions. Literature on disaster mitigation are being printed in local languages and distributed in large scale. Rescue implements are being dispatched to the Block level. A Volunteer force with the help of NGOs being created in every district, Sub-divisional and Development Block Headquarters. India Disaster Resource Network (IDRN) a webportal initiated in district wise by Ministry of Home Affairs. Steps taken/being taken in Assam for Disaster Management: Steps taken/being taken in Assam for Disaster Management It is proposed now to rename the Revenue Department as Revenue, Registration and Disaster management Department instead of opening a new department. A disaster Management Committee is already established with Chief Secretary, Assam as Chairman, Commissioner & Secretary, Revenue as Member Secretary and all relevant departments as Member. Steps initiated for Formation of Assam State Disaster Management Authority (ASDMA) on lines of OSDMA and GSDMA Other steps are also taken / being taken. Funds Availability for Disaster Management: Funds Availability for Disaster Management 10% of the State Plan fund can be utilized. UNDP assistance as per agreement with GoI. 10% of CRF/ NCCF fund for procurement of equipments of rescue and relief. Police Modernization fund for setting up district control rooms. Rural Development fund. A Scheme for Retrofitting of important buildings like hospitals, administrative buildings etc with sharing pattern of 75:25 is formulated by GoI. The following items are also very much necessary; Computerization with internet connectivity. Fixed loud speakers in the road side in town. Wireless sets / VHF sets. Zoning Maps of disaster prone areas. Slide30: In the meantime the Government of Assam in GDD constituted a high level technical committee to examine and identify the areas of the Guwahati city in which multistoried buildings are permissible and to examine and suggest the limit for the number of floors for such buildings. The Committee has submitted its Report in September, 2002 which is under examination of the GMDA now. Revised Calamity Relief Fund: Revised Calamity Relief Fund Revised Calamity Relief Fund: Revised Calamity Relief Fund Revised Calamity Relief Fund: Revised Calamity Relief Fund Revised Calamity Relief Fund: Revised Calamity Relief Fund Revised Calamity Relief Fund: Revised Calamity Relief Fund Revised Calamity Relief Fund: Revised Calamity Relief Fund Revised Calamity Relief Fund: Revised Calamity Relief Fund Revised Calamity Relief Fund: Revised Calamity Relief Fund Incident Command System: Incident Command System India has been highly vulnerable to natural disasters. Floods, Droughts, Cyclones and Earthquakes are recurrent phenomena. Past experiences of handling disasters have highlighted that there is often delay in mobilizing and deploying resources at the site of the incident in the event of an emergency. Response to an emergency can be ascribed to weakness in the command and coordination structures at different levels. Also the officers responsible for disaster management at different levels are not adequately trained to carry out specialized disaster response functions. It is increasingly felt that inter-agency/departmental coordination is crucial for effective disaster management, and the complexity of incident management, coupled with multi-departmental involvement call for standardized incident management systems to strengthen the disaster response system/structure. To address this issue, Ministry of Home Affairs in collaboration with US Department for Agriculture Forest Services (USFS) which is tasked as the lead agency for developing the ICS system in the United States have together with inputs from the States, developed a programme for institutionalizing the Incident Command System in India. Incident Command System: Incident Command System 4. This system provides:- - A standardized / structured Incident management Command System for emergency response. - A formalized, professionally trained and accountable system for operations and logistics support. 5. Given the territorial jurisdiction in the country, Incident Commanders are in effect designated for different territorial jurisdictions in advance. In a Block / Circle, the Block Development Officer/ Circle Officer functions as the Incident Commander. When a incident is of a serious nature or transcends the boundary of a block, the Sub-Divisional Officer/Sub-Collector acts as the Incident Commander. In case of a more complex disaster, the Collector/ District Magistrate functions as Incident commander. In a widespread calamity where a number if districts are involved, the State Administration led by the Chief Secretary and the State Relief Commissioner is involved in mobilizing resources or deciding priorities. 6. The difficulty is that at each of these levels, the Incident Commander is not supported by teams of officers trained for their designated responsibilities like logistics, operations, planning etc. Therefore, when large volumes of relief material reach a particular State capital or district headquarters, confusion reigns because of lack of training in materials management or by the lack of officers designated and trained to handle logistics. Incident Command System: Incident Command System National Level ICS State Level ICS Dist. Level ICS Sub Divn. Level ICS Block level ICS Special ICS Teams ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE OF SEARCH AND RESCUE TEAM : ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE OF SEARCH AND RESCUE TEAM Team Commander (Inspector) 21C/ Ops Officer (Sub-Inspector) Tech. Support Team A Team B Team C Team D Dog Squad Medical Support Team Adm. Support Team Total – 45 Inspector -1 Sub-Inspectors-2 Engineers (Sis)-2 Doctor-1 Paramedics-2 Communications-2 Dog Handler-3 2 Communication (SI+HC) 2 Struct. Engg. (SI) 1 Technician 1 Electrician (AS/HC/Const.) 1 HC 5 Naiks/Const. 1 HC 5 Naiks/Const. 1 HC 5 Naiks/Const. 1 HC 5 Naiks/Const. 3 Handlers 3 Dogs 1 Doctor 2 Paramedics 1 Adm. Officer (SI) 2 Support Staff (1 Follower / 1 Const.) 4 Security (1 HC/ 3 Const) (6) (6) (6) (6) (6) (3) (3) (7) INDIA DISASTER RESOURCE NETWORK: INDIA DISASTER RESOURCE NETWORK WWW.IDRN.GOV.IN Background: Background The Indian sub-continent has suffered enormous loss of lives, livelihoods and damage of public property due to its extreme vulnerabilities to several natural and man-made hazards. But there is no organized information system on availability of resources for disaster response at district, state and national levels. Government agencies have faced problems in mobilizing equipments and skilled human resources to respond immediately to emergencies. Slide45: There is an immediate need for collating all the resources available starting from the block or circle to national level for better disaster response and putting it in a centralized database. To address this issue, Ministry of Home Affairs in collaboration with United Nations Development Program (UNDP) initiated ‘India Disaster Resource Network’ (IDRN), a web portal for collection and compilation of resources inventory from the block or circle level What is IDRN?: What is IDRN? It’s a web-enabled GIS based All-India Resource Inventory i.e. on-line centralized database. This Resource inventory titled IDRN (Indian Disaster Resource Network) will be available on the website with the Url www.idrn.gov.in to all the disaster managers in the state & at the centre. Work Process: Work Process Database at NIC Database at MHA State District District Line Dept. 1 Line Dept. 1 Line Dept. 1 Line Dept. 1 Internet Data entry through Online & offline application Data collection in paper format State level coordination for building inventory database synchronized The ecological footprint (Environmental Degradation): The ecological footprint (Environmental Degradation) Demographic pressure means more forest loss and more land degradation. This means more flooding, drought or both. Every human requires an area of land and shallow sea for food, water, shelter, transport energy, commerce and waste. This is called an ecological footprint. In rich nations such as the US, this ecological footprint is almost 10 hectors per person. But even in the poorest places in the US. This footprint is at least one hectare. Every day another 200,000 newborns will require up to 200,000 hectares of what might have been a benign and necessary wilderness. More people also means more fossil fuel consumption, which means climate change. And such a world is a world with greater frequency of extreme events. The combination of climate change and pollution growth will exact a price. Three decade from now around 70% of the world’s land will be affected in some way by human activity and half the people in the world will be short of water. Many of the other half will be at risk from increased flooding. By that time, there could be eight billion people on the planet -E.O. Wilson, Environmentalist, Scientific America, Feb 2002. Slide49: STRATEGIES AND MEASURES FOR SHORT TERMS AND LONG TERMS PROTECTION FROM FLOODS IN INDIA Protection against floods has received considerable attention during the last five decades. Different measures have been adopted to reduce flood losses and protect the flood plains depending on how they work, what they cost and the type of problem for which they are suited. In view of the stupendously large cost of such measures that would be needed, priority-wise undertaking of a combination of structural and non-structural measures in a phased manner is the most accepted strategy for planning and implementing flood management measures now. Slide50: Some of the key areas require urgent interventions: Improved Hydro Meteorological Studies, improvement of flood forecasting and communication systems. Maintenance of Embankments. Capacity building and training for preparation of state and district Multi Hazard Preparedness and Response Plans. Identification of Hazard Prone Regions on the basis of historical and current knowledge. Design of Engineering specifications for various kinds of structures. Slide51: Some of the key areas require urgent interventions: Assessment of Risk faced by existing structure and design for retrofitting whenever necessary. Scouring of the river beds to allow free flow of water. Protocols for effective rescue and relief measures, prevention of epidemics, emergency operations and physical services. Regular dissemination of information through carefully designed bulletins / handbills etc. to evoke a constructive response and avoid panic. Efficient communication system. Set up GIS based database, which can be easily accessible to the remote states for taking knowledge based decisions for planning. Slide52: Modifying flooding through: Reservoirs: Reservoirs can, as a general rule, moderate the intensity and timing of the incoming flood. Generally, any storage dam to be effective for flood moderation, has to be as near the damage centre as possible. The cost of providing storage for flood management only, is generally very high. Detention Basins: Detention basins are usually formed by utilizing natural swamps and lakes by improving their capacity by constructing encircling embankments and providing suitable devices for regulating the release of stored waters. Slide53: Embankments : Embankments (including ring bunds and town protection works) confine the flood flows and prevent spilling, thereby reducing the damage. These are generally the cheapest, the quickest and most popular method of flood protection and have been constructed extensively in the past. These have given considerable protection to large areas at comparatively low costs in the lower reaches of large rivers. Embankments are the only feasible method of preventing inundation as in the case of existing embankment systems in the Krishna, the Godavari, the lower Damodar, some reaches of the Kosi and the Gandak, the Mahanadi, the Tapti, the Brahmaputra and its tributaries etc. Slide54: Apart from the raising and strengthening works, erosion along the embankments and natural banks of the river systems has also been a serious problem on which considerable expenditure has been incurred. Particular mention could be made of the erosion problem of the embankment systems in Assam, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and West Bengal. The embankments under serious attack by the major rivers and their tributaries have to be suitably protected by spurs, pitching and other suitable anti-erosion measures. Slide55: Some of the States are proposing channelisation of rivers, mainly for reclaiming land – agricultural as well as urban from the channelised portion of the river. In such proposals, drastic reduction in the water way of the rivers are projected which is against the natural tendency of the rivers to flow. The river must be given certain freedom to flow and a right of way to pass its flood water and silt load within its natural water way. In the coastal reaches of West Bengal and Orissa, coastal embankments called saline embankments have been constructed in the past. These embankments are primarily meant for preventing intrusion of saline waters. Slide56: Sea walls: Sea walls in the coastal areas have been serving the purpose of stopping the sea waves from eroding the valuable coastal beaches and land. Channel improvement/drainage improvement: The method of improving the hydraulic condition of the river channels by desilting , dredging, lining etc., to enable the river to carry its discharges at lower levels or within its banks has been adopted on a limited extent because of its high cost . Dredging operation of the Brahmaputra which were undertaken in the early seventies on an experimental basis, have since been discontinued because of their prohibitive cost and limited benefits. Slide57: Surface water drainage congestion due to inadequacy of natural or artificial drainage channels to carry the storm water discharge within a reasonable period causes damage to agricultural areas. This problem is rather acute in Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, Assam and West Bengal. Therefore, improvement of drainage by construction of new channels or improvement in the discharge capacity of the existing drainage system has become an integral part of the flood management programme in the country. Slide58: Diversion of flood waters: Diversion of flood waters takes away a part of the flood discharge to another basin or to the same basin much downstream of the problem area or to a depression where it could be stored for subsequent release. This measures can be used to manage unusual floods around cities as in the case of Flood Spill – channel near Srinagar and also in the lower reaches of a river near the sea as in the case of Krishna- Godavari drainage scheme. Slide59: Watershed Management: The watershed management measures include developing and conserving the vegetative and soil cover and also structural works like check-dams, detention basins, diversion channels, etc., to serve as an effective measure in reducing the flood peaks and checking the suddenness of the runoff. In the watershed management of upper catchments, land treatment through aforestation and grass land development practice should be supplemented by structural works for retarding the velocity of water and arresting silt. Foil conservation and aforestation programmes have been undertaken in the major flood prone river basins. Slide60: Modify susceptibility to flooding by: Flood plain regulations: Flood Plain Zoning Regulations identify the flood prone areas and limit their uses to those compatible with the degree of flood risk. Some of the important benefits through these regulations are: Prevention of new development in flood prone areas that could cause losses of life and excessive damage to property or reducing the potential for such losses and damage. Preventing encroachments which have a tendency to reduce flood carrying capacity of flood plains, increase flood heights or otherwise aggravate flood problem. Reducing the expenditure on operation and maintenance of reservoirs, embankments and other Flood Management measures. Slide61: Development and Redevelopment plans: Even though development and redevelopment policies have been known and adopted extensively in developed countries, not much has been done in India due to lack of socio-political will to implement the measures because of fear of public resentment. Flood Forecasting, warning and preparedness: The flood forecasting service of the Central Water Commission has won accolades for its highly gratifying service in issuance of timely flood forecasts in almost all flood prone inter-State rivers in the country. As the activity is closely linked with the meteorological forecasting work being done by the India Meteorological Department, it is but imperative that the I.M.D. and N.R.S.A also undertake expansion-cum-modernization programmes of the activities related to flood forecasting. Slide62: C.W.C. is systematically taking up schemes for modernization of the flood forecasting works in the country so that the forecast can be more and more accurate. Flood warning is an essential task of the civil authorities incharge of rescue, evacuation and relief operations in each State during the monsoon/cyclone season. Flood Proofing: The techniques of flood proving primarily adopted for flood fringe areas where flood water is expected to be shallow and slow moving are : Elevation of buildings above expected flood levels. Elevation of the site with earth-fill Ring bunds around areas or group of properties or villages etc. Slide63: Modify impact of flooding through: Relief and Rehabilitation: The relief and rehabilitation measures which reduce impact of the floods on individuals and communities have been an integral part of the annual relief activity in the country. Flood Insurance: Flood Insurance is only a fiscal measure for flood management and does not reduce the flood risk. It transfers the burden of flood relief expenditure to the beneficiary to some extent. Even though this method has been adopted only to some extent in some parts of the world, it has not been tried in a regular manner in India. Slide64: National Water Policy: In order to develop, conserve, utilize and manage the most precious resource of water, at national level, the need to evolve a National Water Policy was felt. There should be master plan for flood control and management for each flood prone basin. Sound watershed management through extensive soil conservation, catchment area treatment, preservation of forests and increasing the forest area and the construction of check dams should be promoted to reduce the intensity of floods. Slide66: Statement showing Flood Damages During 1953 to 1998, Assam Sl.No. Year Area Affected Population affected Total Damage (million ha) (million) (Rs.Crore) 1 1953 0.080 0.410 2.66 2 1954 3.150 1.680 15.97 3 1955 1.410 0.800 3.71 4 1956 0.600 0.560 3.26 5 1957 0.400 0.310 4.52 6 1958 1.250 0.470 2.70 7 1959 1.040 1.760 8.39 8 1960 0.470 1.320 7.76 9 1961 0.190 0.250 0.57 10 1962 1.620 4.050 20.23 11 1963 0.580 0.830 2.06 12 1964 0.760 0.770 2.76 13 1965 0.600 0.240 0.69 14 1966 1.780 4.650 22.53 15 1967 0.260 0.680 2.44 16 1968 0.410 0.920 8.36 17 1969 0.810 1.470 8.46 18 1970 0.720 1.710 10.43 19 1971 0.360 0.670 5.63 20 1972 1.100 3.200 24.15 Slide67: Statement showing Flood Damages During 1953 to 1998, Assam Sl.No. Year Area Affected Population affected Damage (million ha) (million) (Rs.Crore) 21 1973 2.750 2.290 16.41 22 1974 1.120 2.850 20.14 23 1975 0.010 0.030 0.34 24 1976 0.570 1.460 11.98 25 1977 1.100 4.550 31.09 26 1978 0.310 0.920 4.08 27 1979 0.670 2.350 28.14 28 1980 1.160 3.360 39.80 29 1981 0.460 1.360 7.40 30 1982 0.610 1.420 21.89 31 1983 0.730 2.260 56.18 32 1984 1.520 5.680 50.83 33 1985 0.650 2.380 54.84 34 1986 0.430 2.350 204.60 35 1987 1.530 10.490 346.60 36 1988 3.820 8.410 663.84 Slide68: Statement showing Flood Damages During 1953 to 1998, Assam Sl.No. Year Area Affected Population affected Total Damage (million ha) (million) (Rs.Crore) 37 1989 0.690 2.403 0.00 38 1990 0.488 1.692 74.56 39 1991 0.997 5.307 191.15 40 1992 0.213 0.974 26.56 41 1993 1.348 5.261 0.215 42 1994 0.053 0.177 0.20 * * * * 43 1998 0.972 4.698 700.00 Slide69: Flood Damage Scenario in Assam Slide70: India Flood Situation Report – 2003 Central Water Commission (As on 30.8.2003) As per reports from CWC, there was no unprecedented flood situation or high flood situation in the country. BIHAR (As on 30-08- 2003): In Bihar, the floods are continuing from 30th June, 2003. 19 out of 38 districts. are affected in varying degrees due to floods. The Districts authorities have deployed 3029 boats for rescue and relief operations. 213 relief centers, 386 health centers and 154 veterinary centers have been opened. The State Government has distributed gratuitous relief viz; Wheat 43682.20 quintals, Readymade food 2027.74 quintals, Salt 4.62 quintals, Polythene sheets 66307 meters and Cash dole (Rs. 167.94 lakh). Slide71: ORISSA (As on 30-08- 2003): 13 districts have been affected in varying degrees due to heavy rains at many places over upper Mahanadi and lower Mahanadi catchments from 26th to 28th August 2003. 10870 populations have been affected in 176 villages. 40557 lakh hectares of crop area have also been affected so far. 515 houses have damaged and 2 people are reported to have died due to wall collapse in Bolangir district. Road at 20 places and breaches in 4 embankments were reported damaged at varying degree. State Government has reported, flow of water is 13.5 lakh cusecs at Cuttack at 1330 hrs on 30.8.03. Water level of Hirakund Dam is – 629.29 feet against capacity of 630 feet on today morning. Inflow of water to the dam is 6.64 lakh cusec and outflow 6.45 lakh cusec. 48 gates of dam have been opened. Discharge of flood-water at Naraj is 12.70 lakh cusec on 29.8.2003. Slide72: ARUNACHAL PRADESH (As on 1-08- 2003): 1 district was affected in varying degrees due to floods and landslides due to heavy rains between 15th to 22nd July. 1452 people in 68 villages at Tawang district were affected and 2 human lives lost. State Government had instructed districts authorities to take necessary rescue & relief measures in the affected areas. Flood affected people were evacuated to safe places. Roads communication disrupted. Petrol pump, helipad, power houses and water tanks were also damaged. The situation is slowly returning to normalcy. GUJARAT (As on 25-08- 2003): 5 districts viz; Ahmedabad, Anand, Vadodra, Mahesana and Gandhinagar have been affected in varying degrees due to heavy rains from 23-24 August. State Government has conducted relief & rescue operation, and sent boats and de-watering pump were also deployed, DG sets were also installed. 5148 people were temporarily evacuated, food packets & water were provided. Slide73: HIMACHAL PRADESH (As on 9-08- 2003): In the wake of cloudburst, which occurred around midnight on 7th August, 2003, at Pindri Nalluh (5 km from Salong Nalla) of Kulu sub-division, 27 human lives were lost and 12 people reported missing in the cloud burst/ flash floods/, besides loss to the property. ITBP, GREF and Mountaineering Institutes, Manali have assisted the local Administration in rescue and relief operations. No, further update received from the State Government. Earlier incidents of cloudburst/ flash floods were also reported in the districts of Sirmor, Kullu and Kangra since July 2003. KERALA (As on 30. 08- 2003): As per information received from the State Government, floods have affected 1604 families and injured 41 persons in 14 districts since 8th June, 2003. The State Government has evacuated 231 families and opened 19 relief camps during this period. Slide74: MAHARASHTRA (As on 31-07- 2003): As per information received from the State Government, 5122 families have been affected in 34 districts due to heavy rains/ floods since June, 2003. The State Government is providing relief to the affected people from Calamity Relief Fund. WEST BENGAL (As on 19-07- 2003): According to the preliminary report, 23 persons had lost lives due to landslide occurred on the night of 7-8th July, 2003,which affected the Sewak Road, which connects Sikkim to Darjeeling. The State Government has taken necessary relief operations in the affected areas. OTHERS Some isolated incidents were reported by the States of Karnataka, Meghalaya, Orissa, Rajasthan and Uttaranchal. Slide75: Thank You.