Published on February 6, 2008
MINORS IN THE WORKPLACE: MINORS IN THE WORKPLACE Prepared By Deputy Labor Commissioner Ysmael Raymundo State of California: State of California Labor Commissioner DONNA DELL MISSION STATEMENT: MISSION STATEMENT To vigorously enforce labor standards with special emphasis on payment of minimum and overtime wages in low-paying industries; and to work with employer groups, expanding their knowledge of labor law requirements– with the aim of creating an environment in which law-abiding employers no longer suffer unfair competition from employers who follow unlawful practices. LABOR STANDARDS ENFORCEMENT: LABOR STANDARDS ENFORCEMENT Workers’ Compensation Deduction Statements Child Labor Minimum Wage Record Keeping Overtime MINORS : MINORS Employers MUST ensure that a minor has a valid work permit before the minor is put to work. Hours of work vary depending on the age of the minor. Certain occupations are considered hazardous, and therefore, minors cannot be employed in these occupations. A minor is any person under the age of 18 who is required to attend school WORK PERMITS: WORK PERMITS A WORK PERMIT IS ALWAYS REQUIRED, EVEN WHEN SCHOOL IS NOT IN SESSION. Permits are issued for specific employment at a specified address. Permits must contain the maximum number of hours a minor may work in a day and week, the range of hours during the day that a minor may work, any occupational limitations, and any additional restrictions imposed at the school’s discretion. A permit may not be issued that violates any provision of law. An apprentice in a bona fide apprenticeship-training program must have a work permit. Parents who employ their children in any occupation permitted to minors, must obtain the standard Permit to Employ and Work. Emancipated minors must have a work permit. High school graduates or minors who have been awarded a certificate of proficiency are exempt from the permit requirements. Minors who are self-employed do not require permits. Minors irregularly employed in odd jobs in private homes, such as baby-sitting, lawn mowing, and leaf raking, do not need to obtain a work permit. Work Experience Coordinator MINIMUM WAGE: MINIMUM WAGE Minors must be paid the minimum wage of $6.75 per hour, whether paid by the hour or by piece rate. However, if the minor has no previous, similar or related experience, a LEARNERS rate of 85% of the minimum wage may be paid during their first 160 hours of employment. If minors are paid on a piece rate basis, the piece rate must equate to at least minimum wage for each hour worked. High school graduates or the equivalent must be paid commensurate with adults when they perform the same quantity, quality, and classification of work. This includes wage rates that are above the minimum wage. Minors participating in WEE programs and who work between 10 p.m. and 12:30 a.m. (an extension of hours which requires the express approval of parents and school officials), must be paid at least the adult minimum wage for any work performed during those hours. DEDUCTION STATEMENT: DEDUCTION STATEMENT Gross wages earned Total hours worked Piece rate units All deductions Net wages Inclusive dates Employee name and social security number Name & address of legal entity All applicable hourly rates Whether you pay by cash or check, you must furnish an accurate itemized statement to the Employee. Failure to comply with this requirement may subject you to a civil penalty of $250.00 per employee per violation. A deduction statement must include the following: RECORD KEEPING: RECORD KEEPING Employee name, address, occupation and Social Security number. Birth date, if under 18 years, and designation as a minor. Beginning and ending time of each work period, meal periods, split shift intervals and total daily hours worked shall also be recorded. Total wages paid for each payroll period. Total hours worked in the payroll period and applicable rate of pay. Accurate production records for employees paid a piece rate. Every employer must keep records showing: HOURS OF WORK: HOURS OF WORK PROHIBITED OCCUPATIONS 14 & 15-year-olds (non-agricultural): PROHIBITED OCCUPATIONS 14 & 15-year-olds (non-agricultural) MAY BE EMPLOYED: In retail, food service, and gasoline service establishments: office and clerical work; cashiering, selling, packing and shelving; errands and deliveries by foot, bike, or public transportation; clean-up work (no power mowers or cutters); kitchen work for preparation and serving of food and beverages (may use dishwashers, popcorn poppers, milkshake blenders). MAY NOT BE EMPLOYED OR PERMITTED TO WORK: Any occupation declared hazardous in federal regulations for 16 and 17-year-olds Occupations in construction - work of any kind including work on any scaffolding and roofing Motor vehicle occupations – may not be employed to drive a motor vehicle in any capacity Gas stations: Dispensing gas or oil; Courtesy service; Car cleaning, washing, and polishing Any type of mechanical work including activities involving the use of pits, racks, etc. Machine operation & related duties – involving mixing or grinding; machines for washing; paper cutting, power punching or shearing; and, any operation in close proximity to moving machinery or equipment Manufacturing – no exception THIS IS ONLY A PARTIAL LIST PROHIBITED OCCUPATIONS 14 & 15-year-olds (Agricultural): PROHIBITED OCCUPATIONS 14 & 15-year-olds (Agricultural) Operating a tractor of over 20 PTO horsepower. Operating or assisting to operate a corn picker, cotton picker, grain or potato combine; hay mower; power post-hole digger, power post driver, or non-walking type rotary tiller; trencher; forklift; or, power driven circular, band or chain saw Working from a ladder scaffold from a height of over 20 feet Driving a bus, truck or automobile when transporting passengers or riding on a tractor as a passenger or helper Handling or using a blasting agent. EXEMPTION: Minors of any age employed in agriculture, horticulture, or viticulture labor by their parents or guardians upon or in connection with premises the parent or guardian owns, operates, or controls are exempt from these restrictions MINORS UNDER 12 – AGRICULTURAL ZONE OF DANGER May not be employed or permitted to work or accompany or be permitted to accompany an employed parent or guardian in an agricultural zone of danger. MAY BE EMPLOYED: Minors may work in agricultural related activities, except in agricultural occupations declared hazardous in federal regulations for minors under sixteen. These occupations are: (THIS IS ONLY A PARTIAL LIST) PROHIBITED OCCUPATIONS (16 and 17-year-olds): PROHIBITED OCCUPATIONS (16 and 17-year-olds) No minor between 16 and 18 years of age may be employed or permitted to work in occupations declared hazardous in federal regulation and adopted by inclusion by the state of California in Labor Code Section 1294.1(b) Are these occupations considered hazardous? CHILD ACTORS: CHILD ACTORS The entertainment industry is defined in state regulations as “…any organization, or individual, using the services of any minor in: motion pictures of any type (film, videotape etc.), using any format (theatrical, film, commercial documentary, television program, etc.), by theatrical productions; publicity; rodeos; circuses; musical performances; and any other performance where minors perform to entertain the public. Permits to work and employ are issued by the Division of Labor Standards Enforcement. Exception: Minors of any age may appear in the following venues without permits: In any church, public or religious school, or community entertainment; In any school entertainment or in any entertainment for charity or for children, for which no admission is charged; In any radio or television broadcasting exhibition, where the minor receives no compensation directly or indirectly therefor, and where the engagement of the minor is limited to a single appearance lasting not more than one hour, and where no admission fee is charged for the radio broadcasting or television exhibition; or, At any one event during a calendar year, occurring on a day on which school attendance is not required or on the day preceding such a day, lasting four hours or less, where a parent or guardian of the minor is present, for which the minor does not directly or indirectly receive any compensation. DIVISION OF LABOR STANDARDS ENFORCEMENT’S WEBSITE www.dir.ca.gov: DIVISION OF LABOR STANDARDS ENFORCEMENT’S WEBSITE www.dir.ca.gov DLSE’s website will provide information on: Office locations and phone numbers How to file a complaint Enforcement polices Frequently asked questions Opinion letters WORK EXPERIENCE COORDINATORS: WORK EXPERIENCE COORDINATORS Thank you for your invaluable assistance in attempting to ensure that a minor’s work experience is a positive one. As you know, many minors work at establishments in which the employer has failed to comply with various labor standards. DLSE learns about these situations through work experience coordinators, such as yourselves. Again, thank you for your assistance.